List of Chinese monarchs

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This list of Chinese monarchs includes rulers of China with various titles prior to the establishment of the Republic in 1912. From the Zhou dynasty until the Qin dynasty, rulers usually held the title "king" (Chinese :; pinyin :wáng). With the separation of China into different Warring States, this title had become so common that the unifier of China, the first Qin Emperor Qin Shihuang created a new title for himself, that of "emperor" (pinyin :huángdì). The title of Emperor of China continued to be used for the remainder of China's imperial history, right down to the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1912.

Contents

While many other monarchs existed in and around China throughout its history, this list covers only those with a quasi-legitimate claim to the majority of China, or those who have traditionally been named in king-lists. The following list of Chinese monarchs is in no way comprehensive.

Chinese sovereigns were known by many different names, and how they should be identified is often confusing. Sometimes the same emperor is commonly known by two or three separate names, or the same name is used by emperors of different dynasties. The tables below do not necessarily include all of an emperor's names – for example, posthumous names could run to more than twenty characters and were rarely used in historical writing – but, where possible, the most commonly used name or naming convention has been indicated. Scholars also often use common terms to refer to some monarchs with special circumstances — "Modi" (末帝; "last emperor"), "Mozhu" (末主; "last lord"), "Houzhu" (後主; "last lord"), "Shaodi" (少帝; "young emperor"), "Shaozhu" (少主; "young lord"), "Feidi" (廢帝; "deposed emperor"), etc.; these terms are not temple names, posthumous names or regnal names.

In some cases, the regnal or era name is changed in the same year as the death of the previous sovereign; in other cases, the name change occurs in the subsequent year. Thus, the date given for the beginning of a reign may actually refer to the first full year of the sovereign's reign.

These tables may not necessarily represent the most recently updated information on Chinese monarchs; please check the page for the relevant dynasty for possible additional information.

Follow these links to see how they are related:

Family tree of Chinese monarchs (ancient)Family tree of Chinese monarchs (Warring States period)Chinese emperors family tree (early)Chinese emperors family tree (middle)Chinese emperors family tree (late)

Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors (三皇五帝) (2852–2070 BCE)

Although it is ingrained in Chinese mythology that the earliest mythological rulers of China included three huáng (皇, generally translated "sovereign" or "august one") and five (帝, generally translated "emperor"), both terms denoting demigod status, their identities have differed between different sources, with some individuals, such as the Yellow Emperor, being regarded as either sovereign or emperor, depending on the source. The two characters would later be taken together by Qin Shi Huang to form the new title huángdì (皇帝, emperor), thus claiming legendary status for himself.

Note: These figures are considered to be legendary.

TitleName by which most commonly knownReign (according to tradition)In ChineseOther names
Huang1,4,5 / Di3 Youchao 3162–2962 BCEYǒucháo有巢
Huang/ Di3 Suiren 2962–2852 BCESuìrén燧人
Huang4 / Di3 Fuxi 2852–2737 BCEFúxī伏羲
Huang1 / Di1 Yan Emperor and/or Shennong 2737–2698 BCEYándì炎帝Shennong神農
Huang5 / Di1,2 Yellow Emperor 2698–2598 BCEHuángdì黃帝Xuanyuan軒轅
Di2 Shaohao 2597–2514 BCEShǎohào少昊Jintian金天
Di1,2 Zhuanxu 2514–2436 BCEZhuānxū顓頊Gaoyang高陽
Di1 Emperor Ku 2436–2366 BCEDìkù帝嚳Gaoxin高辛
Di1 Emperor Zhi 2366–2358 BCEDìzhì帝摯Qingyang青陽
Di1 Emperor Yao (of Tang) 2356–2255 BCEDìyáo or Táng Yáo帝堯 / 唐堯Yiqi, Taotang and Fangxun伊祁、陶唐、放勳
Di1 Emperor Shun (of Yu) 2255–2208 BCEDìshùn or Yú Shùn帝舜 / 虞舜Yao, Youyu and Chonghua姚、有虞、重華
1 — According to the Records of the Grand Historian .
2 — According to the Chu Ci .
3 — According to the Book of Rites .
4 — According to the Shangshu dazhuan (尚書大傳) and Baihu tongyi (白虎通義).
5 — According to the Diwang shiji (帝王世紀)

Xia dynasty (夏朝) (2070–1600 BCE)

Chinese convention: use "Xia" + regnal name

Name by which most commonly knownReign (according to tradition) Regnal name 1Other names
Yu the Great 2150–2106 BCE
Qi of Xia 2106–2077 BCE
Tai Kang 2077–2048 BCEKāngTài Kāng太康
Zhong Kang 2048–2036 BCEKāngZhòng Kāng仲康
Xiang of Xia 2036–2008 BCE Xiāng
Interregnum (about 40 years)
Shao Kang 1968–1946 BCEKāngShào Kāng少康
Zhu of Xia 1946–1929 BCEZhù
Huai of Xia 1929–1885 BCEHuái
Mang of Xia 1885–1867 BCEMáng
Xie of Xia 1867–1851 BCEXiè
Bu Jiang 1851–1792 BCEJiàng
Jiong of Xia 1792–1771 BCEJiōng
Jin of Xia 1771–1750 BCEJǐnYìn Jiǎ胤甲
Kong Jia 1750–1719 BCEKǒng Jiǎ孔甲
Gao of Xia 1719–1708 BCEGāo
Fa of Xia 1708–1689 BCEHou Jin后敬
Jie of Xia 1689–1658 BCEJiéLǚ Guǐ履癸

Shang dynasty (商朝) (1600–1046 BCE)

Chinese convention: use "Shang" + posthumous name

Name by which most commonly knownPersonal nameReign (according to tradition)1Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Tang of Shang Zi Lü子履1658–1629 BCETiān Yǐ天乙Tàizu太祖
Wai Bing Zi Shèng子勝1629–1627 BCEWài Bǐng外丙
Zhong Ren Zi Yōng子庸1627–1623 BCEZhòng Rén仲壬
Tai Jia Zi Zhì子至1623–1611 BCETài Jiǎ太甲Tàizōng太宗
Wo Ding Zi Xuàn子絢1611–1592 BCEWò Dīng沃丁
Tai Geng Zi Biàn子辯1592–1567 BCETài Gēng太庚
Xiao Jia Zi Gāo子高1567–1550 BCEXiǎo Jiǎ小甲
Yong Ji Zi Zhòu子伷1550–1538 BCEYōng Jǐ雍己
Tai Wu Zi Mì子密1538–1463 BCETài Wù太戊
Zhong Ding Zi Zhuāng子莊1463–1452 BCEZhòng Dīng仲丁
Wai Ren Zi Fā子發1452–1437 BCEWài Rén外壬
He Dan Jia Zi Zhěng子整1437–1428 BCEJiān Jiǎ戔甲
Zu Yi Zi Téng子滕1428–1409 BCEZǔ Yǐ祖乙Zhōngzōng中宗
Zu Xin Zi Dàn子旦1409–1393 BCEZǔ Xīn祖辛
Wo Jia Zi Yú子踰1393–1368 BCEWò Jiǎ沃甲
Zu Ding Zi Xīn子新1368–1336 BCEZǔ Dīng祖丁
Nan Geng Zi Gēng子更1336–1307 BCENán Gēng南庚
Yang Jia Zi Hé子和1307–1290 BCEYáng Jiǎ陽甲
Pan Geng Zi Xún子旬1290–1262 BCEPán Gēng盤庚
Xiao Xin Zi Sòng子颂1262–1259 BCEXiǎo Xīn小辛
Xiao Yi Zi Liǎn子敛1259–1250 BCEXiǎo Yǐ小乙
Wu Ding Zi Zhāo子昭1250–1192 BCEWǔ Dīng武丁Gāozōng高宗
Zu Geng Zi Yuè子躍1192–1185 BCEZǔ Gēng祖庚
Zu Jia Zi Zài子載1185–1158 BCEZǔ Jiǎ祖甲
Lin Xin Zi Xiān子先1158–1152 BCELǐn Xīn廩辛
Kang Ding Zi Xiāo子囂1152–1147 BCEKāng Dīng康丁
Wu Yi Zi Qú子瞿1147–1112 BCEWǔ Yǐ武乙
Wen Ding Zi Tuō子托1112–1102 BCEWén Dīng3文丁
Di Yi Zi Xiàn子羡1101–1076 BCEDì Yǐ帝乙
King Zhou of Shang Zi Shòu子受1075–1046 BCEDi Xin帝辛
1 — The dates provided here are those put forward by The Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project , the work of scholars sponsored by the Chinese government which reported in 2000. They are given only as a guide.

2 — The period of the Shang dynasty starting from Pan Geng is also frequently referred to as the Yin (殷) dynasty. because he changed capital to Yin.

3 — Also known as Tai Ding (太丁).

Zhou dynasty (周朝) (1046–256 BCE)

Chinese convention: use "Zhou" + posthumous name ("Wang" is the chinese term for "King")

Note: The first generally accepted date in Chinese history is 841 BC, the beginning of the Gonghe regency. All dates prior to this are the subject of often vigorous dispute.

Name by which most commonly knownPersonal nameReign1Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Western Zhou (西周) (1046–771 BCE)
King Wu of Zhou Jī Fā姬發1046–1043 BCE1King Wǔ武王
King Cheng of Zhou Jī Sòng姬誦1042–1021 BCE1King Chéng成王
King Kang of Zhou Jī Zhāo姬釗1020–996 BCE1King Kāng康王
King Zhao of Zhou Jī Xiá姬瑕995–977 BCE1King Zhāo昭王
King Mu of Zhou Jī Mǎn姬滿976–922 BCE1King Mù穆王
King Gong of Zhou Jī Yīhù姬繄扈922–900 BCE1King Gōng共王
King Yi of Zhou (Jian) Jī Jiān姬囏899–892 BCE1King Yì懿王
King Xiao of Zhou Jī Bìfāng姬辟方891–886 BCE1King Xiào孝王
King Yi of Zhou (Xie) Jī Xiè姬燮885–878 BCE1King Yí夷王
King Li of Zhou Jī Hú姬胡877–841 BCE1King Lì厲王
Gonghe Regency (共和) (841–827 BC)
King Xuan of Zhou Jī Jìng姬靜827–782 BCEKing Xuān宣王
King You of Zhou Jī Gōngshēng姬宮湦781–771 BCEKing Yōu幽王
Eastern Zhou (東周) (770–256 BCE)
Spring and Autumn period (春秋時代) (770–476 BCE)
King Ping of Zhou Jī Yijiu姬宜臼770–720 BCEKing Ping平王
King Xie of Zhou (rival claimant)(Jī Yuchen)姬余臣(770–750 BCE)King Xie (or Xiehui)攜(惠)王
King Huan of Zhou Jī Lin姬林719–697 BCEKing Huan桓王
King Zhuang of Zhou Jī Tuo姬佗696–682 BCEKing Zhuang莊王
King Xi of Zhou Jī Huqi姬胡齊681–677 BCEKing Xi釐王
King Hui of Zhou Jī Lang姬閬676–652 BCEKing Hui惠王
King Xiang of Zhou Jī Zheng姬鄭651–619 BCEKing Xiang襄王
King Qing of Zhou Jī Renchen姬壬臣618–613 BCEKing Qing頃王
King Kuang of Zhou Jī Ban姬班612–607 BCEKing Kuang匡王
King Ding of Zhou Jī Yu姬瑜606–586 BCEKing Ding定王
King Jian of Zhou Jī Yi姬夷585–572 BCEKing Jian簡王
King Ling of Zhou Jī Xiexin姬泄心571–545 BCEKing Ling靈王
King Jing of Zhou (Gui) Jī Gui姬貴544–521 BCEKing Jing景王
King Dao of Zhou Jī Meng姬猛520 BCEKing Dao悼王
King Jing of Zhou (Gai) Jī Gai姬丐519–476 BCEKing Jing敬王
Warring States period (戰國時代) (475–221 BCE)
King Yuan of Zhou Jī Ren姬仁475–469 BCEKing Yuan元王
King Zhending of Zhou Jī Jie姬介468–442 BCEKing Zhending貞定王
King Ai of Zhou Jī Quji姬去疾441 BCEKing Ai哀王
King Si of Zhou Jī Shu姬叔441 BCEKing Si思王
King Kao of Zhou Jī Wei姬嵬440–426 BCEKing Kao考王
King Weilie of Zhou Jī Wu姬午425–402 BCEKing Weilie威烈王
King An of Zhou Jī Jiao姬驕401–376 BCEKing An安王
King Lie of Zhou Jī Xi姬喜375–369 BCEKing Lie烈王
King Xian of Zhou Jī Bian姬扁368–321 BCEKing Xian顯王
King Shenjing of Zhou Jī Ding姬定320–315 BCEKing Shenjing慎靚王
King Nan of Zhou Jī Yan姬延314–256 BCEKing Nan赧王
1 — The dates provided here are those put forward by The Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project , the work of scholars sponsored by the Chinese government which reported in 2000. They are given only as a guide.

After King Nan was deposed by Qin, Ji Jie (姬杰), Duke Wen of the vassal duchy of Eastern Zhou was proclaimed the new king of Zhou and claimed the title until his death in 249 BCE.However, the King of Qin had taken possession of the Nine Tripod Cauldrons (九鼎), and Ji Jie's reign was not widely recognized. Historians generally considered the title of Son of Heaven to be vacant from 256 to 221 BCE.

Qin dynasty (秦朝) (221–207 BCE)

Chinese convention:use regnal name

Note: The State of Qin was founded in the 9th century BCE as a vassal of the Zhou dynasty. In 325 BCE, the Duke of Qing, Ying Si(嬴駟), declared himself king and was given the regnal name King Huiwen of Qin (秦惠文王). In 256 BCE, King Zhaoxiang of Qin ended the Zhou dynasty, and in 221 BCE, Ying Zheng completed the conquest of the other states (kingdoms) and declared himself Qin Shi Huang, or "First Emperor of Qin." The unification of China under the Qin dynasty in 221 BCE is usually considered to be the beginning of Imperial China.

Name by which most commonly knownPersonal nameReign Regnal name
( King Zhaoxiang of Qin )1Yíng Zé (Yíng Jì)嬴則 (嬴稷)(306)1 (255–251 BCE)Zhaoxiang of Qin秦昭襄王
( King Xiaowen of Qin )1Yíng Zhù嬴柱(250 BCE)Xiaowen of Qin秦孝文王
( King Zhuangxiang of Qin )1Yíng Zǐchǔ嬴子楚(249–247 BCE)Zhuangxiang of Qin秦莊襄王
Qin Shi Huang 1,2Yíng Zhèng嬴政(246)2 221–210 BCEQin Shi Huang秦始皇
Qin Er Shi Yíng Húhài嬴胡亥209–207 BCEQin Er Shi秦二世
Ziying 3Yíng Zǐyīng嬴子嬰207 BCEQin San Shi秦三世
1 — Zhaoxiang's reign as king of the State of Qin began in 306 BCE before the fall of Zhou. Subsequently, in the absence of a Son of Heaven, historians conventionally used Qin regnal dates to refer to the years 255 to 222 BCE.

2Qin Shi Huang began his reign as king of Qin 246 BCE, but did not unite China and proclaim himself "Emperor" until 221 BCE.

3 — Ziying is often referred to by his personal name and as king, rather than emperor, of Qin (秦王子嬰).

