|Tang Aidi |
唐 哀 帝
|Emperor of Tang Dynasty|
|Reign||September 26, 904 – May 12, 907|
|Born||October 27, 892|
|Died||March 26, 908|
|Literal meaning||"Pitious Emperor of the Tang"|
|Literal meaning||(personal name)|
Emperor Ai of Tang (27 October 892 –26 March 908), also known as Emperor Zhaoxuan (昭宣帝), born Li Zuo, later known as Li Chu (Chinese: 李 柷 ; pinyin:Lǐ Chù ), was the last emperor of the Tang dynasty of China. He reigned—as but a puppet ruler—from 904 to 907. Emperor Ai was the son of Emperor Zhaozong.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum between 690 and 705. It was preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period in Chinese history. Historians generally regard the Tang as a high point in Chinese civilization, and a golden age of cosmopolitan culture. Tang territory, acquired through the military campaigns of its early rulers, rivaled that of the Han dynasty. The Tang capital at Chang'an was the most populous city in the world in its day.
China, officially the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion in 2017. Covering approximately 9,600,000 square kilometers (3,700,000 sq mi), it is the third or fourth largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, and the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau.
A puppet ruler is a person who has a title indicating possession of political power, but who, in reality, is controlled by outside individuals or forces. Such outside power can be exercised by a foreign government, in which case the puppet ruler's domain is called a puppet state. But the puppet ruler may also be controlled by internal forces, such as non-elected officials.
Emperor Ai ascended the throne at the age of 11 after his father, the Emperor Zhaozong, was assassinated on the orders of the paramount warlord Zhu Quanzhong in 904, and while Emperor Ai reigned, the Tang court, then at Luoyang, was under the control of officials Zhu put in charge. In 905, under the instigation of his associates Liu Can and Li Zhen, Zhu had Emperor Ai issue an edict summoning some 30 senior aristocrats at Baima Station (白馬驛, in modern Anyang, Henan), near the Yellow River; the aristocrats were thereafter ordered to commit suicide, and their bodies were thrown into the Yellow River. He could do nothing to stop Zhu from murdering his brothers and mother in the same year. Less than two years later in 907, Zhu made his final move against Emperor Ai himself, forcing the young emperor to abdicate to him. In Zhu's new Later Liang, the former Tang emperor carried the title of Prince of Jiyin, but in 908, Zhu had the prince poisoned, at the age of 15.
Emperor Taizu of Later Liang (後梁太祖), personal name Zhu Quanzhong (朱全忠) (852–912), né Zhu Wen (朱溫), name later changed to Zhu Huang (朱晃), nickname Zhu San, was a Jiedushi and warlord who in 907 overthrew the Tang dynasty and established the Later Liang as its emperor, ushering in the era of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms. The last two Tang emperors, Emperor Zhaozong of Tang and Emperor Ai of Tang, who "ruled" as his puppets from 903 to 907, were both murdered by him.
Luoyang is a city located in the confluence area of Luo River and Yellow River in the west of Henan province. Governed as a prefecture-level city, it borders the provincial capital of Zhengzhou to the east, Pingdingshan to the southeast, Nanyang to the south, Sanmenxia to the west, Jiyuan to the north, and Jiaozuo to the northeast. As of the final 2010 census, Luoyang had a population of 6,549,941 inhabitants with 1,857,003 people living in the built-up area made of the city's five urban districts, all of which except the Jili District are not urbanized yet.
Liu Can, courtesy name Zhaozhi, formally the Baron of Hedong (河東男), nicknamed Liu Qiezi, was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving as a chancellor during the reigns of Emperor Zhaozong and Emperor Zhaozong's son Emperor Ai, near the end of the dynasty. He was an associate of the powerful warlord Zhu Quanzhong the military governor (Jiedushi) of Xuanwu Circuit, who assisted Zhu in the process of seizing the Tang throne. However, eventually, Zhu became impatient of the pace that Liu and his other associates Jiang Xuanhui (蔣玄暉) and Zhang Tingfan (張廷範) were taking in that process, and became suspicious that they had turned against him. He therefore had all of them executed.
