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  1. "Middle Ranking Official of the Tang dynasty (唐代中層文官)" (PDF). Retrieved November 26, 2010.
  2. Xiong 2008, p. 439.


  • Xiong, Victor (2008), Historical Dictionary of Medieval China, United States of America: Scarecrow Press, Inc., ISBN   978-0810860537
Ten Jiedushi of Tang.png
Map of the 10 major jiedushi of the Tang dynasty and their military strengths during Emperor Xuanzong's reign (as of 745 AD)