Han dynasty (漢朝) (202 BCE–9 CE, 25–220 CE)

Chinese convention: use "Han" + posthumous name (apart from Liu Bang, who is known as "Han Gaozu")
Note that the posthumous names of many Han monarchs bear the character "xiao" (孝; "filial"), but this character is usually omitted by scholars when they are used (i.e. "Emperor Xiaowu" is normally known as "Emperor Wu")

Name by which most commonly knownPersonal nameReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Western Han (西漢) (202 BCE–9 CE)
Emperor Gaozu of Han Liu Bang劉邦202–195 BCEmperor Gao高皇帝Taizu太祖
Emperor Hui of Han Liu Ying劉盈195–188 BC(Empress Lü regency)1Emperor Xiaohui孝惠皇帝
Emperor Qianshao of Han 1Liu Gong劉恭188–184 BC(Empress Lü regency)1
Emperor Houshao of Han 1Liu Hong劉弘184–180 BC(Empress Lü regency)1
Emperor Wen of Han Liu Heng劉恆179–157 BCHòuyuán後元163–156 BCEEmperor Xiaowen孝文皇帝Taizong太宗
Emperor Jing of Han Liu Qi劉啟156–141 BCZhōngyuán中元149–143 BCEEmperor Xiaojing孝景皇帝
Hòuyuán後元143–141 BCE
Emperor Wu of Han Liu Che劉徹140–87 BCJiànyuán建元140–135 BCEEmperor Xiaowu孝武皇帝Shizong世宗
Yuánguāng元光134–129 BCE
Yuánshuò元朔128–123 BCE
Yuánshòu元狩122–117 BCE
Yuándǐng元鼎116–111 BCE
Yuánfēng元封110–105 BCE
Tàichū太初104–101 BCE
Tiānhàn天漢100–97 BCE
Tàishǐ太始96–93 BCE
Zhēnghé征和92–89 BCE
Hòuyuán後元88–87 BCE
Emperor Zhao of Han Liu Fuling劉弗陵86–74 BCShǐyuán始元86–80 BCEEmperor Xiaozhao孝昭皇帝
Yuánfèng元鳳80–75 BCE
Yuánpíng元平74 BCE
Marquis of Haihun Liu He劉賀74 BC
Emperor Xuan of Han Liu Xun劉詢73–49 BCBěnshǐ本始73–70 BCEEmperor Xiaoxuan孝宣皇帝Zhongzong中宗
Dìjié地節69–66 BCE
Yuánkāng元康65–61 BCE
Shénjué神爵61–58 BCE
Wǔfèng五鳳57–54 BCE
Gānlù甘露53–50 BCE
Huánglóng黃龍49 BCE
Emperor Yuan of Han Liu Shi劉奭48–33 BCChūyuán初元48–44 BCEEmperor Xiaoyuan孝元皇帝Gaozong3高宗3
Yǒngguāng永光43–39 BCE
Jiànzhāo建昭38–34 BCE
Jìngníng竟寧33 BCE
Emperor Cheng of Han Liu Ao劉驁32–7 BCJiànshǐ建始32–28 BCEEmperor Xiaocheng孝成皇帝Tongzong3統宗3
Hépíng河平28–25 BCE
Yángshuò陽朔24–21 BCE
Hóngjiā鴻嘉20–17 BCE
Yǒngshǐ永始16–13 BCE
Yuányán元延12–9 BCE
Suīhé綏和8–7 BCE
Emperor Ai of Han Liu Xin劉欣6–1 BCJiànpíng建平6–3 BCEEmperor Xiao'ai孝哀皇帝
Yuánshòu元壽2–1 BCE
Emperor Ping of Han Liu Kan劉衎1 BC – 5 ADYuánshǐ元始1 BCE – 5 CEEmperor Xiaoping孝平皇帝Yuanzong3元宗3
Ruzi Ying 2Liu Ying劉嬰6–8Jùshè居攝6 CE – Oct. 8 CE
Chūshǐ初始Nov. 8 CE – Dec. 8 CE
Interregnum (9 CE – 23 CE)
Gengshi Emperor Liu Xuan劉玄23–25Gēngshǐ更始23–25 CE
Eastern Han (東漢) (25–220 CE)
Emperor Guangwu of Han Liu Xiu劉秀25–57Jiànwǔ建武25–56 CEEmperor Guangwu光武皇帝Shizu世祖
Jiànwǔzhōngyuán建武中元56–57 CE
Emperor Ming of Han Liu Zhuang劉莊58–75Yǒngpíng永平58–75 CEEmperor Xiaoming孝明皇帝Xianzong顯宗
Emperor Zhang of Han Liu Da劉炟76–88Jiànchū建初76–84 CEEmperor Xiaozhang孝章皇帝Suzong肅宗
Yuánhé元和84–87 CE
Zhānghé章和87–88 CE
Emperor He of Han Liu Zhao劉肇89–105Yǒngyuán永元89–105 CEEmperor Xiaohe孝和皇帝Muzong3穆宗3
Yuánxīng元興105 CE
Emperor Shang of Han Liu Long劉隆106Yánpíng延平9 months in 106 CEEmperor Xiaoshang孝殤皇帝
Emperor An of Han Liu Hu劉祜106–125Yǒngchū永初107–113 CEEmperor Xiao'an孝安皇帝Gongzong3恭宗3
Yuánchū元初114–120 CE
Yǒngníng永寧120–121 CE
Jiànguāng建光121–122 CE
Yánguāng延光122–125 CE
Marquess of Beixiang Liu Yi劉懿125
Emperor Shun of Han Liu Bao劉保125–144Yǒngjiàn永建126–132 CEEmperor Xiaoshun孝順皇帝Jingzong3敬宗3
Yángjiā陽嘉132–135 CE
Yǒnghé永和136–141 CE
Hàn'ān漢安142–144 CE
Jiànkāng建康144 CE
Emperor Chong of Han Liu Bing劉炳144–145Yōngxī永嘉145 CEEmperor Xiaochong孝沖皇帝
Emperor Zhi of Han Liu Zuan劉纘145–146Běnchū本初146 CEEmperor Xiaozhi孝質皇帝
Emperor Huan of Han Liu Zhi劉志146–168Jiànhé建和147–149 CEEmperor Xiaohuan孝桓皇帝Weizong3威宗3
Hépíng和平150 CE
Yuánjiā元嘉151–153 CE
Yǒngxīng永興153–154 CE
Yǒngshòu永壽155–158 CE
Yánxī延熹158–167 CE
Yǒngkāng永康167 CE
Emperor Ling of Han Liu Hong劉宏168–189Jiànníng建寧168–172 CEEmperor Xiaoling孝靈皇帝
Xīpíng熹平172–178 CE
Guānghé光和178–184 CE
Zhōngpíng中平184–189 CE
Prince of Hongnong Liu Bian 劉辯189Guīngxī光熹189 CE
Zhàoníng昭寧189 CE
Emperor Xian of Han Liu Xie劉協189–220Yǒnghàn永漢189 CEEmperor Xiaoxian孝獻皇帝
Chūpíng初平190–193 CE
Xīngpíng興平194–195 CE
Jiàn'ān建安196–220 CE
Yánkāng延康220 CE
1 — Emperors Qianshao and Houshao reigned as children and were subsequently deposed. Their reigns were completely dominated by Empress Dowager Lü (吕后, personal name: Lü Zhi, 吕雉), who is often listed in their place on lists of Han rulers and Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian.

2 — Ruzi was prince, rather than emperor of Han. Officially, the throne of emperor of Han was vacant during 6AD to 9AD.

3 — Temple name was subsequently withdrew.

Xin dynasty (新朝) (9–23 CE)

Chinese convention: use personal name

Name by which most commonly knownPersonal nameReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Wang Mang Wang Mang王莽9–23Shǐjiànguó始建國9–13 CE
Tiānfēng天鳳14–19 CE
Dìhuáng地皇20–23 CE

Three Kingdoms (三國) (220–280 CE)

Chinese convention: use personal name

Cao Wei (曹魏) (220–266 CE)

Name by which most commonly knownPersonal name Courtesy name ReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Cao Pi Cáo Pī曹丕Zihuan子桓220–226Huángchū黃初220–226Emperor Wen文皇帝
Cao Rui Cáo Ruì曹叡Yuanzhong元仲226–239Tàihé太和227–233Emperor Ming明皇帝
Qīnglóng青龍233–237
Jǐngchū景初237–239
Cao Fang Cáo Fāng曹芳Lanqing蘭卿239–254Zhèngshǐ正始240–249Duke Li厲公
Jiāpíng嘉平249–254
Cao Mao Cáo Máo曹髦Yanshi彥士254–260Zhèngyuán正元254–256
Gānlù甘露256–260
Cao Huan Cáo Huàn曹奐Jingming景明260–266Jǐngyuán景元260–264Emperor Yuan元皇帝
Xiánxī咸熙264–266

Shu Han (蜀漢) (221–263 CE)

Name by which most commonly knownPersonal name Courtesy name ReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Liu Bei Liú Bèi劉備Xuande玄德221–223Zhāngwǔ章武221–223Emperor Zhaolie昭烈皇帝
Liu Shan Liú Shàn劉禪Gongsi公嗣223–263Jiànxīng建興223–237Emperor Xiaohuai孝懷皇帝
Yánxī延熙238–257
Jǐngyào景耀258–263
Yánxīng炎興263

Eastern Wu (東吳) (222–280 CE)

Name by which most commonly knownPersonal name Courtesy name ReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Sun Quan Sūn Quán孫權Zhongmou仲謀222–252Huángwǔ黃武222–229Emperor Da大皇帝
Huánglóng黃龍229–231
Jiāhé嘉禾232–238
Chìwū赤烏238–251
Tàiyuán太元251–252
Shénfèng神鳳252
Sun Liang Sūn Liàng孫亮Ziming子明252–258Jiànxīng建興252–253
Wǔfèng五鳳254–256
Tàipíng太平256–258
Sun Xiu Sūn Xiū孫休Zilie子烈258–264Yǒngān永安258–264Emperor Jing景皇帝
Sun Hao Sūn Hào孫皓Yuanzong元宗264–280Yuánxīng元興264–265
Gānlù甘露265–266
Bǎodǐng寶鼎266–269
Jiànhéng建衡269–271
Fènghuáng鳳凰272–274
Tiāncè天冊275–276
Tiānxǐ天璽276
Tiānjì天紀277–280

Jin dynasty (晉朝) (266–420 CE)

Chinese convention: Use "Jin" + posthumous name

Note that the posthumous names of some Jin monarchs bore the character "xiao" (孝; "filial"), but this character is usually omitted by scholars when referencing these monarchs by their posthumous names (i.e. "Emperor Xiaohui" is normally known as "Emperor Hui")

Name by which most commonly knownPersonal nameReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號)
and their corresponding range of years
Posthumous name
(Shi Hao 諡號)
Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Western Jin (西晉) (266–316 CE)
Emperor Wu of Jin Sīmǎ Yán司馬炎266–290Tàishǐ泰始266–274Emperor Wu武皇帝Shizu世祖
Xiánníng咸寧275–280
Tàikāng太康280–289
Tàixī太熙290
Emperor Hui of Jin Sīmǎ Zhōng司馬衷290–306Yǒngxī永熙290Emperor Xiaohui孝惠皇帝
Yǒngpīng永平291
Yuánkāng元康291–299
Yǒngkāng永康300–301
Yǒngníng永寧301–302
Tàiān太安302–303
Yǒngān永安304
Jiànwǔ建武304
Yǒngān永安304
Yǒngxīng永興304–306
Guāngxī光熙306
Emperor Huai of Jin Sīmǎ Chì司馬熾307–313Yǒngjiā永嘉307–313Emperor Xiaohuai孝懷皇帝
Emperor Min of Jin Sīmǎ Yè司馬鄴313–317Jiànxīng建興313–317Emperor Xiaomin孝愍皇帝
Eastern Jin (東晉) (317–420 CE)
Emperor Yuan of Jin Sīmǎ Ruì司馬睿317–322Jiànwǔ建武317–318Emperor Yuan元皇帝Zhōngzōng中宗
Dàxīng大興318–321
Yǒngchāng永昌321–322
Emperor Míng of Jin Sīmǎ Shào司馬紹322–325Yǒngchāng永昌322–323Emperor Ming明皇帝Suzu肅祖
Tàiníng太寧323–325
Emperor Cheng of Jin Sīmǎ Yǎn司馬衍325–342Tàiníng太寧325Emperor Cheng成皇帝Xianzong顯宗
Xiánhé咸和326–334
Xiánkāng咸康335–342
Emperor Kang of Jin Sīmǎ Yuè司馬岳342–344Jiànyuán建元343–344Emperor Kang康皇帝
Emperor Mu of Jin Sima Dān司馬聃345–361Yǒnghé永和345–356Emperor Mu穆皇帝Xianzong顯宗
Shēngpíng升平357–361
Emperor Ai of Jin Sīmǎ Pī司馬丕361–365Lónghé隆和362–363Emperor Ai哀皇帝
Xīngníng興寧363–365
Emperor Fei of Jin Sīmǎ Yì司馬奕365–371Tàihé太和365–371
Emperor Jianwen of Jin Sīmǎ Yù司馬昱371–372Xiánān咸安371–372Emperor Jianwen簡文皇帝Taizong太宗
Emperor Xiaowu of Jin Sīmǎ Yào司馬曜372–396Níngkāng寧康373–375Emperor Xiaowu孝武皇帝Lièzōng烈宗
Tàiyuán太元376–396
Emperor An of Jin Sīmǎ Dézōng司馬德宗396–418Lóngān隆安397–401Emperor An安皇帝
Yuánxīng元興402–404
Yìxī義熙405–418
Emperor Gong of Jin Sīmǎ Déwén司馬德文419–420Yuánxī元熙419–420Emperor Gong恭皇帝

Sixteen Kingdoms (十六國) (304–439 CE)

Chinese convention: use personal name

Han Zhao (漢趙) (304–329 CE)

Note: addressed separately in traditional texts as Han (漢) and Qian (Former) Zhao (前趙)

Personal nameReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Northern Han (北漢) (304–318 CE)
Liu Yuan 劉淵304–310Jiànxīng建興304–307Emperor Guangwen光文皇帝Gao Zu高祖
Yǒngfèng永鳳308
Héruì河瑞309
Guāngxīng光興310
Liu He 劉和7 days in 310
Liu Cong 劉聰310–318Emperor Zhaowu昭武皇帝Lie Zong烈宗
Jiāpíng嘉平311–315
Jiànyuán建元316
Línjiā麟嘉317–318
Liu Can 劉粲a month and some days in 318Hànchāng (until renaming as Former Zhao)漢昌318Emperor Yin隱皇帝
Former Zhao (前趙) (318–329 CE)
Liu Yao 劉曜318–329Guāngchū (until conquest by Later Zhao)光初318–329

Cheng Han (成漢) (304–347 CE)

Note: addressed separately in traditional texts as Cheng (成) and Han (漢)

Personal nameReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Cheng (成) (304–338 CE)
Li Te 李特303Jiànchū

or

Jǐngchū

建初

or

景初

303Emperor Jing景皇帝Shǐzu
or
Shìzu
始祖

or

世祖

Li Liu 李流several months in 303Prince Wen of Qin秦文王
Li Xiong 李雄303–334Emperor Wu武皇帝Taizong太宗
Jiànxīng建興304–305
Yànpīng晏平306–310
Yùhéng玉衡311–334
Li Ban 李班7 months in 334Emperor Ai哀皇帝
Li Qi 李期334–338Hànxīng漢興337–338Duke You幽公
Han (漢) (338–347 CE)
Li Shou 李壽338–343Hànxīng (漢興) 338–343 (continuation)漢興338–343 (continuation)Emperor Zhaowen昭文皇帝Zhongzong中宗
Li Shi 李勢343–347Tàihé太和344–345
Jiāníng嘉寧346–347 (until conquest by Eastern Jin)