Li Zuo was born in 892, at the main palace at the Tang imperial capital Chang'an. His father Emperor Zhaozong was already emperor at that point, and he was Emperor Zhaozong's ninth son.His mother was Consort He, who had previously given birth to an older brother of his, Li Yu, Prince of De, who was Emperor Zhaozong's oldest son.
Chang'an was an ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history, today known as Xi'an. Chang'an means "Perpetual Peace" in Classical Chinese since it was a capital that was repeatedly used by new Chinese rulers. During the short-lived Xin dynasty, the city was renamed "Constant Peace" ; the old name was later restored. By the time of the Ming dynasty, a new walled city named Xi'an, meaning "Western Peace", was built at the Sui and Tang dynasty city's site, which has remained its name to the present day.
Emperor Zhaozong of Tang, né Li Jie, name later changed to Li Min and again to Li Ye, was the penultimate emperor of the Tang Dynasty of China. He reigned from 888 to 904. Zhaozong was the seventh son of Emperor Yizong of Tang and younger brother of Emperor Xizong of Tang.
Empress He, formally Empress Xuanmu (宣穆皇后) as honored by Later Tang, semi-formally known as Empress Jishan (積善皇后), was the wife of Emperor Zhaozong of Tang near the end of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, and the mother of two of his sons, Li You/Li Yu and Emperor Ai of Tang. Her husband, she, and her sons would all die at the hands of the warlord Zhu Quanzhong, who would eventually take over the Tang throne and establish his own Later Liang.
In 897, Li Zuo was created an imperial prince, along with his brothers Li Mi (李秘) and Li Qi (李祺); Li Zuo's title was Prince of Hui. Later in the year, with Li Yu having been created Crown Prince earlier in the year, their mother Consort He was created empress.
A crown prince is the male heir apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy. The female form of the title is crown princess, which may refer either to an heir apparent or, especially in earlier times, to the wife of the person styled crown prince.
By 903, Zhu Quanzhong the military governor ( Jiedushi ) of Xuanwu Circuit (宣武, headquartered in modern Kaifeng, Henan), already previously one of the most powerful warlords in the Tang realm, had taken Emperor Zhaozong's court at Chang'an under control, in alliance with the chancellor Cui Yin. That year, Emperor Zhaozong was prepared to give Zhu the title of Deputy Generalissimo of All Circuits, with one of his sons serving, titularly, as Generalissimo, and he initially wanted to give that title to Li Yu as Li Yu was older. However, Zhu wanted a younger prince to serve as Generalissimo to avoid diverting the focus of authority, so Cui, under Zhu's orders, recommended Li Zuo. Emperor Zhaozong agreed and made Li Zuo Generalissimo.
The jiedushi were regional military governors in China during the Tang dynasty and the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. The post of jiedushi has been translated as "military commissioner", "legate", or "regional commander". Originally introduced in 711 to counter external threats, the jiedushi were posts authorized with the supervision of a defense command often encompassing several prefectures, the ability to maintain their own armies, collect taxes and promote and appoint subordinates.
Kaifeng is a prefecture-level city in east-central Henan province, China. It is one of the Eight Ancient Capitals of China, having been the capital seven times in history, and is best known for being the Chinese capital in the Northern Song dynasty.
Henan is a landlocked province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. Henan is often referred to as Zhongyuan or Zhongzhou (中州), which literally means "central plain" or "midland", although the name is also applied to the entirety of China proper. Henan is the birthplace of Chinese civilization, with over 3,000 years of recorded history, and remained China's cultural, economical and political center until approximately 1,000 years ago.
In 904, Zhu forced Emperor Zhaozong to move the capital from Chang'an to Luoyang, which was even more firmly under his control.Later that year, fearing that the adult Emperor Zhaozong would try to rise against him while he was away on campaigns against other warlords, he had Emperor Zhaozong assassinated. Bypassing Li Yu and the other older princes, he had an edict issued in Emperor Zhaozong's name creating Li Zuo crown prince and changing his name to Li Chu. Shortly after, Li Chu took the throne (as Emperor Ai). Empress He, who survived the assassination, was honored empress dowager.
Empress dowager is the English language translation of the title given to the mother or widow of a Chinese, Japanese, Korean or Vietnamese emperor.
