There are several systems for transliteration of the Manchu alphabet which is used for the Manchu and Xibe languages. These include the Möllendorff transliteration system invented by the German linguist Paul Georg von Möllendorff, BabelPad transliteration (used for ease of input, not for formal transcription), the transliteration of the A Comprehensive Manchu-Chinese Dictionary (CMCD). There is also a system of Cyrillization by Ivan Zakharov for transcribing Manchu into Cyrillic.
|Möllendorff||BabelPad||CMCD||Manchu and Unicode||Xibe and Unicode|
|a||a||a||ᠠ||ᠠ 1820||ᠠ||ᠠ 1820|
|e||e||e||ᡝ||ᡝ 185D||ᡝ||ᡝ 185D|
|i||i||i||ᡳ||ᡳ 1873||ᡞ||ᡞ 185E|
|y||y||y||ᡟ||ᡟ 185F||ᡟ||ᡟ 185F|
|o||o||o||ᠣ||ᠣ 1823||ᠣ||ᠣ 1823|
|u||u||u||ᡠ||ᡠ 1860||ᡠ||ᡠ 1860|
|ū||uu||uu||ᡡ||ᡡ 1861||ᡡ||ᡡ 1861|
|n||n||n||ᠨ||ᠨ 1828||ᠨ||ᠨ 1828|
|ng||ng||ng||ᠩ||ᠩ 1829||ᡢ||ᡢ 1862|
|k||k||k||ᡴ||ᡴ 1874||ᡣ||ᡣ 1863|
|g||g||g||ᡤ||ᡤ 1864||ᡤ||ᡤ 1864|
|h||h||h||ᡥ||ᡥ 1865||ᡥ||ᡥ 1865|
|b||b||b||ᠪ||ᠪ 182A||ᠪ||ᠪ 182A|
|p||p||p||ᡦ||ᡦ 1866||ᡦ||ᡦ 1866|
|s||s||s||ᠰ||ᠰ 1830||ᠰ||ᠰ 1830|
|š||x||sh||ᡧ||ᡧ 1867||ᡧ||ᡧ 1867|
|t||t||t||ᡨ||ᡨ 1868||ᡨ||ᡨ 1868|
|d||d||d||ᡩ||ᡩ 1869||ᡩ||ᡩ 1869|
|l||l||l||ᠯ||ᠯ 182F||ᠯ||ᠯ 182F|
|m||m||m||ᠮ||ᠮ 182E||ᠮ||ᠮ 182E|
|c||c||ch||ᠴ||ᠴ 1834||ᠴ||ᠴ 1834|
|j||j||zh||ᠵ||ᠵ 1835||ᡪ||ᡪ 186A|
|y||y||y||ᠶ||ᠶ 1836||ᠶ||ᠶ 1836|
|r||r||r||ᡵ||ᡵ 1875||ᠷ||ᠷ 1837|
|f||f||f||ᡶ||ᡶ 1876||ᡫ||ᡫ 186B|
|w||w||w||ᠸ||ᠸ 1838||ᠸ||ᠸ 1838|
|k῾||kh||kk||ᠺ||ᠺ 183A||ᠺ||ᠺ 183A|
|g῾||gh||gg||ᡬ||ᡬ 186C||ᡬ||ᡬ 186C|
|h῾||hh||hh||ᡭ||ᡭ 186D||ᡭ||ᡭ 186D|
|ts῾||ts||c||ᡮ||ᡮ 186E||ᡮ||ᡮ 186E|
|ts||tsy||cy||ᡮᡟ||ᡮᡟ 186E 185F||ᡮᡟ||ᡮᡟ 186E 185F|
|dz||dz||z||ᡯ||ᡯ 186F||ᡯ||ᡯ 186F|
|ž||z||rr||ᡰ||ᡰ 1870||ᡰ||ᡰ 1870|
|sy||sy||sy||ᠰᡟ||ᠰᡟ 1830 185F||ᠰᡟ||ᠰᡟ 1830 185F|
|c῾||ch||ch||ᡱ||ᡱ 1871||ᡱ||ᡱ 1871|
|c῾y||chi||chy||ᡱᡳ||ᡱᡳ 1871 1873||ᡱᡞ||ᡱᡞ 1871 185E|
|j||zh||zh||ᡷ||ᡷ 1877||ᡲ||ᡲ 1872|
|jy||zhi||zhy||ᡷᡳ||ᡷᡳ 1877 1873||ᡲᡞ||ᡲᡞ 1872 185E|
In the transliteration of CMCD, separate s and h are written as s'h to avoid the confusion with sh.
The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled China proper from 1644 to 1912. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China. The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted for almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for modern China. It was the fifth largest empire in world history in terms of territorial size.
Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters in predictable ways, such as Greek ⟨α⟩ → ⟨a⟩, Cyrillic ⟨д⟩ → ⟨d⟩, Greek ⟨χ⟩ → the digraph ⟨ch⟩, Armenian ⟨ն⟩ → ⟨n⟩ or Latin ⟨æ⟩ → ⟨ae⟩.