Later Zhao (後趙) (319–351 CE)

Personal nameReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Shi Le 石勒319–333Prince Zhao趙王319–327Emperor Ming明皇帝Gaozu高祖
Tàihé太和328–329
Jiànpíng建平330–332
Yánxī延熙333
Shi Hong 石弘333–334Yánxī延熙333
Jiànwǔ建武334
Shi Hu 石虎334–349Jiànwǔ建武335–348Emperor Wu武皇帝Taizu太祖
Taìníng太寧349
Shi Shi 石世73 days in 349
Shi Zun 石遵183 days in 349
Shi Jian 石鑒103 days within 349–350Qīnglóng青龍(changed mid-year)
Shi Zhi 石祗350–351Yǒngníng永寧350–351 (until Ran Min's coup)

Former Liang (前涼) (320–376 CE)

Personal nameReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Zhang Mao 張茂320–324Jianxing建興320–354Prince Cheng成王
Zhang Jun 張駿324–346Prince Wen文王
Zhang Chonghua 張重華346–353Prince Huan桓王
Zhang Yaoling 張曜靈3 months (the ninth to the twelfth month) in 353Duke Ai哀公
Zhang Zuo 張祚353–355Prince Wei威王
Heping和平354–355
Zhang Xuanjing 張玄靚355–363Jianxing建興355–361Duke Jingdao
or
Prince Chong
敬悼公

or

沖王

Shengping升平361–376
Zhang Tianxi 張天錫364–376Duke Dao悼公

Former Yan (前燕) (337–370 CE)

Personal nameReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Murong Huang 慕容皝337–348Yànwáng燕王337–348Emperor Wenming文明皇帝Taizu太祖
Murong Jun 慕容俊348–360Yànyuán燕元349–351Emperor Jingzhao景昭皇帝Liezong烈宗
Yuánxǐ元璽352–357
Shēngpíng升平357 (as vassal of Jin)
Guāngshòu光壽357–359
Murong Wei 慕容暐360–370Jiànxī建熙359–365Emperor You幽皇帝
Jiànyuán建元366–370

Former Qin (前秦) (351–394 CE)

Personal nameReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Fu Jian 苻健351–355Huangshi皇始351–355Emperor Jingming景明皇帝Gaozu高祖
Fu Sheng 苻生355–357Shouguang壽光355–357Prince Li厲王
Fu Jian 苻堅357–385Yongxing永興357–359Emperor Xuanzhao宣昭皇帝Shizu世祖
Ganlu甘露359–364
Jianyuan建元365–385
Fu Pi 苻丕385–386Taian太安385–386Emperor Aiping哀平皇帝
Fu Deng 苻登386–394Taichu太初385–394Emperor Gao高皇帝Taizong太宗
Fu Chong 苻崇several months in 394Yanchu延初394

Later Yan (後燕) (384–409 CE)

Personal nameReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Murong Chui 慕容垂384–396Yànwáng燕王384–385Emperor Chengwu成武皇帝Shizu世祖
Jianxing建興386–396
Murong Bao 慕容寶396–398Yongkang永康396–398Emperor Huimin惠愍皇帝Liezong烈宗
Murong Sheng 慕容盛398–401Jianping建平398Emperor Zhaowu昭武皇帝Zhongzong中宗
Changle長樂399–401
Murong Xi 慕容熙401–407Guangshi光始401–406Emperor Zhaowen昭文皇帝
Jianshi建始407

Later Qin (後秦) (384–417 CE)

Personal nameReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Yao Chang 姚萇384–393Baique白雀384–386Emperor Wuzhao武昭皇帝Taizu太祖
Jianchu建初386–393
Yao Xing 姚興394–416Huangchu皇初394–399Emperor Wenhuan文桓皇帝Gaozu高祖
Hongshi弘始399–416
Yao Hong 姚泓416–417Yonghe永和416–417

Western Qin (西秦) (385–400 CE, 409–431 CE)

Personal nameReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Qifu Guoren 乞伏國仁385–388Jianyi建義385–388Prince Xuanlie宣烈王Liezu烈祖
Qifu Qiangui 乞伏乾歸388–400Taichu太初388–400Prince Wuyuan武元王Gaozu高祖
409–412Gengshi更始409–412
Qifu Chipan 乞伏熾磐412–428Yongkang永康412–419Prince Wenzhao文昭王Taizu太祖
Jianhong建弘420–428
Qifu Mumo 乞伏暮末428–431Yonghong永弘428–431

Later Liang (後涼) (386–403 CE)

Personal nameReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Lü Guang 呂光386–399Taian太安386–389Emperor Yiwu懿武皇帝Taizu太祖
Linjia麟嘉389–396
Longfei龍飛396–399
Lü Shao 呂紹399Prince Yin隱王
Lü Zuan 呂纂399–401Xianning咸寧399–401Emperor Ling靈皇帝
Lü Long 呂隆401–403Shending神鼎401–403

Southern Liang (南涼) (397–414 CE)

Personal nameReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Tufa Wugu 禿髮烏孤397–399Taichu太初397–399Prince Wu武王Liezu烈祖
Tufa Lilugu 禿髮利鹿孤399–402Jianhe建和399–402Prince Kang康王
Tufa Rutan 禿髮傉檀402–414Hongchang弘昌402–404Prince Jǐng景王
Jiaping嘉平)409–414

Northern Liang (北涼) (397–439 CE)

Note: The Northern Liang was re-established at Gaochang in 442 CE.

Personal nameReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Duan Ye 段業397–401Shenxi神璽397–399
Tianxi天璽399–401
Juqu Mengxun 沮渠蒙遜401–433Yongan永安401–412Prince Wuxuan武宣王Taizu太祖
Xuanshi玄始412–428
Chengxuan承玄428–430
Yihe義和430–433
Juqu Mujian 沮渠牧犍433–439Yonghe永和433–439Prince Ai哀王
Juqu Wuhui 沮渠無諱442–444Chengping承平442–443
Qianshou乾壽443–444
Juqu Anzhou 沮渠安周444–460Chengping承平444–460

Southern Yan (南燕) (398–410 CE)

Personal nameReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Murong De 慕容德398–405Yanwang燕王398–400Emperor Xianwu獻武皇帝Shizong世宗
Jianping建平400–405
Murong Chao 慕容超405–410Taishang太上405–410

Western Liang (西涼) (400–421 CE)

Personal nameReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Li Gao 李暠400–417Gengzi庚子400–405Prince Wuzhao武昭王Taizu太祖
Jianchu建初406–416
Li Xin 李歆417–420Jiaxing嘉興417–420
Li Xun 李恂420–421Yongjian永建420–421

Hu Xia (胡夏) (407–431 CE)

Personal nameReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Helian Bobo 赫連勃勃407–425Longsheng龍升407–413Emperor Wulie武烈皇帝Shizu世祖
Fengxiang鳳翔413–418
Changwu昌武418–419
Zhenxing真興419–425
Helian Chang 赫連昌425–428Chengguang承光425–428
Helian Ding 赫連定428–431Shengguang勝光425–428

Northern Yan (北燕) (407–436 CE)

Personal nameReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Gao Yun 高雲/慕容雲407–409Zhengshi正始407–409Emperor Huiyi惠懿皇帝
Feng Ba 馮跋409–430Taiping太平409–430Emperor Wencheng文成皇帝Taizu太祖
Feng Hong 馮弘430–436Daxing大興430–436Emperor Zhaocheng昭成皇帝

Other sovereignties traditionally not counted among the Sixteen Kingdoms

Convention: use personal name

Ran Wei (冉魏) (350–352 CE)

Note: addressed as Wei in traditional texts

Personal nameReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) (and their corresponding range of years)Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Ran Min 冉閔350–352Yongxing永興350–352Heavenly King Wudao
or
Emperor Ping
武悼天王
or
平皇帝

Western Yan (西燕) (384–394 CE)

Personal nameReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) (and their corresponding range of years)Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Murong Hong 慕容泓384Yanxing燕興384–385Emperor Liewen烈文皇帝
Murong Chong 慕容沖384–386
Gengshi更始385–386Emperor Wei威皇帝
Duan Sui 段隨386Changping昌平386
Murong Yi 慕容顗386Jianming建明386
Murong Yao 慕容瑤386Jianping建平386
Murong Zhong 慕容忠386Jianwu建武386
Murong Yong 慕容永386–394Zhongxing中興386–394

Western Shu (西蜀) (405–413 CE)

Personal nameReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) (and their corresponding range of years)Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Qiao Zong 譙縱405–413

Tiefu tribe (匈奴 鐵弗部) (mid 3rd century–391 CE)

Personal nameReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) (and their corresponding range of years)Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Liu Qubei 劉去卑mid-3rd century
Liu Gaoshengyuan劉誥升爰mid-3rd century – late 3rd century
Liu Hu劉虎early 4th century (309?) – 341
Liu Wuheng劉務恒341–356
Liu Eloutou劉閼陋頭356–358
Liu Xiwuqi劉悉勿祈358–359
Liu Weichen劉衛辰359–391

Yuwen tribe (鮮卑 宇文部) (late 3rd century–345 CE)

Personal nameReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) (and their corresponding range of years)Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Yuwen Mohuai 宇文莫槐late 3rd century – 293
Yuwen Puhui
or
Yuwen Pubo
宇文普回

or

宇文普撥

293 – late 3rd century
Yuwen Qiubuqin宇文丘不勤late 3rd century
Yuwen Mogui宇文莫圭late 3rd century (299?) early 4th century (302?)
Yuwen Xiduguan宇文悉獨官early 3rd century
Yuwen Qidegui 宇文乞得歸early 3rd century – 333
Yuwen Yidougui宇文逸豆歸333–345

Duan tribe (鮮卑 段部) (303–338 CE)

Personal nameReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) (and their corresponding range of years)Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Duan Wuwuchen段務勿塵303 – 310 or 311
Duan Jilujuan段疾陸眷310 or 311 – 318
Duan Shefuchen段涉復辰318
Duan Pidi 段匹磾318–321
Duan Mopei段末柸318–325
Duan Ya段牙325
Duan Liao段遼326–338

Chouchi (仇池) (296–371 CE, 385–443 CE)

Personal nameReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) (and their corresponding range of years)Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Former Chouchi (前仇池) (296–371 CE)
Yang Teng楊騰late 2nd century early 3rd century
Yang Ju楊駒early 3rd century
Yang Qianwan楊千萬early 3rd century – mid-3rd century
Yang Feilong楊飛龍mid-3rd century – late 3rd century
Yang Maosou楊茂搜late 3rd century – 317
Yang Nandi楊難敵317–334
Yang Yi楊毅334–337
Yang Chu楊初337–355
Yang Guo楊國355–356
Yang Jun楊俊356–360
Yang Shi楊世360–370
Yang Cuan楊篡370–371
Later Chouchi (後仇池) (385–473 CE)
Yang Ding 楊定385–394King Wǔ武王
Yang Sheng楊盛394–425King Huìwén惠文王
Yang Xuan楊玄425–429King Xiàozhāo孝昭王
Yang Baozong楊保宗429 and 443
Yang Nandang楊難當429–441Jianyi建義436–440
Yang Baochi楊保熾442–443
Yang Wende楊文德443–454
Yang Yuanhe楊元和455–466
Yang Sengsi楊僧嗣466–473

Wuxing (武興) (473–506 CE, 534–555 CE)

Personal nameReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) (and their corresponding range of years)Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Yang Wendu楊文度473–477
Yang Wenhong楊文弘477–482
Yang Houqi楊後起482–486
Yang Jishi楊集始482–503King An安王
Yang Shaoxian楊紹先503–506, 534–535
Yang Zhihui1楊智慧535–545
Yang Bixie1楊辟邪545–553
1 — Yang Zhihui and Yang Bixie could be the same person.

Yinping (陰平) (477–mid-6th century CE)

Personal nameReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) (and their corresponding range of years)Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Yang Guangxiang楊廣香477–483?
Yang Jiong楊炯483–495
Yang Chongzu楊崇祖495-before 502
Yang Mengsun楊孟孫before 502–511
Yang Ding楊定511- ?

Tuoba tribe (鮮卑 拓拔部) (219–376 CE) & Dai (代) (310–376 CE)

Personal nameReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) (and their corresponding range of years)Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Tuoba Liwei3 拓拔力微219–277Emperor Shényuán神元皇帝
Tuoba Xilu 拓拔悉鹿277–286Emperor Zhāng章皇帝
Tuoba Chuo 拓拔綽286–293Emperor Píng平皇帝
Tuoba Fu 拓拔弗293–294Emperor Sī思皇帝
Tuoba Luguan 拓拔祿官294–307Emperor Zhāo昭皇帝
Tuoba Yituo 拓拔猗㐌295–305Emperor Huán桓皇帝
Tuoba Yilu 拓拔猗盧295–316Emperor Mù穆皇帝
Tuoba Liugen拓跋六根316
Tuoba Pugen 拓拔普根316
Tuoba Shisheng拓跋始生316
Tuoba Yulü 拓拔鬱律316–321Emperor Píngwén平文皇帝
Tuoba Heru 拓拔賀傉321–325Emperor Huì惠皇帝
Tuoba Hena拓拔紇那325–329 and 335–337Emperor Yáng煬皇帝
Tuoba Yihuai 拓拔翳槐329–335 and 337–338Emperor Liè烈皇帝
Tuoba Shiyijian 拓拔什翼健338–376Jianguo建國338–376Emperor Zhāochéng昭成皇帝
1 — All chieftains were revered as emperors in Weishu and Beishi which they never were. They were denoted here as king (wáng) (王) which was inherited by all successors of Tuoba Yi Lu.

2 — The Tuoba clan was the ruling family of Northern Wei dynasty, founded by Tuoba Gui. Hence the Table of Northern Wei dynasty will start with him, not as a continuation of this table.