At the time Emperor Ai took the throne, one of the chancellors was Zhu Quanzhong's close associate Liu Can. Liu, not from an aristocratic family, resented the traditional aristocrats, and he advocated to Zhu that the senior aristocrats should be slaughtered to prevent them from resisting Zhu. Zhu agreed, and in 905, under edicts issued in Emperor Ai's name, some 30 of them were gathered at Baima Station and ordered to commit suicide; their bodies were then thrown into the Yellow River. The victims included the former chancellors Pei Shu, Dugu Sun, Cui Yuan, Lu Yi, and Wang Pu, as well as the senior officials Zhao Chong (趙崇) and Wang Zan (王贊). Around the same time, nine of Emperor Ai's brothers, including Li Yu, were also killed on Zhu's orders.
Meanwhile, Liu, as well as Zhu's other close associates at the Luoyang court, Jiang Xuanhui (蔣玄暉) the director of palace communications and Zhang Tingfan (張廷範) the commander of the imperial guards, were preparing ceremonies to have Emperor Ai yield the throne to Zhu. Pursuant to past precedents on dynastic transitions, they first had Emperor Ai issue edicts to create Zhu the Prince of Wei and bestow on him the nine bestowments—but Zhu, wanting the throne even faster and believing false accusations by Wang Yin (王殷) and Zhao Yinheng that Jiang, Liu, and Zhang were intentionally slowing the transition down with these ceremonial formalities, then had Jiang, Liu, and Zhang put to death. Wang and Zhao then falsely accused Empress Dowager He, who had been cooperating with Jiang in the hopes that she and the young emperor would be spared, of carrying on an affair with Jiang. She was therefore also killed, and Emperor Ai was forced to posthumously had her defamed and demoted to commoner rank, although he was still allowed to mourn for her.
In 907, under advice from his ally Luo Shaowei the military governor of Weibo Circuit (魏博, headquartered in modern Handan, Hebei), Zhu finally resolved to take the throne. Later in the year, he had the young emperor yield the throne to him, ending Tang and starting a new Later Liang as its Emperor Taizu—although several regional warlords, including Li Keyong, Li Maozhen, Yang Wo, and Wang Jian, refused to recognize him, and effectively became rulers of their own states (Jin, Qi, Wu, and Former Shu, respectively). Of those new states, Jin, Qi, and Wu continued to use Emperor Ai's Tianyou era name, implicitly still recognizing him as emperor.
The new Later Liang emperor created Li Chu the Prince of Jiyin and moved him from Luoyang to Cao Prefecture (曹州, in modern Heze, Shandong), and put his mansion under heavy guard, with a fence of thorns surrounding it. In 908, he had Li Chu poisoned to death, and gave Li Chu the posthumous name of Ai (哀, "lamentable").In 928, by which time Li Keyong's adoptive son Li Siyuan was ruling as the emperor of Jin's successor state Later Tang (as Emperor Mingzong), which claimed to be the legitimate continuation of Tang Dynasty and which had earlier destroyed Later Liang, Emperor Mingzong's officials suggested that a temple be built to honor Emperor Ai. Emperor Mingzong had such a temple built at Cao Prefecture. In 929, Emperor Mingzong's officials further suggested giving Emperor Ai a more proper (i.e., more Tang-traditional) posthumous name of Emperor Zhaoxuan Guanglie Xiao, with a temple name of Jingzong, but they also pointed out that since Emperor Ai's temple was not among the imperial ancestral temples, a temple name was not proper. Therefore, only the new posthumous name was adopted, and the temple name was not. Traditional histories thus referred to him mostly as Emperor Ai but also at times as Emperor Zhaoxuan.
No family recorded in official histories; Song dynasty general Li Gang was claimed to be a descendant through a son named Li Xizhao (李熙照)[ citation needed ]
Gao Jixing (高季興), né Gao Jichang (高季昌), known for some time as Zhu Jichang (朱季昌), courtesy name Yisun (貽孫), formally Prince Wuxin of Chu (楚武信王), was the founder of Jingnan, also known as Nanping, one of the states during the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Ma Yin, courtesy name Batu (霸圖), formally King Wumu of Chu (楚武穆王), was a warlord late in the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty who became the first ruler of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period state Chu and the only one who carried the title of "king." He initially took control of the Changsha region in 896 after the death of his predecessor Liu Jianfeng, and subsequently increased his territorial hold to roughly modern Hunan and northeastern Guangxi, which became the territory of Chu.
