|Ministry of Justice|
|Literal meaning||Capital officials|
|Literal meaning||Punishment(s) Department|
The Ministry or Board of Justice was one of the Six Ministries under the Department of State Affairs in imperial China.
The Three Departments and Six Ministries system was the main central government structure in imperial China from the Sui dynasty (581–618) to the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368). It was also used by Balhae (698–926) and Goryeo (918–1392) in Manchuria and Korea, and very likely the Lý dynasty (1009–1225) and the Trần dynasty (1225–1400) in Vietnam as well.
The Department of State Affairs or Shangshu Sheng (尚書省) was one department in the Three Departments and Six Ministries government structure officially established since the Sui dynasty in the history of China. As one of the three departments, it was the highest executive institution of the imperial government since the Sui dynasty. Developing from the Shangshu Tai (尚書臺) in the Eastern Han dynasty, the name Sheng (省) was inherited even though the institution was now removed from the Imperial Court. The head of the Department is Shangshu Ling (尚書令). The Director was known as chancellor but was often absent. The Right and Left Deputy Directors (尚書左僕射、尚書右僕射) actually shouldered the duties. Beneath the Deputy Directors were the Right and Left Assistant Clerks (尚書左丞、尚書右丞) who had the Right and Left Excellency (左、右司郎中) to assist with their daily work and were in charge of the Six Ministries. The general office of the Department of State Affairs was called the Dou Sheng (都省).
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty, during the king Wu Ding's reign, who was mentioned as the twenty-first Shang king by the same. Ancient historical texts such as the Records of the Grand Historian and the Bamboo Annals describe a Xia dynasty before the Shang, but no writing is known from the period, and Shang writings do not indicate the existence of the Xia. The Shang ruled in the Yellow River valley, which is commonly held to be the cradle of Chinese civilization. However, Neolithic civilizations originated at various cultural centers along both the Yellow River and Yangtze River. These Yellow River and Yangtze civilizations arose millennia before the Shang. With thousands of years of continuous history, China is one of the world's oldest civilizations, and is regarded as one of the cradles of civilization.
Under the Ming, the Ministry of Justice had charge of most judicial and penal processes, but had no authority over the Censorate or the Grand Court of Revision.
The Censorate was a high-level supervisory agency in ancient China, first established during the Qin dynasty.
Chinese law is one of the oldest legal traditions in the world. The core of modern Chinese law is based on Germanic-style civil law, socialist law, and traditional Chinese approaches.
Capital punishment is a legal penalty in the mainland of the People's Republic of China. It is mostly enforced for murder and drug trafficking, and executions are carried out by lethal injection or gun shot. Although the Chinese government is often lambasted by European governments on this issue, capital punishment as a legal penalty receives overwhelming public support in Mainland China, and remains popular in many other countries in Asia, including Japan with 80% of respondents supporting the death penalty.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the Great Ming Empire – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming dynasty was the last imperial dynasty in China ruled by ethnic Han Chinese. Although the primary capital of Beijing fell in 1644 to a rebellion led by Li Zicheng, regimes loyal to the Ming throne – collectively called the Southern Ming – survived until 1683.
The Xuande Emperor, personal name Zhu Zhanji (朱瞻基), was the fifth emperor of the Ming dynasty, ruling from 1425 to 1435. His era name "Xuande" means "Proclamation of Virtue".
Tusi often translated "headmen" or "chieftains", were hereditary tribal leaders recognized as imperial officials by the Yuan, Ming, and Qing-era Chinese governments and by the Lê and Nguyễn dynasties of Vietnam. They ruled certain ethnic minorities in southwest China and Indochinese peninsula, nominally on behalf of the central government. This arrangement is generally known as the Tusi System or Native Chieftain System. It should not to be confused with tributary system or Jimi system.
Zhongshu Sheng, commonly translated as the Secretariat, Central Secretariat or Imperial Secretariat, was one department in the Three Departments and Six Ministries government structure officially established beginning in the Sui dynasty in the history of China. As one of the three departments, it was the main policy-formulating agency that was responsible for proposing and drafting all imperial decrees. The Song dynasty modified that tripartite division of executive agencies in the central government. Under the Song, as also under the Liao and Jin dynasties, those organs exercised much of the executive authority for the emperor.