3 — Tuoba Liwei had the temple name Shizu (始祖). He was the only chieftain before Tuoba Gui revered with a temple name

Northern and Southern Dynasties (南北朝) (386–589 CE)

Northern dynasties (北朝) (386–581 CE)

Chinese convention: use dynasty name + posthumous name

Northern Wei (北魏) (386–535 CE)

Name by which most commonly knownPersonal nameReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Emperor Daowu of Northern Wei Tuoba Gui拓拔珪386–409Dengguo登國386–396Emperor Daowu道武皇帝
Huangsh皇始396–398
Tianxing天興398–404
Tianci天賜404–409
Emperor Mingyuan of Northern Wei Tuoba Si拓拔嗣409–423Yongxing永興409–413Emperor Mingyuan明元皇帝
Shenrui神瑞414–416
Taichang泰常416–423
Emperor Taiwu of Northern Wei Tuoba Tao拓拔燾424–452Shiguang始光424–428Emperor Taiwu太武皇帝
Shenjia神䴥428–431
Yanhe延和432–434
Taiyan太延435–440
Taipingzhenjun太平真君440–451
Zhengping正平451–452
Tuoba Yu Tuoba Yu拓拔余452Chengping承平452Prince Yin隱王
Emperor Wencheng of Northern Wei Tuoba Jun拓拔濬452–465Xingan興安452–454Emperor Wencheng文成皇帝
Xingguang興光454–455
Tai'an太安455–459
Heping和平460–465
Emperor Xianwen of Northern Wei Tuoba Hong拓拔弘466–471Tian'an天安466–467Emperor Xianwen獻文皇帝
Huangxing皇興467–471
Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei Yuan1 Hong (Tuoba Hong)元宏 (拓跋宏)471–499Yanxing延興471–476Emperor Xiaowen孝文皇帝
Chengming承明476
Taihe太和477–499
Emperor Xuanwu of Northern Wei Yuan Ke元恪499–515Jingming景明500–503Emperor Xuanwu宣武皇帝
Zhengshi正始504–508
Yongping永平508–512
Yanchang延昌512–515
Emperor Xiaoming of Northern Wei Yuan Xu元詡516–528Xiping熙平516–518Emperor Xiaoming孝明皇帝
Shengui神龜518–520
Zhengguang正光520–525
Xiaochang孝昌525–527
Wutai武泰528
Yuan Zhao Yuan Zhao元釗528
Emperor Xiaozhuang of Northern Wei Yuan Ziyou元子攸528–530Jianyi建義528Emperor Xiaozhuang孝莊皇帝
Yong'an永安528–530
Yuan Ye Yuan Ye元曄530–531Jianming (建明) 530–531建明530–531
Emperor Jiemin of Northern Wei Yuan Gong元恭531–532Putai (普泰) 531–532普泰531–532Emperor Jiemin節閔皇帝
Yuan Lang Yuan Lang元朗531–532Zhongxing (中興) 531–532中興531–532
Emperor Xiaowu of Northern Wei Yuan Xiu元脩532–535Taichang太昌532Emperor Xiaowu孝武皇帝
Yongxing永興532
Yongxi永熙532–535
1 – The Tuoba family changed their family name to 元 (yuán) during the reign of the Emperor Xiaowen in 496 so that is reflected in the table as well.

Eastern Wei (東魏) (534–550 CE)

Name by which most commonly knownPersonal nameReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Emperor Xiaojing of Eastern Wei Yuan Shanjian元善見534–550Tianping天平534–537Emperor Xiaojing孝靜皇帝
Yuanxiang元象538–539
Xinghe興和539–542
Wuding武定543–550

Western Wei (西魏) (535–557 CE)

Name by which most commonly knownPersonal nameReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Emperor Wen of Western Wei Yuan Baoju元寶炬535–551Datong大統535–551Emperor Wen文皇帝
Emperor Fei of Western Wei Yuan Qin元欽552–554
Emperor Gong of Western Wei Tuoba Kuo拓拔廓554–557Emperor Gong恭皇帝

Northern Qi (北齊) (550–577 CE)

Name by which most commonly knownPersonal nameReignsEra names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Emperor Wenxuan of Northern Qi Gao Yang高洋550–559Tianbao天保550–559Emperor Wenxuan文宣皇帝
Emperor Fei of Northern Qi Gao Yin高殷559–560Qianming乾明560
Emperor Xiaozhao of Northern Qi Gao Yan高演560–561Huangjian皇建560–561Emperor Xiaozhao孝昭皇帝
Emperor Wucheng of Northern Qi Gao Zhan高湛561–565Taining太寧561–562Emperor Wucheng武成皇帝
Heqing河清562–565
Gao Wei Gao Wei高緯565–577Tiantong天統565–569
Wuping武平570–576
Longhua隆化576
Gao Heng Gao Heng高恆577Chengguang承光577
Gao Shaoyi Gao Shaoyi高紹義577–579?

Northern Zhou (北周) (557–581 CE)

Name by which most commonly knownPersonal nameReignsEra names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Emperor Xiaomin of Northern Zhou Yuwen Jue宇文覺557Emperor Xiaomin孝閔皇帝
Emperor Ming of Northern Zhou Yuwen Yu宇文毓557–560Wucheng武成559–560Emperor Ming
or
Emperor Xiaoming
明皇帝

or

孝明皇帝

Emperor Wu of Northern Zhou Yuwen Yong宇文邕561–578Baoding保定560–565Emperor Wu武皇帝
Tianhe天和566–572
Jiande建德572–578
Xuanzheng宣政578
Emperor Xuan of Northern Zhou Yuwen Yun宇文贇578–579Dacheng大成579Emperor Xuan宣皇帝
Emperor Jing of Northern Zhou Yuwen Chan宇文闡579–581Daxiang大象579–581Emperor Jing靜皇帝
Dading大定581

Southern dynasties (南朝) (420–589 CE)

Chinese convention: use dynasty name + posthumous name

Liu Song (劉宋) (420–479 CE)

Name by which most commonly knownPersonal nameReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Emperor Wu of Liu Song Liu Yu劉裕420–422Yongchu永初420–422Emperor Wu武皇帝
Emperor Shao of Liu Song Liu Yifu劉義符423–424Jingping景平423–424
Emperor Wen of Liu Song Liu Yilong劉義隆424–453Yuanjia元嘉424–453Emperor Wen文皇帝
Emperor Xiaowu of Liu Song Liu Jun劉駿454–464Xiaojian元嘉454–456Emperor Xiaowu孝武皇帝
Daming大明457–464
Emperor Qianfei of Liu Song Liu Ziye劉子業465Yongguang永光465
Jinghe景和465
Emperor Ming of Liu Song Liu Yu劉彧465–472Taishi泰始465–471Emperor Ming
明皇帝
Taiyu泰豫472
Emperor Houfei of Liu Song Liu Yu劉昱473–477Yuanhui元徽473–477Prince Cangwu蒼梧王
Emperor Shun of Liu Song Liu Zhun劉準477–479Shengming昇明477–479Emperor Shun順皇帝

Southern Qi (南齊) (479–502 CE)

Name by which most commonly knownPersonal nameReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Emperor Gao of Southern Qi Xiao Daocheng蕭道成479–482Jianyuan建元479–482Emperor Gao高皇帝
Emperor Wu of Southern Qi Xiao Ze蕭賾482–493Yongming永明483–493Emperor Wu武皇帝
Xiao Zhaoye Xiao Zhaoye蕭昭業493–494Longchang隆昌494
Xiao Zhaowen Xiao Zhaowen蕭昭文494Yanxing延興494Prince Gong恭王
Emperor Ming of Southern Qi Xiao Luan蕭鸞494–498Jianwu建武494–498Emperor Ming明皇帝
Yongtai永泰498
Xiao Baojuan Xiao Baojuan蕭寶卷499–501Yongyuan永元499–501Marquess Yang煬侯
Emperor He of Southern Qi Xiao Baorong蕭寶融501–502Zhongxing中興501–502Emperor He和皇帝

Liang dynasty (梁朝) (502–557 CE)

Name by which most commonly knownPersonal nameReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Emperor Wu of Liang Xiao Yan蕭衍502–549Tianjian天監502–519Emperor Wu武皇帝
Putong普通520–527
Datong大通527–529
Zhongdatong中大通529–534
Datong大同535–546
Zhongdatong中大同546–547
Taiqing太清547–549
Emperor Jianwen of Liang Xiao Gang蕭綱549–551Dabao大寶550–551Emperor Jianwen簡文皇帝
Xiao Dong Xiao Dong蕭棟551–552Tianzheng天正551–552
Emperor Yuan of Liang Xiao Yi蕭繹552–555Chengsheng承聖552–555Emperor Xiaoyuan孝元皇帝
Xiao Yuanming Xiao Yuanming蕭淵明555Tiancheng天成555Emperor Min閔皇帝
Emperor Jing of Liang Xiao Fangzhi蕭方智555–557Shaotai紹泰555–556Emperor Jing敬皇帝
Taiping太平556–557
Western Liang (西梁) (555–587 CE)
Emperor Xuan of Western Liang Xiao Cha蕭詧555–562Dading大定555–562Emperor Xuan宣皇帝
Emperor Ming of Western Liang Xiao Kui蕭巋562–585Tianbao天保562–585Emperor Xiaoming孝明皇帝
Emperor Jing of Western Liang Xiao Cong蕭琮585–587Guangyun廣運562–585Emperor Xiaojing孝靖皇帝

Chen dynasty (陳朝) (557–589 CE)

Name by which most commonly knownPersonal nameReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Emperor Wu of Chen Chen Baxian陳霸先557–559Yongding永定557–559Emperor Wu武皇帝
Emperor Wen of Chen Chen Qian陳蒨559–566Tianjia天嘉560–566Emperor Wen文皇帝
Tiankang天康566
Emperor Fei of Chen Chen Bozong陳伯宗566–568Guangda光大566–568
Emperor Xuan of Chen Chen Xu陳頊569–582Taijian太建569–582Emperor Xiaoxuan孝宣皇帝
Chen Shubao Chen Shubao陳叔寶583–589Zhide至德583–586
Zhenming禎明587–589

Sui dynasty (隋朝) (581–619 CE)

Chinese convention: use "Sui" + posthumous name

Name by which most commonly knownPersonal nameReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) (and the corresponding range of years)Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)
Emperor Wen of Sui Yáng Jiān楊堅581–604Kāihuáng開皇581–600Emperor Wen文皇帝
Rénshòu仁壽601–604
Emperor Yang of Sui Yáng Guǎng楊廣605–617Dàyè大業605–617Emperor Yang煬皇帝
Yang You 1Yáng Yòu楊侑617–618Yìníng義寧617–618Emperor Gong恭皇帝
Yang Hao 2Yáng Hào楊浩618Huángtài皇泰618–619
Yang Tong 3Yáng Tóng楊侗618–619Emperor Gong恭皇帝

1 — Declared emperor by Li Yuan (the later Emperor Gaozu of Tang), implying a retirement for Emperor Yang (whom he "honoured" as Taishang Huang , or retired emperor) at the western capital Daxing (Chang'an), but only the commanderies under Li's control recognized this change; for the other commanderies under Sui control, Emperor Yang was still regarded as emperor, not as retired emperor. Now generally regarded as a legitimate emperor, due to his recognition by Li Yuan.

2 — Declared emperor by Yuwen Huaji, the general under whose leadership the plot to kill Emperor Yang was carried out, but killed by him later in 618; Yuwen Huaji then declared himself emperor of a brief Xu (許) state. As Yang Hao was completely under Yuwen's control and only "reigned" briefly, he is not usually regarded as a legitimate emperor.

3 — After news of Emperor Yang's death in 618 reached Daxing and the eastern capital Luoyang, Li Yuan deposed Emperor Gong and took the throne himself, establishing Tang dynasty, but the Sui officials at Luoyang declared Emperor Gong's brother Yang Tong (later also known as Emperor Gong) emperor. The legitimacy of his reign is disputed.

Tang dynasty (唐朝) (618–690 CE, 705–907 CE)

Chinese convention: use "Tang" + temple name(except for Emperor Shang and Emperor Ai; Emperor Xuanzong (唐玄宗) is sometimes referred as Emperor Ming of Tang Dynasty (唐明皇))

Name by which most commonly knownPersonal nameReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) (and the corresponding range of years)Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Temple name (Miao Hao 庙号)
Emperor Gaozu of Tang Lǐ Yuān李渊618–626Wude武德618–626Emperor Shenyao Dasheng Daguang Xiao神堯大聖大光孝皇帝Gaozu高祖
Emperor Taizong of Tang Lǐ Shìmín李世民627–649Zhenguan貞觀627–649Emperor Wenwu Dasheng Daguang Xiao文武大聖大廣孝皇帝Taizong太宗
Emperor Gaozong of Tang Lǐ Zhì李治650–683Yonghui永徽650–655Emperor Tianhuang Dasheng Dahong Xiao天皇大聖大弘孝皇帝Gaozong高宗
Xianqing顯慶656–661
Longshuo龍朔661–663
Linde麟德664–665
Qianfeng乾封666–668
Zongzhang總章668–670
Xianheng咸亨670–674
Shangyuan上元674–676
Yifeng儀鳳676–679
Tiaolu調露679–680
Yonglong永隆680–681
Kaiyao開耀681–682
Yongchun永淳682–683
Hongdao弘道683
Emperor Zhongzong of China Li Xian

or

Li Zhe

李显

or

李哲

684

and

705–710

Sisheng嗣聖684Emperor Dahe Dasheng Dazhao Xiao大和大聖大昭孝皇帝Zhongzong中宗
Shenlong神龍705–707
Jinglong景龍707–710
Emperor Ruizong of Tang Li Dan李旦684–690

and

710–712

Wenming文明684–690Emperor Xuanzhen Dasheng Daxing Xiao玄真大聖大興孝皇帝Ruizong睿宗
Jingyun景雲710–711
Taiji太極712
Yanhe延和712
Interregnum (690–705)
Emperor Shang of Tang Li Chongmao李重茂710Tanglong唐隆710Emperor Shang殤皇帝
Emperor Xuanzong of Tang Li Longji李隆基712–756Xiantian先天712–713Emperor Zhidao Dasheng Daming Xiao至道大聖大明孝皇帝Xuanzong玄宗
Kaiyuan開元713–741
Tianbao天寶742–756
Emperor Suzong of Tang Li Heng李亨756–762Jide至德756–758Emperor Wenming Wude Dasheng Daxuan Xiao文明武德大聖大宣孝皇帝Suzong肅宗
Qianyuan乾元758–760
Shangyuan上元760–761
Emperor Daizong of Tang Li Yu李豫762–779Baoying寶應762–763Emperor Ruiwen Xiaowu睿文孝武皇帝Daizong代宗
Guangde廣德763–764
Yongtai永泰765–766
Dali大曆766–779
Emperor Dezong of Tang Li Gua李适780–805Jianzhong建中780–783Emperor Shenwu Xiaowen神武孝文皇帝Dezong德宗
Xingyuan興元784
Zhenyuan貞元785–805
Emperor Shunzong of Tang Li Song李誦805Yongzhen永貞805Emperor Zhide Hongdao Dasheng Da'an Xiao至德弘道大聖大安孝皇帝Shunzong順宗
Emperor Xianzong of Tang Li Chun李純806–820Yuanhe元和806–820Emperor Zhaowen Zhangwu Dasheng Zhishen Xiao昭文章武大聖至神孝皇帝Xianzong憲宗
Emperor Muzong of Tang Li Heng李恆821–824Changqing長慶821–824Emperor Ruisheng Wenhui Xiao睿聖文惠孝皇帝Muzong穆宗
Emperor Jingzong of Tang Li Zhan李湛824–826Baoli寶曆824–826Emperor Ruiwu Zhaomin Xiao睿武昭愍孝皇帝Jingzong敬宗
Emperor Wenzong of Tang Li Ang李昂826–840Emperor Yuansheng Zhaoxian Xiao元聖昭獻孝皇帝Wenzong文宗
Dahe

or

Taihe

大和

or

太和

827–835
Kaicheng開成836–840
Emperor Wuzong of Tang Li Yan李炎840–846Huichang會昌841–846Emperor Zhidao Zhaosu Xiao至道昭肅孝皇帝Wuzong武宗
Emperor Xuanzong of Tang Li Chen李忱846–859Dachong大中847–859Emperor Yuansheng Zhiming Chengwu Xianwen Ruizhi Zhangren Shencong Yidao Daxiao元聖至明成武獻文睿智章仁神聰懿道大孝皇帝Xuanzong宣宗
Emperor Yizong of Tang Li Cui李漼859–873Emperor Zhaosheng Gonghui Xiao昭聖恭惠孝皇帝Yizong懿宗
Xiantong咸通860–874
Emperor Xizong of Tang Li Xuan李儇873–888Emperor Huisheng Gongding Xiao惠聖恭定孝皇帝Xizong僖宗
Qianfu乾符874–879
Guangming廣明880–881
Zhonghe中和881–885
Guangqi光啟885–888
Wende文德888
Emperor Zhaozong of Tang Li Ye李曄888–904Longji龍紀889Emperor Shengmu Jingwen Xiao聖穆景文孝皇帝Zhaozong昭宗
Dashun大順890–891
Jingfu景福892–893
Qianning乾寧894–898
Guanghua光化898–901
Tianfu天復901–904
Tianyou天佑904
Emperor Ai of Tang Li Zhu李柷904–907Tianyou天佑904–907Emperor Ai
or
Emperor Zhaoxuan Guanglie Xiao
哀皇帝
or
昭宣光烈孝皇帝
Jingzong景宗

Wu Zhou (武周) (690–705 CE)

Name by which most commonly knownPersonal NameReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsRegnal name (Zun Hao 尊號)Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Wu Zetian Wǔ Zhào武曌690–705Tianshou天授690–692Empress Regnant Tiance Jinlun Shengshen天冊金輪聖神皇帝Empress Consort Zetian Shunsheng1則天順聖皇后1
Ruyi如意692
Changshou長壽692–694
Yanzai延載694
Zhengsheng證聖695
Tiancewansui天冊萬歲695–696
Wansuidengfeng萬歲登封696
Wansuitongtian萬歲通天696–697
Shengong神功697
Shengli聖曆698–700
Jiushi久視700
Dazu大足701
Chang'an長安701–705
1 — While Wu Zetian was empress regnant from 690 to 705, she was posthumously honored as empress consort of the Emperor Gaozong of Tang.