Li Maozhen, born Song Wentong (宋文通), courtesy name Zhengchen (正臣), formally Prince Zhongjing of Qin (秦忠敬王), was the only ruler of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period state Qi (901–924). He had become a powerful warlord during the reign of Emperor Zhaozong of Tang, the penultimate emperor of the preceding Tang Dynasty, with his power centered on his capital Fengxiang, and at times had effective control of Emperor Zhaozong. However, his power gradually waned due to defeats at the hands of fellow warlords Wang Jian and Zhu Quanzhong. After Zhu usurped the Tang throne and established Later Liang, Li Maozhen refused to submit and continued to use the Tang-bestowed title of Prince of Qi as well as maintain the Tang era name, but his territory became even more reduced due to wars with Former Shu and Later Liang. After Later Liang was conquered by Later Tang, whose Emperor Zhuangzong claimed to be a legitimate successor of Tang, Li Maozhen submitted as a subject and was created the Prince of Qin in 924. He died soon thereafter, and was succeeded as by his son Li Jiyan as the military governor (Jiedushi) of Fengxiang, but as Li Jiyan was not made the Prince of Qi or Qin at that point, this was typically viewed as the end of Qi as an independent state.
Zhang Quanyi (張全義), né Zhang Juyan (張居言) or Zhang Yan (張言), known as Zhang Zongshi (張宗奭) during Later Liang, courtesy name Guowei (國維), formally Prince Zhongsu of Qi (齊忠肅王), was a late Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty warlord who later was a senior official during the succeeding Later Liang and Later Tang. He was credited for rebuilding the city of Luoyang from utter destruction from the warfares in the late Tang period into a prosperous city.
Li Yu (李裕), né Li You (李祐), briefly Li Zhen (李縝), formally the Prince of De (德王), was an imperial prince of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty. He was the oldest son of the penultimate emperor Emperor Zhaozong and Empress He and was Crown Prince from 897 to 900. In 900, Emperor Zhaozong was briefly forced by the eunuch Liu Jishu to abdicate in Li Yu's favor; after Emperor Zhaozong was restored, Li Yu was no longer Crown Prince but remained a favored son. After Emperor Zhaozong was assassinated by the powerful warlord Zhu Quanzhong in 904, Li Yu, whom Zhu was apprehensive of, was bypassed in favor of his younger brother Emperor Ai, and in 905, Zhu had Li Yu, along with eight of his younger brothers, killed. As Li Yu's brief reign was under duress from a eunuch, he is not typically considered a true emperor of Tang.
Cui Yuan (崔遠), courtesy name Changzhi (昌之), formally the Baron of Boling (博陵男), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty, serving two terms as chancellor during the reigns of Emperor Zhaozong and Emperor Zhaozong's son Emperor Ai. He was killed in a purge of high-level Tang officials by the warlord Zhu Quanzhong the military governor (Jiedushi) of Xuanwu Circuit, who was then preparing to seize the throne.
Zhang Wenwei (張文蔚), courtesy name Youhua (右華), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty and Tang's succeeding dynasty Later Liang, serving as a chancellor during the reigns of Tang's final emperor Emperor Ai and Later Liang's founding emperor Emperor Taizu.
Yang She (楊涉), courtesy name Wenchuan (文川), was an official of the Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty and Tang's successor dynasty Later Liang, serving as a chancellor during the reigns of Tang's final emperor Emperor Ai and Later Liang's both commonly recognized emperors, Emperor Taizu and Emperor Taizu's son Zhu Zhen.
Xu Wen (徐溫), courtesy name Dunmei (敦美), formally Prince Zhongwu of Qi (齊忠武王), later further posthumously honored Emperor Wu (武皇帝) with the temple name Yizu (義祖) by his adoptive son Xu Zhigao after Xu Zhigao founded the state of Southern Tang, was a major general and regent of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period state Wu. He took over the reins of the Wu state after assassinating, with his colleague Zhang Hao, Yang Wo, the first Prince of Hongnong, and then killing Zhang. Xu was in essence the decision-maker throughout the reign of Yang Wo's brother and successor Yang Longyan and the first part of the reign of Yang Longyan's brother and successor Yang Pu. After his death, Xu Zhigao inherited his position as regent, eventually seizing the Wu throne and establishing Southern Tang.