The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name. They are sometimes called "red-tasseled Manchus", a reference to the ornamentation on traditional Manchu hats. The Later Jin (1616–1636), and Qing dynasty (1636–1912) were established and ruled by Manchus, who are descended from the Jurchen people who earlier established the Jin dynasty (1115–1234) in China.
Manchu is a critically endangered Tungusic language spoken in Manchuria. As the traditional native language of the Manchus, it was one of the official languages of the Qing dynasty (1636–1911) of China and in Inner Asia, though today the vast majority of Manchus now speak only Mandarin Chinese. According to data from UNESCO, there are 19 native speakers of Manchu out of a total of nearly 10 million ethnic Manchus. Now, several thousand can speak Manchu as a second language through governmental primary education or free classes for adults in classrooms or online.
The Sibe or Xibo, are an East Asian ethnic group living mostly in Xinjiang, Jilin and Shenyang in Liaoning. The Sibe form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by China.
There are several hundred languages in China. The predominant language is Standard Chinese, which is based on central Mandarin, but there are hundreds of related Chinese languages, collectively known as Hanyu, that are spoken by 92% of the population. The Chinese languages are typically divided into seven major language groups, and their study is a distinct academic discipline. They differ as much from each other morphologically and phonetically as do English, German and Danish. There are in addition approximately 300 minority languages spoken by the remaining 8% of the population of China. The ones with greatest state support are Mongolian, Tibetan, Uyghur and Zhuang.
The Beijing dialect, also known as Pekingese, is the prestige dialect of Mandarin spoken in the urban area of Beijing, China. It is the phonological basis of Standard Chinese, the official language in the People's Republic of China and Republic of China and one of the official languages in Singapore. Despite the similarity to Standard Chinese, it is characterized by some "iconic" differences, including the addition of a final rhotic -r / 儿 to some words. Between the Yuan and Qing, the Ming dynasty also introduced southern dialectal influences into the dialect.
The Manchu alphabet is the alphabet used to write the now nearly-extinct Manchu language. A similar script is used today by the Xibe people, who speak a language considered either as a dialect of Manchu or a closely related, mutually intelligible language. It is written vertically from top to bottom, with columns proceeding from left to right.
Qapqal Xibe Autonomous County in Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture in Northern Xinjiang, is the only Xibe autonomous county of the People's Republic of China, bordering Kazakhstan's Almaty Region to the west. It has an area of 4,430 square kilometers and a population 160,000 (2000). Qapqal means "the granary" in the Xibe language.
The Lifan Yuan was an agency in the government of the Qing dynasty which supervised the Qing Empire's frontier Inner Asia regions such as its Mongolian dependencies and oversaw the appointments of Ambans in Tibet.
The Sibe language is a Tungusic language spoken by members of the Sibe minority of Xinjiang, in Northwest China.
Paul Georg von Möllendorff was a German linguist and diplomat. Möllendorff is mostly known for his service as an adviser to the Korean king Gojong in the late nineteenth century and for his contributions to Sinology. Möllendorff is also known for having created a system for romanizing the Manchu language.
Yuntang, born Yintang, was a Manchu prince of the Qing dynasty. He was the ninth son of the Kangxi Emperor and an ally of his eighth brother Yunsi, who was the main rival to their fourth brother Yinzhen in the power struggle over the succession. In 1722, Yinzhen succeeded their father and became historically known as the Yongzheng Emperor, after which he started purging his former rivals. In 1725, the Yongzheng Emperor stripped Yuntang off his beizi title, banished him from the Aisin Gioro clan, and imprisoned him in Baoding. Yuntang died under mysterious circumstances later. In 1778, the Qianlong Emperor, who succeeded the Yongzheng Emperor, posthumously rehabilitated Yuntang and restored him to the Aisin Gioro clan.
The classical or traditional Mongolian script, also known as the Hudum Mongol bichig, was the first writing system created specifically for the Mongolian language, and was the most widespread until the introduction of Cyrillic in 1946. It is traditionally written in vertical lines
The History of Yuan, also known as the Yuanshi, is one of the official Chinese historical works known as the Twenty-Four Histories of China. Commissioned by the court of the Ming dynasty, in accordance to political tradition, the text was composed in 1370 by the official Bureau of History of the Ming dynasty, under direction of Song Lian (1310–1381).
The Qapqal News is the world's only newspaper in the Xibe language, a Tungusic language spoken in Northwest China. It is one of roughly fifty minority-language newspapers in the Xinjiang autonomous region of China.
Menksoft is an IT company in Inner Mongolia, who developed Menksoft Mongolian IME, the most widely used Mongolian language input method editor (IME) in Inner Mongolia.
Sibo may refer to:
Irgen Gioro is a Manchu clan and family name, which was officially categorized as a "notable clan", and member of the eight great houses of the Manchu nobility in Manchu Empire. Sibe and Nanai people also has Irgen Gioro as their family name.
Manchu became a literary language after the creation of the Manchu script in 1599. Romance of the Three Kingdoms was translated by Dahai. Dahai translated Wanbao quanshu 萬寶全書.