Huang Qi (黃齊) (881–884 CE)

Name by which most commonly knownPersonal NameReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsTemple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Huang Chao Huang Chao黃巢881–884Wángbà王霸878–880
Jīntǒng金統881–884

Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (五代十國) (907–979 CE)

Five Dynasties (五代) (907–960 CE)

Chinese convention: name of dynasty + temple name or posthumous name

Later Liang (後梁) (907–923 CE)

Personal NameReignPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsTemple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Zhū Wēn 朱溫907–912Emperor Shenwu Yuansheng Xiao神武元聖孝皇帝Kaīpíng開平907–911Taizu太祖
Qiánhuà乾化911–912
Zhu Yougui 朱友珪912–913Qiánhuà乾化912–913
Fengli鳳曆913
Zhū Zhèn 朱瑱913–923Qiánhuà乾化913–915
Zhēnmíng貞明915–921
Lóngdé龍德921–923

Later Tang (後唐) (923–937 CE)

Personal NameReignPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsTemple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Lǐ Cúnxù 李存勗923–926Emperor Guangsheng Shenmin Xiao光聖神閔孝皇帝Tongguang同光923–926Zhuangzong莊宗
Lǐ Sìyuán

or

Lǐ Dǎn

李嗣源

or

李亶

926–933Emperor Shengde Hewu Qinxiao聖德和武欽孝皇帝Tiancheng天成926–930Mingzong明宗
Changxing長興930–933
Lǐ Cónghòu 李從厚933–934Emperor Min閔皇帝Yingshun應順933–934
Lǐ Cóngkē 李從珂934–937Qingtai清泰934–936

Later Jin (後晉) (936–947 CE)

Personal NameReignPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsTemple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Shi Jingtang 石敬瑭936–942Emperor Shengwen Zhangwu Mingde Xiao聖文章武明德孝皇帝Tianfu天福936–944Gaozu高祖
Shi Chonggui 石重貴942–947Emperor Chu出皇帝
Kaiyun開運944–947

Later Han (後漢) (947–951 CE)

Personal NameReignPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsTemple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Liu Zhiyuan 劉知遠947–948Emperor Ruiwen Shengwu Zhaosu Xiao睿文聖武昭肅孝皇帝Tianfu天福947Gaozu高祖
Liu Chengyou 劉承祐948–951Emperor Yin隱皇帝Qianyou乾祐948–951

Later Zhou (後周) (951–960 CE)

Personal NameReignPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsTemple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Guo Wei 郭威951–954Emperor Shengshen Gongsu Wenwu Xiao聖神恭肅文武孝皇帝Guangshun廣順951–954Taizu太祖
Chai Rong 柴榮954–959Emperor Ruiwu Xiaowen睿武孝文皇帝Xiande顯德954–960Shizong世宗
Chai Zongxun 柴宗訓959–960Emperor Gong恭皇帝

Ten Kingdoms (十國) (907–979 CE)

Chinese convention: use personal names, noted otherwise

Former Shu (前蜀) (907–925 CE)

Personal NameReignPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsTemple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Wang Jian 王建907–918Emperor Shenwu Shengwen Xiaode Minghui神武圣文孝德明惠皇帝Tianfu天復907Gaozu高祖
Wucheng武成908–910
Yongping永平911–915
Tongzheng通正916
Tianhan天漢917
Guangtian光天918
Wang Zongyan 王宗衍918–925Qiande乾德918–925
Xiankang咸康925

Yang Wu (楊吳) (907–937 CE)

Personal NameReignPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsTemple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Yang Xingmi 楊行密904–905Emperor Wu武皇帝Tianyou天祐904–919Taizu太祖
Yang Wo 楊渥905–908Emperor Jing景皇帝Liezong烈宗
Yang Longyan 楊隆演908–921Emperor Xuan宣皇帝Gaozu高祖
Wuyi武義919–921
Yang Pu 楊溥921–937Emperor Rui睿皇帝Shunyi順義921–927
Qianzhen乾貞927–929
Dahe大和929–935
Tianzuo天祚935–937

Ma Chu (馬楚) (907–951 CE)

Personal NameReignPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsTemple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Ma Yin 馬殷897–930King Wumu武穆王
Ma Xisheng 馬希聲930–932
Ma Xifan 馬希範932–947King Wenzhao文昭王
Ma Xiguang 馬希廣947–950
Ma Xi'e 馬希萼950King Gongxiao恭孝王
Ma Xichong 馬希崇950–951

Wuyue (吳越) (907–978 CE)

Personal NameReignPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsTemple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Qian Liu 錢鏐904–932King Wusu武肅王Tianbao天寶908–923Taizu太祖
Baoda寶大923–925
Baozheng寶正925–932
Qian Yuanguan 錢元瓘932–941King Wenmu文穆王Shizong世宗
Qian Hongzuo 錢弘佐941–947King Zhongxian忠獻王Chengzong成宗
Qian Hongzong 錢弘倧947King Zhongxun忠遜王
Qian Chu (Qian Hongchu)錢俶 (錢弘俶)947–978King Zhongyi忠懿王

Min (閩) (909–945 CE) & Yin (殷) (943–945 CE)

Personal NameReignPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsTemple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Wang Shenzhi 王審知909–925Emperor Zhaowu Xiao昭武孝皇帝Taizu太祖
Wang Yanhan 王延翰925–926
Wang Yanjun 王延鈞926–935Emperor Qisu Mingxiao齊肅明孝皇帝Longqi龍啟933–935Huizong惠宗
Yonghe永和935
Wang Jipeng 王繼鵬935–939Emperor Shengshen Yingrui Wenming Guangwu Yingdao Dahong Xiao聖神英睿文明廣武應道大弘孝皇帝Tongwen通文936–939Kangzong康宗
Wang Yanxi 王延羲939–944Emperor Ruiwen Guangwu Mingsheng Yuande Longdao Daxiao睿文廣武明聖元德隆道大孝皇帝Yonglong永隆939–944Jingzong景宗
Wang Yanzheng 王延政943–945Prince Gongyi恭懿王Tiande天德943–945

Southern Han (南漢) (917–971 CE)

Personal NameReignPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsTemple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Liú Yán
or
Liú Yǎn
劉巖

or

劉龑

917–925Emperor Tianhuang Da天皇大帝Qiánhēng乾亨917–925Gaozu高祖
Báilóng白龍925–928
Dàyǒu大有928–941
Liú Bīn 劉玢941–943Emperor Shang殤皇帝Guāngtiān光天941–943
Liú Shèng 劉晟943–958Emperor Wenwu Guangsheng Mingxiao文武光圣明孝皇帝Yìngqián應乾943Zhongzong中宗
Qiánhé乾和943–958
Liú Chǎng 劉鋹958–971Dàbǎo大寶958–971

Jingnan (荊南) (924–963 CE)

Personal NameReignPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsTemple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Gao Jixing 高季興909–928King Wuxin武信王
Gao Conghui 高從誨928–948King Wenxian文獻王
Gao Baorong 高寶融948–960King Zhenyi貞懿王
Gao Baoxu 高寶勗960–962
Gao Jichong 高繼沖962–963

Later Shu (後蜀) (934–965 CE)

Personal NameReignPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsTemple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Meng Zhixiang 孟知祥934Emperor Wenwu Shengde Yinglie Mingxiao文武聖德英烈明孝皇帝Mingde明德934–938Gaozu高祖
Meng Chang 孟昶938–965Prince Gongxiao恭孝王Guangzheng廣政938–965

Southern Tang (南唐) (937–976 CE)

Chinese convention for this dynasty only: Use Nan (Southern) Tang + "Qianzhu" (lit. "first lord"), "Zhongzhu" (lit. "middle lord") or "Houzhu" (lit. "last lord").

Personal NameReignPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsTemple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Li Bian 李昪937–943Emperor Guangwen Suwu Xiaogao光文肅武孝高皇帝Shengyuan昇元937–943Liezu烈祖
Li Jing 李璟943–961Emperor Mingdao Chongde Wenxuan Xiao明道崇德文宣孝皇帝Baoda保大943–958Yuanzong元宗
Jiaotai交泰958
Zhongxing中興958
Li Yu 李煜961–976

Northern Han (北漢) (951–979 CE)

Personal NameReignPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsTemple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Liu Min 劉旻951–954Emperor Shenwu神武皇帝Qianyou乾祐951–957Shizu世祖
Liu Chengjun 劉承鈞954–968Emperor Xiaohe孝和皇帝Ruizong睿宗
Tianhui天會957–968
Liu Ji'en劉繼恩970
Liu Jiyuan 劉繼元970–982Emperor Yingwu英武皇帝Guangyun廣運970–982

Independent regimes during Ten Kingdoms

(local independent regimes during Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period traditionally not counted in the Ten Kingdoms)

Qingyuan Jiedushi (清源節度使) (949–978 CE)

Personal nameName of postsPeriod on post
Liu Congxiao 留從效 Commander-in-Chief of Quanzhang泉漳都指揮使945–962
Liu Shaozi 留紹鎡Regent of Quanzhang泉漳留守962
Zhang Hansi 張漢思 Military Commissioner of Quanzhang泉漳節度使962–963
Chen Hongjin 陳洪進963–978

Wuping Jiedushi (武平節度使) (950–963 CE)

Personal nameName of postsPeriod on post
Liu Yan劉言Military Commissioner of Wuping武平節度使950–953
Wang Kui

or

Wang Jinkui

王逵

or

王進逵

953–956
Zhou Xingfeng周行逢Military Commissioner of Hunan湖南節度使956–962
Zhou Baoquan周保權962–963

Liao dynasty (遼朝) (916–1125 CE)

Chinese convention: use "Liao" + temple name except Liao Tianzuodi who is referred using "Liao" + regnal name

Name by which most commonly knownPersonal nameReignPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Era names (Nian Hao 年號) (and their corresponding range of years)Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Emperor Taizu of Liao Yēlǜ Ābǎojī耶律阿保機916–926Emperor Dasheng Daming Shenlie Tian大聖大明神烈天皇帝Shence神冊916–922Taizu太祖
Tianzan天贊922–926
Tianxian天顯926
Emperor Taizong of Liao Yēlǜ Déguāng耶律德光926–947Emperor Xiaowu Huiwen孝武惠文皇帝Tianxian天顯927–938Taizong太宗
Huitong會同938–947
Datong大同947
Emperor Shizong of Liao Yēlǜ Ruǎn耶律阮947–951Emperor Xiaohe Zhuangxian孝和莊憲皇帝Tianlu天祿947–951Shizong世宗
Emperor Muzong of Liao Yēlǜ Jǐng耶律璟951–969Emperor Xiao'an Jingzheng孝安敬正皇帝Yingli應曆951–969Muzong穆宗
Emperor Jingzong of Liao Yēlǜ Xián耶律賢969–982Emperor Xiaocheng Kangjing孝成康靖皇帝Baoning保寧969–979Jingzong景宗
Qianheng乾亨979–982
Emperor Shengzong of Liao Yēlǜ Lóngxù耶律隆緒982–1031Emperor Wenwu Daxiao Xuan文武大孝宣皇帝Qianheng乾亨982Shengzong聖宗
Tonghe統和983–1012
Kaitai開泰1012–1021
Taiping太平1021–1031
Emperor Xingzong Liao Yēlǜ Zōngzhēn耶律宗真1031–1055Emperor Shensheng Xiaozhang神聖孝章皇帝Jingfu景福1031–1032Xingzong興宗
Chongxi重熙1032–1055
Emperor Daozong of Liao Yēlǜ Hóngjī耶律洪基1055–1101Emperor Rensheng Daxiao Wen仁聖大孝文皇帝Qingning清寧1055–1064Daozong道宗
Xianyong咸雍1065–1074
Taikang

or

Dakang

太康

or

大康

1075–1084
Da'an大安1085–1094
Shouchang

or

Shoulong

壽昌

or

壽隆

1095–1101
Emperor Tianzuo of Liao 1Yēlǜ Yánxǐ耶律延禧1101–1125Qiantong乾統1101–1110
Tianqing天慶1111–1120
Baoda保大1121–1125
1 — "Emperor Tianzuo" was the regnal name (尊號) of Yelü Yanxi.

Northern Liao (北遼) (1122–1123 CE)

Chinese convention: use personal name or "Northern Liao" + temple name

Name by which most commonly knownPersonal nameReignPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Era names (Nian Hao 年號) (and their corresponding range of years)Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Yelü ChunYelü Chun耶律淳1122Emperor Xiaozhang孝章皇帝Jianfu建福1122Xuanzong宣宗
Xiao Puxiannü
(regent)
Xiao Puxiannü蕭普賢女1122–1123Dexing德興1122–1123

Western Liao (西遼) (1124–1218 CE)

Chinese convention: use personal name or "Western Liao" + posthumous name

Name by which most commonly knownPersonal nameReignPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Era names (Nian Hao 年號) (and their corresponding range of years)Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Yelü Dashi Yēlǜ Dàshí

or

Yēlǜ Dáshí1

耶律大石

or

耶律達實

1124–1144Emperor Tianyou Wulie天祐武烈皇帝Yanqing延慶1124 or 1125–1134Dezong德宗
Kangguo康國1134–1144
Xiao Tabuyan
(regent)
Xiāo Tǎbùyān蕭塔不煙1144–1150Empress Consort Gantian感天皇后Xianqing咸清1144–1150
Yelü Yilie Yēlǜ Yíliè耶律夷列1150–1164Shaoxing

or

Xuxing2

紹興

or

續興

1150–1164Renzong仁宗
Yelü Pusuwan
(regent)
Yēlǜ Pǔsùwán耶律普速完1164–1178Empress Dowager Chengtian承天太后Chongfu (崇福 Chóngfú) 1164–1178崇福1164–1178
Yelü Zhilugu Yēlǜ Zhílǔgǔ耶律直魯古1178–1211Tianxi (天禧 Tiānxī) 1178–1218天禧1178–1218
Kuchlug Qūchūlǜ屈出律1211–1218
1 — "Dashi" might be the Chinese title "Taishi", meaning "vizier"; or, it could mean "Stone" in Turkish, as the Chinese transliteration suggests.