Zhang Chengye (張承業), né Kang (康), courtesy name Jiyuan (繼元), was an important eunuch official of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period state Jin. He served in the Tang Dynasty palace late during Tang, and eventually became an important advisor to Jin's princes Li Keyong and Li Cunxu.
Li Jihui (李繼徽), né Yang Chongben (楊崇本), was a warlord in the late Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty and early Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period state Qi, who ruled Jingnan Circuit as its military governor (Jiedushi).
Li Zhen (李振), courtesy name Xingxu (興緒), was an important official of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period state Later Liang. He was a trusted aide of Later Liang's founding emperor Emperor Taizu before the founding of the Later Liang state, and later served as the director of imperial governance during the reigns of Emperor Taizu's sons and successors Zhu Yougui and Zhu Zhen. After Later Liang was destroyed by its rival Later Tang, Later Tang's Emperor Zhuangzong put Li to death.
Zhu Youqian (朱友謙), né Zhu Jian (朱簡), known as Li Jilin (李繼麟) from 923 to 926, courtesy name Deguang (德光), formally the Prince of Xiping (西平王), was a warlord of the late Chinese dynasty Tang Dynasty and the first two dynasties of the subsequent Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, Later Liang and Later Tang, ruling Huguo Circuit during most of that time. Both he and his family were extremely honored by Emperor Zhuangzong of Later Tang, but later, he was falsely accused of plotting a rebellion, and Emperor Zhuangzong put him and his entire family to death.
Li Yan (李儼), né Zhang Xiu (張休) and later Zhang Bo (張播), was an emissary that Emperor Zhaozong of Tang sent to the warlord Yang Xingmi the military governor (Jiedushi) of Huainan Circuit in 902, who would remain at Huainan Circuit as the Tang emperor's representative even after Tang's eventual destruction in 907. He would be the one who formally bestowed Yang Xingmi's sons and successors Yang Wo and Yang Longyan with their formal titles on behalf of the Tang emperor during the initial years of the Yang family-ruled state of Wu. In 918, after the general Zhu Jin assassinated Xu Zhixun the son of Wu's regent Xu Wen, Xu Wen believed that Li was complicit in Zhu's plot and put him to death.
Liu Xun (劉鄩) was a major general of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period state Later Liang. He was a key commander of Later Liang forces in its struggle with its archenemy Jin, but, after repeated defeats by the Jin prince Li Cunxu, Liu sought retirement, and was subsequently poisoned to death by the Later Liang emperor Zhu Zhen, who doubted his loyalty.
Kong Xun (孔循), known early in his life as Zhao Yinheng (趙殷衡), also having used surnames of Li (李) and Zhu (朱) early in life, was an official of the Chinese Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period states Later Liang and Later Tang. He became prominent during the reign of Emperor Mingzong of Later Tang due to his alliance with Emperor Mingzong's trusted advisor An Chonghui, but later had a fallout with An, was ejected from the central government, and would not return to it toward the end of his life.
Li Qi, courtesy name Taixiu (台秀), was an official of the Chinese Tang Dynasty and its successor states Later Liang and Later Tang of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, serving as a chancellor during Later Liang.
柷 chù 用于人名，李柷，唐哀帝
Emperor Ai of TangBorn: 892 Died: 908
| Emperor of Tang |
| Emperor of China (most regions)|
| Emperor of China (Sichuan/Chongqing)|
Wang Jian (Emperor of (Former) Shu)
| Emperor of China (Shanxi)|
Li Keyong (Prince of Jin)
| Emperor of China (Jiangsu/Jiangxi/Anhui)|
Yang Wo (Prince of Hongnong (Wu))
| Emperor of China (Eastern Inner Mongolia)|
Emperor Taizu of Liao
| Emperor of China (Western Shaanxi)|
Li Maozhen (Prince of Qi)
| Emperor of China (Zhejiang)|
Qian Liu (Prince of Wuyue)