Charles O. Hucker, was a professor of Chinese language and history at the University of Michigan. He was regarded as one of the foremost historians of Imperial China and a leading figure in the promotion of academic programs in Asian Studies during the 1950s and 1960s.
The Nine Ministers was the collective name for nine high officials in the imperial government of the Han dynasty, who each headed a specialised ministry and were subordinates to the Three Councillors of State.
The Grand Secretariat was nominally a coordinating agency but de facto the highest institution in the imperial government of the Chinese Ming dynasty. It first took shape after the Hongwu Emperor abolished the office of Chancellor in 1380 and gradually evolved into an effective coordinating organ superimposed on the Six Ministries. There were altogether six Grand Secretaries, though the posts were not always filled. The most senior one was popularly called Senior Grand Secretary. The Grand Secretaries were nominally mid-level officials, ranked much lower than the Ministers, heads of the Ministries. However, since they screened documents submitted to the emperor from all governmental agencies, and had the power of drafting suggested rescripts for the emperor, generally known as piàonǐ (票擬) or tiáozhǐ (條旨), some senior Grand Secretaries were able to dominate the whole government, acting as de facto Chancellor. The word nèigé itself also became to refer modern cabinet in Chinese.
The Shenjiying was one of three elite military divisions stationed around Beijing during the Ming dynasty. Its name has been variously rendered as Firearms Division, Artillery Camp, Shen-chi Camp,Firearm Brigade, and Divine Engine Division.
The Ministry of Personnel was one of the Six Ministries under the Department of State Affairs in imperial China.
The Ministry or Board of Rites was one of the Six Ministries of government in late imperial China. It existed from the Tang until the 1911 Xinhai Revolution. Along with religious rituals and court ceremonial, the Ministry of Rites also oversaw the imperial examination and China's foreign relations.
The Imperial Clan Court or Court of the Imperial Clan was an institution responsible for all matters pertaining to the imperial family under the Ming and Qing dynasties of imperial China.
Chen Mingxia, from Liyang in Jiangsu, was a Chinese official during the Shunzhi period (1644–1661) of the Qing dynasty (1644–1912). Before he surrendered to the Qing in early 1645, he had successively served the Ming dynasty (1368–1644) and the short-lived Shun regime of rebel leader Li Zicheng (1602–1645). After serving in the highest ranks of the Qing bureaucracy, he was eventually executed in the midst of factional struggles.
A xunfu was an important imperial Chinese provincial office under both the Ming and Qing dynasties. However, the purview of the office under the two dynasties differed markedly. Under the Ming, the post originated around 1430 as a kind of inspector-general and ad hoc provincial-level administrator; such a xunfu is usually translated as a grand coordinator. However, after the Manchu conquest of China in the mid-17th century, xunfu became the title of a regular provincial governor overseeing civil administration.
The Jiajing wokou raids caused extensive damage to the coast of China in the 16th century, during the reign of the Jiajing Emperor in the Ming dynasty. The term "wokou" originally referred to Japanese pirates who crossed the sea and raided Korea and China; however, by the mid-Ming, the wokou consisted of multinational crewmen that included the Japanese and the Portuguese, but a great majority of them were Chinese instead. Mid-Ming wokou activity began to pose a serious problem in the 1540s, reached its peak in 1555, and subsided by 1567, with the extent of the destruction spreading across the coastal regions of Jiangnan, Zhejiang, Fujian, and Guangdong.
The Peking Field Force was a modern-armed military unit that defended the Chinese imperial capital Beijing in the last decades of the Qing dynasty (1644–1912).
The Ministry or Board of Revenue was one of the Six Ministries under the Department of State Affairs in imperial China.
The Ministry of Works or of Public Works was one of the Six Ministries under the Department of State Affairs in imperial China.
The Ministry of War was one of the Six Ministries under the Department of State Affairs in imperial China.
In computing, a Digital Object Identifier or DOI is a persistent identifier or handle used to identify objects uniquely, standardized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). An implementation of the Handle System, DOIs are in wide use mainly to identify academic, professional, and government information, such as journal articles, research reports and data sets, and official publications though they also have been used to identify other types of information resources, such as commercial videos.
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