2 — Recently discovered Western Liao coins have the era name "Xuxing", suggesting that the era name "Shaoxing" recorded in Chinese sources may be incorrect. [1]

Dongdan (東丹) (926–952 CE)

Name by which most commonly knownPersonal nameReignPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Era names (Nian Hao 年號) (and their corresponding range of years)Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Yelü Bei Yelü Bei耶律倍926–930Emperor Wenxian Qinyi文獻欽義皇帝Ganlu甘露926–936Yizong義宗
Empress Consort DuanshunLady Xiao
(name unknown)
(regent)
蕭氏930–940Empress Consort Duanshun端順皇后
Emperor Shizong of Liao
(same person as the third Liao emperor)
Yelü Ruan耶律阮940–947Emperor Xiaohe Zhuangxian孝和莊憲皇帝
Yelü AnduanYelü Anduan耶律安端947–952

Song dynasty (宋朝) (960–1279 CE)

Chinese convention: use "Song" + temple name or posthumous name (except last emperor who was revered as Song Di Bing (宋帝昺 Sòng Dì Bǐng))

Name by which most commonly knownPersonal nameReignPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsTemple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Northern Song (北宋) (960–1127 CE)
Emperor Taizu of Song Zhao Kuangyin趙匡胤960–976Emperor Qiyun Liji Yingwu Ruiwen Shende Shenggong Zhiming Daxiao啟運立極英武睿文神德聖功至明大孝皇帝Jianlong建隆960–963Taizu太祖
Qiande乾德963–968
Kaibao開寶968–976
Emperor Taizong of Song Zhao Kuangyi

or Zhao Guangyi

or

Zhao Jiong

趙匡義

or

趙光義

or

趙炅

976–997Emperor Zhiren Yingdao Shengong Shengde Wenwu Ruilie Daming Guangxiao至仁應道神功聖德文武睿烈大明廣孝皇帝Taipingxingguo太平興國976–984Taizong太宗
Yongxi雍熙984–987
Duangong端拱988–989
Chunhua淳化990–994
Zhidao至道995–997
Emperor Zhenzong of Song Zhao Heng趙恆997–1022Emperor Yingfu Jigu Shengong Rangde Wenming Wuding Zhangsheng Yuanxiao應符稽古神功讓德文明武定章聖元孝皇帝Xianping咸平998–1003Zhenzong真宗
Jingde景德1004–1007
Dazhongxiangfu大中祥符1008–1016
Tianxi天禧1017–1021
Qianxing乾興1022
Emperor Renzong of Song Zhao Zhen趙禎1022–1063Emperor Titian Fadao Jigong Quande Shenwen Shengwu Ruizhe Mingxiao體天法道極功全德神文聖武睿哲明孝皇帝Tiansheng天聖1023–1032Renzong仁宗
Mingdao明道1032–1033
Jingyou景祐1034–1038
Baoyuan寶元1038–1040
Kangding康定1040–1041
Qingli慶曆1041–1048
Huangyou皇祐1049–1054
Zhihe至和1054–1056
Jiayou嘉祐1056–1063
Emperor Yingzong of Song Zhao Shu趙曙1063–1067Emperor Tiqian Yingli Longgong Shengde Xianwen Suwu Ruisheng Xuanxiao體乾應曆隆功盛德憲文肅武睿聖宣孝皇帝Zhiping治平1064–1067Yingzong英宗
Emperor Shenzong of Song Zhao Xu趙頊1067–1085Emperor Tiyuan Xiandao Fagu Lixian Dide Wanggong Yingwen Liewu Qinren Shengxiao體元顯道法古立憲帝德王功英文烈武欽仁聖孝皇帝Xining熙寧1068–1077Shenzong神宗
Yuanfeng元豐1078–1085
Emperor Zhezong of Song Zhao Xu趙煦1085–1100Emperor Xianyuan Jidao Shede Yanggong Qinwen Ruiwu Qisheng Zhaoxiao憲元繼道世德揚功欽文睿武齊聖昭孝皇帝Yuanyou元祐1086–1094Zhezong哲宗
Shaosheng紹聖1094–1098
Yuanfu元符1098–1100
Emperor Huizong of Song Zhao Ji趙佶1100–1125Emperor Tishen Hedao Junlie Xungong Shengwen Rende Cixian Xianxiao體神合道駿烈遜功聖文仁德慈憲顯孝皇帝Jianzhongjingguo建中靖國1101Huizong徽宗
Chongning崇寧1102–1106
Daguan大觀1107–1110
Zhenghe政和1111–1118
Chonghe重和1118–1119
Xuanhe宣和1119–1125
Emperor Qinzong of Song Zhao Huan趙桓1126–1127Emperor Gongwen Shunde Renxiao恭文順德仁孝皇帝Jingkang靖康1125–1127Qinzong欽宗
Southern Song (南宋) (1127–1279 CE)
Emperor Gaozong of Song Zhao Gou趙構1127–1162Emperor Shouming Zhongxing Quangong Zhide Shengshen Wuwen Zhaoren Xianxiao受命中興全功至德聖神武文昭仁憲孝皇帝Jianyan建炎1127–1130Gaozong高宗
Shaoxing紹興1131–1162
Emperor Xiaozong of Song Zhao Shen趙昚1162–1189Emperor Shaotong Tongdao Guande Zhaogong Zhewen Shenwu Mingsheng Chengxiao紹統同道冠德昭功哲文神武明聖成孝皇帝Longxing隆興1163–1164Xiaozong孝宗
Qiandao乾道1165–1173
Chunxi淳熙1174–1189
Emperor Guangzong of Song Zhao Dun趙惇1189–1194Emperor Xundao Xianren Minggong Maode Wenwen Shunwu Shengzhe Cixiao循道憲仁明功茂德溫文順武聖哲慈孝皇帝Shaoxi紹熙1190–1194Guangzong光宗
Emperor Ningzong of Song Zhao Kuo趙擴1194–1224Emperor Fatian Beidao Chunde Maogong Renwen Zhewu Shengrui Gongxiao法天備道純德茂功仁文哲武聖睿恭孝皇帝Qingyuan慶元1195–1200Ningzong寧宗
Jiatai嘉泰1201–1204
Kaixi開禧1205–1207
Jiading嘉定1208–1224
Emperor Lizong of Song Zhao Yun趙昀1224–1264Emperor Jiandao Beide Dagong Fuxing Liewen Renwu Shengming Anxiao建道備德大功復興烈文仁武聖明安孝皇帝Baoqing寶慶1225–1227Lizong理宗
Shaoding紹定1228–1233
Duanping端平1234–1236
Jiaxi嘉熙1237–1240
Chunyou淳祐1241–1252
Baoyou寶祐1253–1258
Kaiqing開慶1259
Jingding景定1260–1264
Emperor Duzong of Song Zhao Qi趙禥1264–1274Emperor Duanwen Mingwu Jingxiao端文明武景孝皇帝Xianchun咸淳1265–1274Duzong度宗
Emperor Gong of Song Zhao Xian趙顯1274–1276Deyou德祐1275–1276
Emperor Duanzong of Song Zhao Shi趙昰1276–1278Emperor Yuwen Zhaowu Minxiao裕文昭武愍孝皇帝Jingyan景炎1276–1278Duanzong端宗
Zhao Bing Zhao Bing趙昺1278–1279Xiangxing祥興1278–1279

Dali Kingdom (大理) (937–1094 CE, 1096–1253 CE)

Name by which most commonly knownPersonal nameReignPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Era names (Nian Hao 年號) (and their corresponding range of years)Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Former Dali (前大理) (937–1094 CE)
Duan Siping Duan Siping段思平937–944Emperor Shengshen Wenwu聖神文武皇帝Wende文德938–?Taizu太祖
Shenwu神武?–944
Duan SiyingDuan Siying段思英944–945Wenjing文經945
Duan SiliangDuan Siliang段思良945–952Emperor Shengci Wenwu聖慈文武皇帝Zhizhi至治946–951
Duan SicongDuan Sicong段思聰952–968Emperor Zhidao Guangci至道廣慈皇帝Mingde明德952–?
Guangde廣德?–967
Shunde順德968
Duan SushunDuan Sushun段素順968–985Emperor Yingdao應道皇帝Mingzheng明政969–985
Duan SuyingDuan Suying段素英985–1009Emperor Zhaoming昭明皇帝Guangming廣明986–?
Mingying明應?
Mingtong明統?
Mingsheng明聖?
Mingzhi明治?
Duan SulianDuan Sulian段素廉1009–1022Emperor Xuansu宣肅皇帝Mingqi明啟1010–1022
Duan SulongDuan Sulong段素隆1022–1026Emperor Bingyi秉義皇帝Mingtong明通1023–1026
Duan SuzhenDuan Suzhen段素真1026–1041Emperor Shengde聖德皇帝Zhengzhi正治1027–1041
Duan SuxingDuan Suxing段素興1041–1044Shengming聖明1042–?
Tianming天明?–1044
Duan SilianDuan Silian段思廉1044–1075Emperor Xiaode孝德皇帝Bao'an保安1045–1052Xingzong興宗
Zheng'an政安1053–?
Zhengde正德?
Baode保德?–1074
Minghou明侯?
Duan LianyiDuan Lianyi段廉義1075–1080Shangde上德1076
Duan ShouhuiDuan Shouhui段壽輝1080–1081Shangming上明1081
Duan Zhengming Duan Zhengming段正明1081–1094Emperor Baoding保定皇帝Baoli保立1082
Jian'an建安1083–1091
Tianyou天祐1091–1094
Later Dali (後大理) (1096–1253 CE)
Duan Zhengchun Duan Zhengchun段正淳1096–1108Emperor Wen'an文安皇帝Tianshou天授1096Zhongzong中宗
Mingkai明開1097–1103
Tianzheng天政1103–1104
Wen'an文安1104–1108
Duan Zhengyan Duan Zhengyan段正嚴1108–1147Emperor Xuanren宣仁皇帝Rixin日新1109–1110Xianzong憲宗
Wenzhi文治1110–?
Yongjia永嘉?–1128
Baotian保天1129–1137
Guangyun廣運1138–1147
Duan ZhengxingDuan Zhengxing段正興1147–1171Emperor Zhengkang正康皇帝Yongzhen永貞1148Jingzong景宗
Dabao大寶1149–1156
Longxing龍興1157–1161
Shengming盛明1162–?
Jiande建德?–1171
Duan Zhixing Duan Zhixing段智興1171–1200Emperor Gongji功極皇帝Lizhen利貞1172–1174Xuanzong宣宗
Shengde盛德1176–1180
Jiahui嘉會1181–1184
Yuanheng元亨1185–1195
Ding'an定安1195–1200
Duan ZhilianDuan Zhilian段智廉1200–1204Emperor Hengtian亨天皇帝Fengli鳳曆1200–?Yingzong英宗
Yuanshou元壽?–1204
Duan ZhixiangDuan Zhixiang段智祥1204–1238Tiankai天開1205–1225Shenzong神宗
Tianfu天輔1226
Tianshou仁壽1227–1238
Duan XiangxingDuan Xiangxing段祥興1238–1251Emperor Xiaoyi孝義皇帝Daolong道隆1239–1251
Duan XingzhiDuan Xingzhi段興智1251–1254Tianding天定1251–1254


Western Xia (西夏) (1038–1227 CE)

Chinese convention: use "Western Xia" + temple name (or use personal name)

The Tangut names for about half of the Western Xia eras are known from Tangut texts or monumental inscriptions, or from Western Xia coins.

Name by which most commonly knownPersonal NameReignPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Era names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsTemple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Emperor Jǐngzōng of Western Xia Lǐ Yuánhào李元昊1032–1048Emperor Wǔliè武烈皇帝Xiǎndào顯道1032–1034Jǐngzōng景宗
Kāiyùn開運1034
Guǎngpíng廣平1035–1036
Dàqìng大慶1036–1038
Tiānshòulǐfǎyánzuò天授禮法延祚1038–1048
Emperor Yìzōng of Western Xia Lǐ Liàngzuò李諒祚1048–1067Emperor Zhāoyīng昭英皇帝Yánsìníngguó延嗣寧國1048–1049Yìzōng毅宗
Tiānyòuchuíshèng天祐垂聖1050–1052
Fúshèngchéngdào福聖承道1053–1056
Duǒdū奲都1057–1063
Gǒnghuà拱化1063–1067
Emperor Huìzōng of Western Xia Lǐ Bǐngcháng李秉常1067–1086Emperor Kāngjìng康靖皇帝Qiándào乾道1067–1069Huìzōng惠宗
Tiāncìlǐshèngguóqìng天賜禮盛國慶1070–1074
Dà'ān大安
𘜶𗵐
1075–1085
Tiān'ānlǐdìng天安禮定
𘓺𗪚𗅲𗧯
1085–1086
Emperor Chóngzōng of Western Xia Lǐ Qiánshùn李乾順1086–1139Emperor Shèngwén聖文皇帝Tiānyízhìpíng天儀治平1086–1089Chóngzōng崇宗
Tiānyòumín'ān天祐民安
𘓺𗼕𘂀𗴴
1090–1097
Yǒng'ān永安1098–1100
Zhēnguān貞觀
𗣼𘝯
1101–1113
Yōngníng雍寧
𗖠𗪚
1114–1118
Yuándé元德
𗣼𗪘
1119–1127
Zhèngdé正德
𗣼𘇚
1127–1134
Dàdé大德
𘜶𗣼
1135–1139
Emperor Rénzōng of Western Xia Lǐ Rénxiào李仁孝1139–1193Emperor Shengde聖德皇帝Dàqìng大慶
𘜶𘅝
1139–1143Rénzōng仁宗
Rénqìng人慶
𗸦𘅝
1144–1148
Tiānshèng天盛
𘓺𘃸
1149–1170
Qiányòu乾祐
𘀗𘑨
1170–1193
Emperor Huánzōng of Western Xia Lǐ Chúnyòu李純佑1193–1206Emperor Zhāojiǎn昭簡皇帝Tiānqìng天慶
𘓺𘅝
1193–1206Huánzōng桓宗
Emperor Xiāngzōng of Western Xia Lǐ Ānquán李安全1206–1211Emperor Jingmu敬穆皇帝Yīngtiān應天1206–1209Xiāngzōng襄宗
Huángjiàn皇建
𘓺𘚪
1210–1211
Emperor Shénzōng of Western Xia Lǐ Zūnxū李遵頊1211–1223Emperor Yīngwén英文皇帝Guāngdìng光定
𗪚𗏴
1211–1223Shénzōng神宗
Emperor Xiànzōng of Western Xia Lǐ Déwàng李德旺1223–1226Emperor Xiao'ai孝哀皇帝Qiándìng乾定1223–1226Xiànzōng獻宗
Emperor Mò of Western Xia Lǐ Xiàn李晛1226–1227Bǎoyì寶義1226–1227

Jin dynasty (金朝) (1115–1234 CE)

Chinese convention: use "Jin" + temple name or posthumous name in Chinese

Jin dynasty 1115–1234
Name by which most commonly knownPersonal nameReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Emperor Taizu of Jin Āgǔdǎ
or
Wányán Mǐn
阿骨打
or
完顏旻
1115–1123Shōuguó收國1115–1116Emperor Yingqian Xingyun Zhaode Dinggong Renming Zhuangxiao Dasheng Wuyuan應乾興運昭德定功仁明莊孝大聖武元皇帝Tàizǔ太祖
Tiānfǔ天輔1117–1123
Emperor Taizong of Jin Wúqǐmǎi
or
Wányán Shèng
吳乞買
or
完顏晟
1123–1134Tiānhuì天會1123–1134Emperor Tiyuan Yingyun Shide Zhaogong Zhehui Rensheng Wenlie體元應運世德昭功哲惠仁聖文烈皇帝Tàizōng太宗
Emperor Xizong of Jin Hélá
or
Wányán Dǎn
合剌
or
完顏亶
1135–1149Tiānhuì天會1135–1138Emperor Hongji Zuanwu Zhuangjing Xiaocheng弘基纘武莊靖孝成皇帝Xīzōng熙宗
Tiānjuàn天眷1138–1141
Huángtǒng皇統1141–1149
Wanyan Liang Dígǔnǎi
or
Wányán Liàng
迪古乃
or
完顏亮
1149–1161Tiāndé天德1149–1153Prince Yáng煬王
Zhènyuán貞元1153–1156
Zhènglóng正隆1156–1161
Emperor Shizong of Jin Wūlù
or
Wányán Yōng
烏祿
or
完顏雍
1161–1189Dàdìng大定1161–1189Emperor Guangtian Xingyun Wende Wugong Shengming Renxiao光天興運文德武功聖明仁孝皇帝Shìzōng世宗
Emperor Zhangzong of Jin Mádágě
or
Wányán Jǐng
麻達葛
or
完顏璟
1190–1208Míngchāng明昌1190–1196Emperor Xiantian Guangyun Renwen Yiwu Shensheng Yingxiao憲天光運仁文義武神聖英孝皇帝Zhāngzōng章宗
Chéng'ān承安1196–1200
Tàihé泰和1200–1208
Wanyan Yongji Wányán Yǒngjì完顏永濟1209–1213Dà'ān大安1209–1212Prince Shào紹王
Chóngqìng崇慶1212–1213
Zhìníng至寧1213
Emperor Xuanzong of Jin Wúdúbǔ
or
Wányán Xú
吾睹補
or
完顏珣
1213–1223Zhēnyòu貞祐1213–1217Emperor Jitian Xingtong Shudao Qinren Yingwu Shengxiao繼天興統述道勤仁英武聖孝皇帝Xuānzōng宣宗
Xīngdìng興定1217–1222
Yuánguāng元光1222–1223
Emperor Aizong of Jin Níngjiǎsù
or
Wányán Shǒuxù
寧甲速
or
完顏守緒
1224–1234Zhèngdà正大1224–1232Emperor Zhuang莊皇帝Āizōng哀宗
Kāixīng開興1232
Tiānxīng天興1232–1234
Emperor Mo of Jin Hūdūn
or
Wányán Chénglín
呼敦
or
完顏承麟
1234

Yuan dynasty (元朝) (1271–1368 CE)

Chinese convention: for rulers before Kublai Khan use given name (e.g. Temüjin) or Khan names, use "Yuan" + temple name or posthumous name after

Note:
1) The Mongol Great Khans before Khublai were only declared Yuan emperors after the creation of Yuan dynasty in 1271
2) To non-Chinese readers, usually the khan names are the most familiar names.
3) Timur or Temür means the same Mongolian words but Temür will be used for avoiding confusion with Timur the lame (Tamerlane).

Khan NamePersonal nameReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsRegnal name (Zun Hao 尊號)Posthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Genghis Khan Borjigin Temüjin孛兒只斤鐵木真1206–1227Emperor Fatian Qiyun Shengwu法天啟運聖武皇帝Tàizǔ太祖
Tolui Borjigin Tolui孛兒只斤拖雷1228Emperor Rensheng Jingxiang仁聖景襄皇帝Ruìzōng睿宗
Ögedei Khan Borjigin Ögedei孛兒只斤窩闊台1229–1241Emperor Yingwen英文皇帝Tàizōng太宗
Güyük Khan Borjigin Güyük孛兒只斤貴由1246–1248Emperor Jianping簡平皇帝Dìngzōng定宗
Möngke Khan Borjigin Möngke孛兒只斤蒙哥1251–1259Emperor Huansu桓肅皇帝Xiànzōng憲宗
Kublai Khan Borjigin Kublai孛兒只斤忽必烈1260–1294Zhōngtǒng中統1260–1264Emperor Xiantian Shudao Renwen Yiwu Daguang Xiao憲天述道仁文義武大光孝皇帝Emperor Shengde Shengong Wenwu聖德神功文武皇帝Shìzǔ世祖
Zhìyuán至元1264–1294
Temür Khan Borjigin Temür孛兒只斤鐵穆耳1294–1307Yuánzhēn元貞1295–1297Emperor Qinming Guangxiao欽明廣孝皇帝Chéngzōng成宗
1307–1308Dàdé大德1297–1307
Külüg Khan Borjigin Qayshan孛兒只斤海山1308–1311Zhìdà至大1308–1311Emperor Tongtian Jisheng Qinwen Yingwu Dazhang Xiao統天繼聖欽文英武大章孝皇帝Emperor Renhui Xuanxiao仁惠宣孝皇帝Wǔzōng武宗
Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan Borjigin Ayurparibhadra孛兒只斤愛育黎拔力八達1311–1320Huángqìng皇慶1312–1313Emperor Shengwen Qinxiao聖文欽孝皇帝Rénzōng仁宗
1320–1321Yányòu延祐1314–1320
Gegeen Khan Borjigin Suddhipala孛兒只斤碩德八剌1321–1323Zhìzhì至治1321–1323Emperor Jitian Tidao Jingwen Renwu Dazhao Xiao繼天體道敬文仁武大昭孝皇帝Emperor Ruisheng Wenxiao睿聖文孝皇帝Yīngzōng英宗
Yesün Temür 1Borjigin Yesün-Temür孛兒只斤也孫鐵木兒1323–1328Tàidìng泰定1324–1328
Zhìhé致和1328
Ragibagh Khan 1Borjigin Arigaba孛兒只斤阿速吉八1328Tiānshùn天順1328
Jayaatu Khan Tugh Temür Borjigin Toq-Temür孛兒只斤圖帖睦爾1328–1329 and 1329–1332Tiānlì天曆1328–1330Emperor Qintian Tongsheng Zhide Chenggong Dawen Xiao欽天統聖至德誠功大文孝皇帝Emperor Shengming Yuanxiao聖明元孝皇帝Wénzōng文宗
Zhìshùn至順1330–1332
Khutughtu Khan Kusala Borjigin Qoshila孛兒只斤和世剌1329Emperor Shuntian Lidao Ruiwen Zhiwu Dasheng Xiao順天立道睿文智武大聖孝皇帝Emperor Yixian Jingxiao翼獻景孝皇帝Míngzōng明宗
Rinchinbal Khan Borjigin Irinchibal孛兒只斤懿璘質班1332Emperor Chongsheng Sixiao沖聖嗣孝皇帝Níngzōng寧宗
Toghon Temür 2Borjigin Toghan-Temür孛兒只斤妥懽帖睦爾1333–13681333Emperor Xuanren Puxiao
or
Emperor Shun
宣仁普孝皇帝
or
順皇帝
Huìzōng惠宗
Yuántǒng元統1333–1335
Zhìyuán至元1335–1340
Zhìzhèng至正1341–1368
Zhìyuán至元1368–1370

1 — Chinese convention: for these sovereigns only, use "Yuan" + era name (e.g. 元泰定帝 Yuán Tàidìng Dì).
2 — Chinese convention: for this sovereign only, use "Yuan" + posthumous name.

Northern Yuan (北元) (1368–1388 CE)

Retreat of the Yuan court to the Mongolian Plateau after being overthrown by the Ming dynasty in China proper in 1368 (1368 – early 15th century)

Convention: use khan names or birth names.

Khan NamesPersonal NameReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Toghon Temür
(same person as the last Yuan emperor)
Borjigin Toghan-Temür孛兒只斤妥懽帖睦爾1368–1370Zhìshùn至順1333Emperor Xuanren Puxiao
or
Emperor Shun
宣仁普孝皇帝
or
順皇帝
Huìzōng惠宗
Yuántǒng元統1333–1335
Zhìyuán至元1335–1340
Zhìzhèng至正1341–1368
Zhìyuán至元1368–1370
Biligtü Khan Ayushiridara Borjigin Ayushiridara孛兒只斤愛猷識里達臘1370–1378Xuānguāng宣光1371–1378Emperor Wucheng Hexiao武承和孝皇帝Zhāozōng昭宗
Uskhal Khan Tögüs Temür Borjigin Tögüs Temür孛兒只斤脫古思帖木兒1378–1388Tiānyuán

or

Tiānguāng1

天元

or

天光

1378–1388Emperor Yisheng Ningxiao益聖寧孝皇帝
1 — Recently discovered Northern Yuan coins have the era name "Tianguang", suggesting that the era name "Tianyuan" recorded in Chinese sources may be incorrect. [2]

Ming dynasty (明朝) (1368–1644 CE)

Name by which most commonly knownPersonal nameReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsPosthumous name1 (Shi Hao 諡號)Temple name1 (Miao Hao 廟號)
Hongwu Emperor Zhū Yuánzhāng朱元璋1368–1398Hóngwǔ洪武1368–1398Emperor Kaitian Xingdao Zhaoji Liji Dasheng Zhishen Renwen Yiwu Junde Chenggong Gao開天行道肇紀立極大聖至神仁文義武俊德成功高皇帝Tàizǔ太祖
Jianwen Emperor Zhū Yǔnwén朱允炆1398–1402Jiànwén建文1398–1402Emperor Sitian Zhangdao Chengyi Yuangong Guanwen Yangwu Keren Duxiao Rang嗣天章道誠懿淵功觀文揚武克仁篤孝讓皇帝Huizong2惠宗
Yongle Emperor Zhū Dì朱棣1402–1424Yǒnglè永樂1402–1424Emperor Qitian Hongdao Gaoming Zhaoyun Shengwu Shengong Chunren Zhixiao Wen啟天弘道高明肇運聖武神功純仁至孝文皇帝Chéngzǔ or Tàizōng成祖 / 太宗
Hongxi Emperor Zhū Gāochì朱高熾1424–1425Hóngxī洪熙1424–1425Emperor Jingtian Tidao Chuncheng Zhide Hongwen Qinwu Zhangsheng Daxiao Zhao敬天體道純誠至德弘文欽武章聖達孝昭皇帝Rénzōng仁宗
Xuande Emperor Zhū Zhānjī朱瞻基1425–1435Xuāndé宣德1425–1435Emperor Xiantian Chongdao Yingming Shensheng Qintian Zhaowu Kuanren Chunxiao Zhang憲天崇道英明神聖欽天昭武寬仁純孝章皇帝Xuānzōng宣宗
Emperor Yingzong of Ming Zhū Qízhèn朱祁鎮1435–1449

and

1457–1464³

Zhèngtǒng

and

Tiānshùn

正統

and

天順

1435–1449

and

1457–1464

Emperor Fatian Lidao Renming Chengjing Zhaowen Xianwu Zhide Guangxiao Rui法天立道仁明誠敬昭文憲武至德廣孝睿皇帝Yīngzōng英宗
Jingtai Emperor Zhū Qíyù朱祁鈺1449–1457Jǐngtài景泰1449–1457Emperor Futian Jiandao Gongren Kangding Longwen Buwu Xiande Chongxiao Jing符天建道恭仁康定隆文布武顯德崇孝景皇帝Dàizōng代宗
Chenghua Emperor Zhū Jiànshēn朱見深1464–1487Chénghuà成化1464–1487Emperor Jitian Ningdao Chengming Renjing Chongwen Suwu Hongde Shengxiao Chun繼天凝道誠明仁敬崇文肅武宏德聖孝純皇帝Xiànzōng憲宗
Hongzhi Emperor Zhū Yòutáng朱祐樘1487–1505Hóngzhì弘治1487–1505Emperor Jiantian Mingdao Chengchun Zhongzheng Shengwen Shenwu Zhiren Dade Jing建天明道誠純中正聖文神武至仁大德敬皇帝Xiàozōng孝宗
Zhengde Emperor Zhū Hòuzhào朱厚照1505–1521Zhèngdé正德1505–1521Emperor Chengtian Dadao Yingsu Ruizhe Zhaode Xiangong Hongwen Sixiao Yi承天達道英肅睿哲昭德顯功弘文思孝毅皇帝Wǔzōng武宗
Jiajing Emperor Zhū Hòucōng朱厚熜1521–1566Jiājìng嘉靖1521–1566Emperor Qintian Lüdao Yingyi Shensheng Xuanwen Guangwu Hongren Daxiao Su欽天履道英毅神聖宣文廣武洪仁大孝肅皇帝Shìzōng世宗
Longqing Emperor Zhū Zǎihòu朱載垕1566–1572Lóngqìng隆慶1566–1572Emperor Qitian Longdao Yuanyi Kuanren Xianwen Guangwu Chunde Hongxiao Zhuang契天隆道淵懿寬仁顯文光武純德弘孝莊皇帝Mùzōng穆宗
Wanli Emperor Zhū Yìjūn朱翊鈞1572–1620Wànlì萬曆1572–1620Emperor Fantian Hedao Zhesu Dunjian Guangwen Zhangwu Anren Zhixiao Xian範天合道哲肅敦簡光文章武安仁止孝顯皇帝Shénzōng神宗
Taichang Emperor Zhū Chángluò朱常洛1620Tàichāng泰昌1620Emperor Chongtian Qidao Yingrui Gongchun Xianwen Jingwu Yuanren Yixiao Zhen崇天契道英睿恭純憲文景武淵仁懿孝貞皇帝Guāngzōng光宗
Tianqi Emperor Zhū Yóujiào朱由校1620–1627Tiānqǐ天啓1620–1627Emperor Datian Chandao Dunxiao Duyou Zhangwen Xiangwu Jingmu Zhuangqin Zhe達天闡道敦孝篤友章文襄武靖穆莊勤悊皇帝Xīzōng熹宗
Chongzhen Emperor Zhū Yóujiǎn朱由檢1627–1644Chóngzhēn崇禎1627–1644Emperor Shaotian Yidao Gangming Kejian Kuiwen Fenwu Dunren Maoxiao Lie紹天繹道剛明恪儉揆文奮武敦仁懋孝烈皇帝Sīzōng or Yìzōng思宗 / 毅宗
1 — As posthumous and temple names were often shared by emperors of different dynasties, they are usually preceded by the dynastic name, in this case, Ming, to avoid confusion. For example, the Hongwu emperor is frequently referred to as Ming Taizu.

2 — The Yongle emperor assumed the throne of his nephew the Jianwen emperor, who was officially said to have died in a palace fire but who was suspected of escaping to live as a recluse. The Yongle emperor wiped out the record of his nephew's reign and no temple name was given him. In 1644 the Prince of Fu (福王), the new self-proclaimed emperor of the Southern Ming, conferred on Emperor Jianwen the temple name Huizong.

3 — After listening to the poor advice of his eunuch advisers, the Zhengtong Emperor personally led a campaign in 1449 against the Mongols and was captured. His brother the Jingtai Emperor assumed the throne and as a hostage no longer of any value, the Mongols released the Zhengtong Emperor who returned to live in seclusion. However the Zhengtong Emperor was able to regain his position, choosing the reign name Tianshun.

Shun dynasty (順朝) (1644–1645 CE)

The Shun dynasty was an imperial dynasty created in the brief lapse from Ming to Qing rule in China. It was a state set up by the peasants' rebellion, in which they defeated the Ming forces, but former Ming general Wu Sangui led the Qing forces into Beijing and the Qing forces defeated the rebels.

Name most commonly known byPersonal nameReign yearsEra names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsAlternative title
Li Zicheng Li Zicheng李自成1644–1645Yongchang永昌1644–1645Chuǎng Wáng (The Dashing King)闖王

Southern Ming (南明) (1644–1662 CE)

The Southern Ming refers to the Ming loyalist regimes that existed in Southern China from 1644 to 1662. The regime was established by the princes of the already destroyed Ming dynasty. All of these monarchs had their regimes crushed by the Qing forces very quickly. Koxinga (Zheng Chenggong) used the Ming dynasty's name and gathered forces before fleeing to Taiwan.

Name by which most commonly knownPersonal nameReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) and their corresponding range of yearsPosthumous name (Shi Hao 諡號)Temple name (Miao Hao 廟號)
Zhu Yousong Zhū Yóusōng朱由崧1644–1645Hóngguāng弘光1644–1645Emperor Fengtian Zundao Kuanhe Jingmu Xiuwen Buwu Wengong Renxiao Jian奉天遵道寬和靜穆修文布武溫恭仁孝簡皇帝Ānzōng安宗
Zhu Yujian Zhū Yùjiàn朱聿鍵1645–1646Lóngwǔ隆武1645–1646Emperor Peitian Zhidao Hongyi Sumu Siwen Liewu Minren Guangxiao Xiang配天至道弘毅肅穆思文烈武敏仁廣孝襄皇帝Shàozōng紹宗
Zhu Changfang Zhū Chángfāng朱常淓1645None given, but sometimes referred to as the "Regency of the Prince of Lu/Luh"
(Lù Wáng Lín Guó)
潞王臨國1646Prince Min閔王
Zhu Yihai Zhū Yǐhǎi朱以海1645–1653
Zhu Yuyue Zhū Yùyuè朱聿𨮁1646Shàowǔ紹武1646
Zhu Youlang Zhū Yóuláng朱由榔1646–1662Yǒnglì永曆1646–1662Emperor Yingtian Tuidao Minyi Gongjian Jingwen Weiwu Liren Kexiao Kuang應天推道敏毅恭儉經文緯武禮仁克孝匡皇帝Zhāozōng昭宗

*The two characters are homonyms, both pronounced Lu; to distinguish them, one is usually kept as Lu and the other spelled differently. Luh is from Cambridge History of China; Lou is from A.C. Moule's Rulers of China (1957). When one irregular spelling is used, the other is kept as regular (Lu). The two systems are distinct and not used simultaneously.

Qing dynasty (清朝) (1636–1912 CE)

Name by which most commonly knownPersonal name1ReignEra names (Nian Hao 年號) (and their corresponding range of years)Posthumous name2 (Shi Hao 諡號)Temple name2 (Miao Hao 廟號)
Later Jin (後金) (1616–1636 CE)
Nurhaci Nurhaci努爾哈赤1616–16263Tiānmìng天命Abkai fulingga1616–1626Emperor Chengtian Guangyun Shengde Shengong Zhaoji Liji Renxiao Ruiwu Duanyi Qin'an Hongwen Dingye Gao承天廣運聖德神功肇紀立極仁孝睿武端毅欽安弘文定業高皇帝Tàizǔ太祖
Huang Taiji Hong Taiji4皇太極1626–1636Tiāncōng天聰Abkai sure1627–1636Emperor Yingtian Xingguo Hongde Zhangwu Kuanwen Rensheng Ruixiao Jingmin Zhaoding Longdao Xiangong Wen應天興國弘德彰武寬溫仁聖睿孝敬敏昭定隆道顯功文皇帝Tàizōng太宗
Qing dynasty (清朝) (1636–1912 CE)
Huang Taiji
(same person as the last Later Jin khan)
Hong Taiji4皇太極1636–1643Chóngdé崇德Wesihun erdemungge1636–1643Emperor Yingtian Xingguo Hongde Zhangwu Kuanwen Rensheng Ruixiao Jingmin Zhaoding Longdao Xiangong Wen應天興國弘德彰武寬溫仁聖睿孝敬敏昭定隆道顯功文皇帝Tàizōng太宗
Shunzhi Emperor Fúlín福臨1643–16615Shùnzhì順治Ijishūn dasan1643–1661Emperor Titian Longyun Dingtong Jianji Yingrui Qinwen Xianwu Dade Honggong Zhiren Chunxiao Zhang體天隆運定統建極英睿欽文顯武大德弘功至仁純孝章皇帝Shìzǔ世祖
Kangxi Emperor Xuányè玄燁1661–1722Kāngxī康熙Elhe taifin1661–1722Emperor Hetian Hongyun Wenwu Ruizhe Gongjian Kuanyu Xiaojing Chengxin Zhonghe Gongde Dacheng Ren合天弘運文武睿哲恭儉寬裕孝敬誠信中和功德大成仁皇帝Shèngzǔ聖祖
Yongzheng Emperor Yìnzhēn胤禛1722–1735Yōngzhèng雍正Hūwaliyasun tob1722–1735Emperor Jingtian Changyun Jianzhong Biaozheng Wenwu Yingming Kuanren Xinyi Ruisheng Daxiao Zhicheng Xian敬天昌運建中表正文武英明寬仁信毅睿聖大孝至誠憲皇帝Shìzōng世宗
Qianlong Emperor Hónglì弘曆1735–17966Qiánlóng乾隆Abkai wehiyehe1735–1796Emperor Fatian Longyun Zhicheng Xianjue Tiyuan Liji Fuwen Fenwu Qinming Xiaoci Shensheng Chun法天隆運至誠先覺體元立極敷文奮武欽明孝慈神聖純皇帝Gāozōng高宗
Jiaqing Emperor Yóngyǎn顒琰1796–1820Jiāqìng嘉慶Saicungga fengšen1796–1820Emperor Shoutian Xingyun Fuhua Suiyou Chongwen Jingwu Guangyu Xiaogong Qinjian Duanmin Yingzhe Rui受天興運敷化綏猷崇文經武光裕孝恭勤儉端敏英哲睿皇帝Rénzōng仁宗
Daoguang Emperor Mínníng旻寧1820–1850Dàoguāng道光Doro eldengge1820–1850Emperor Xiaotian Fuyun Lizhong Tizheng Zhiwen Shengwu Zhiyong Renci Jianqin Xiaomin Kuanding Cheng效天符運立中體正至文聖武智勇仁慈儉勤孝敏寬定成皇帝Xuānzōng宣宗
Xianfeng Emperor Yìzhǔ奕詝1850–1861Xiánfēng咸豐Gubci elgiyengg1850–1861Emperor Xietian Yiyun Zhizhong Chuimo Maode Zhenwu Shengxiao Yuangong Duanren Kuanmin Zhuangjian Xian協天翊運執中垂謨懋德振武聖孝淵恭端仁寬敏莊儉顯皇帝Wénzōng文宗
Tongzhi Emperor Zǎichún載淳1861–18757Tóngzhì同治Yooningga dasan1861–1875Emperor Jitian Kaiyun Shouzhong Juzheng Baoda Dinggong Shengzhi Chengxiao Xinmin Gongkuan Mingsu Yi繼天開運受中居正保大定功聖智誠孝信敏恭寬明肅毅皇帝Mùzōng穆宗
Guangxu Emperor Zǎitián載湉1875–19087Guāngxù光緒Badarangga doro1875–1908Emperor Tongtian Chongyun Dahong Zhizheng Jingwen Weiwu Renxiao Ruizhi Duanjian Kuanqin Jing同天崇運大中至正經文緯武仁孝睿智端儉寬勤景皇帝Dézōng德宗
Xuantong Emperor Pǔyí
(also known asHenry)
溥儀1908–191210Xuāntǒng宣統Gehungge yoso1908–1912Emperor Peitian Tongyun Fagu Shaotong Cuiwen Jingfu Kuanrui Zhengmu Tiren Lixiao Min8, 9配天同運法古紹統粹文敬孚寬睿正穆體仁立孝愍皇帝8, 9Gōngzōng9恭宗9

1 — The Qing imperial family name was Aisin Gioro (愛新覺羅 aixin jueluo), but it was not common Manchu practice to include the family or clan name in an individual's personal name.

2 — As posthumous and temple names were often shared by emperors of different dynasties, they are usually preceded by the dynastic name, in this case, Qing, to avoid confusion. For example, the Qianlong emperor is frequently referred to as Qing Gaozong.

3 — Nurhaci founded the Jin (金) or Later Jin (後金) dynasty in 1616, but it was his son Hong Taiji who changed the name of the dynasty to Qing in 1636. Nurhaci adopted the reign name Tianming but his Qing titles were all conferred posthumously.

4 — Hong Taiji is referred to erroneously in some historical literature as Abahai (阿巴海).

5 — The Shunzhi emperor was the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper following the occupation of Beijing in 1644.

6 — The Qianlong emperor officially retired in 1796, taking the title Emperor Emeritus (太上皇帝). This was an act of filial piety to ensure that he would not reign longer than his illustrious grandfather, the Kangxi emperor. However, he remained the ultimate authority until his death in 1799, at which point his son, the Jiaqing emperor, began to exercise the power that had been his in name only from 1796.

7 — The Empress Dowager Cixi, concubine of the Xianfeng emperor, mother of the Tongzhi emperor, and adoptive mother of the Guangxu emperor, used her considerable skills of political manipulation to act as the power behind the throne or on the throne from 1861 until her death in 1908. She acted as a regent during the minorities of the two young emperors and confined the Guangxu emperor in the Summer Palace after he attempted to introduce reforms in 1898. The death of the Guangxu emperor was announced the day before her own.

8 — Xundi ("The Abdicated Emperor") is the common name by which mainland China and Taiwan's history books refer to Puyi.

9 — In 2004 the descendants of the Qing imperial family have conferred a posthumous name and temple name upon the late Puyi. Posthumous name: Emperor Min (愍帝). Temple name: Gongzong (恭宗). Both titles are not commonly used in academia to refer to this sovereign.

10 — The Xinhai Revolution started on October 10, 1911. The last emperor, Puyi, abdicated officially on February 12, 1912. The Qing dynasty was overthrown with his abdication on that day. However, that same day the Chinese Republic granted the "Articles of Favourable Treatment of the Emperor of the Great Qing after his Abdication" (清帝退位優待條件) which allowed Puyi to retain his imperial title and stated that he should be treated by the government of the Republic of China with the protocol attached to a foreign monarch. These articles were revised on November 5, 1924, after the coup by General Feng Yuxiang: the revised articles stated that Puyi was losing his imperial title and henceforth becoming a regular citizen of the Republic. Puyi was expelled from the Forbidden City that same day. Thus, Puyi was ruling emperor until February 12, 1912 (and also briefly between July 1 and July 12, 1917 in the Manchu Restoration), and non-ruling emperor between February 12, 1912 and November 5, 1924. Puyi also later became the puppet leader of Japanese-controlled Manchukuo under the reign name Datong (大同) (1932–1934), then the puppet emperor of Manchukuo under the reign name Kangde (康德) (1934–1945).

Taiping Heavenly Kingdom (太平天國) (1851–1864 CE)

Name by which most commonly knownPersonal nameReignEra name (Nian Hao 年號)
Hong Xiuquan Hong Xiuquan洪秀全11 January 1851 – 1 June 1864Taiping Tianguo太平天國
Hong Tianguifu Hong Tianguifu洪天貴福6 June 1864 – 18 November 1864

Empire of China (中華帝國) (1915–1916 CE)

A short-lived attempt by statesman and general Yuan Shikai who attempted to establish himself as emperor in 1915, but his rule was universally accepted as inauthentic. After 83 days, his reign ended.

Name by which most commonly knownPersonal nameReignEra name (Nian Hao 年號)
Yuan Shikai Yuan Shikai袁世凱22 December 1915 – 22 March 1916Hóngxiàn洪憲

See also

Related Research Articles

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The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty, during the king Wu Ding's reign, who was mentioned as the twenty-first Shang king by the same. Ancient historical texts such as the Book of Documents, the Records of the Grand Historian and the Bamboo Annals mention and describe a Xia dynasty before the Shang, but no writing is known from the period, and Shang writings do not indicate the existence of the Xia. The Shang ruled in the Yellow River valley, which is commonly held to be the cradle of Chinese civilization. However, Neolithic civilizations originated at various cultural centers along both the Yellow River and Yangtze River. These Yellow River and Yangtze civilizations arose millennia before the Shang. With thousands of years of continuous history, China is one of the world's oldest civilizations and is regarded as one of the cradles of civilization.

Chinese sovereign

The Chinese sovereign is the ruler of a particular period in ancient China, and later imperial China. Several titles and naming schemes have been used throughout history.

Emperor of China Sovereign of Imperial China

Emperor of China, or Huáng dì was the monarch of China during the Imperial Period of Chinese history. In traditional Chinese political theory, the emperor was considered the Son of Heaven and the autocrat of All under Heaven. Under the Han dynasty, Confucianism replaced Legalism as the official political theory and succession theoretically followed agnatic primogeniture. The succession of emperors in a family line was known as a dynasty.

A posthumous name is an honorary name given to royalty, nobles, and sometimes others, in East Asia after the person's death, and is used almost exclusively instead of one's personal name or other official titles which had been used during the person's life. The posthumous name is commonly used when naming royalty of China, Korea, Vietnam, Japan, and Thailand.

Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors Mythic rulers and culture heroes of ancient China

The Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors were two groups of mythological rulers or deities in ancient northern China. The Three Sovereigns lived before The Five Emperors, who have been assigned dates in a period from circa 2852 BCE to 2070 BCE. Today they may be considered culture heroes.

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The Mandate of Heaven is a Chinese political and religious teaching that was used in ancient and imperial China to justify the rule of the King or Emperor of China. According to this belief, Heaven embodies the natural order and the will of the just ruler of China, the "Son of Heaven" of the "Celestial Empire". If a ruler was overthrown, this was interpreted as an indication that the ruler was unworthy, and had lost the mandate. It was also a common belief that natural disasters such as famine and flood were divine retributions bearing signs of Heaven's displeasure with the ruler, so there would often be revolts following major disasters as the people saw these calamities as signs that the Mandate of Heaven had been withdrawn.

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  2. Liu Heng, also known as Emperor Wen, Han dynasty emperor
  3. Shi Koumi, Shi Hu's father, posthumously honored as Taizong of Later Zhao
  4. Li Xiong, also known as Emperor Wu, emperor of Cheng Han
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  6. Sima Yu, also known as Emperor Jianwen, emperor of the Jin dynasty (265–420)
  7. Fu Deng, also known as Emperor Gao, Former Qin emperor
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  12. Yelü Deguang, emperor of Khitan
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  15. Zhao Guangyi, Song dynasty emperor
  16. Li Deming, ruler of Western Xia
  17. Wanyan Sheng, emperor of the Jin dynasty (1115–1234)
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Shizong may refer to:

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Chinese era names were titles used by various Chinese dynasties and regimes in Imperial China for the purpose of year identification and numbering. The first monarch to adopt era names was the Emperor Wu of Han in 140 BCE, and this system remained the official method of year identification and numbering until the establishment of the Republic of China in 1912 CE. Other polities in the Sinosphere—Korea, Vietnam and Japan—also adopted the concept of era name as a result of Chinese cultural influence.

Nine Tripod Cauldrons

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References

  1. Belyaev, V.A.; Nastich, V.N.; Sidorovich, S.V. (2012). "The coinage of Qara Khitay: a new evidence (on the reign title of the Western Liao Emperor Yelü Yilie)". Proceedings of the 3rd Simone Assemani Symposium, September 23–24, 2011, Rome.
  2. http://blog.sina.com.cn/s/blog_ac349fd50102xfdr.html