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A crown prince or hereditary prince is the heir apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy. The female form of the title is crown princess, which may refer either to an heiress apparent or, especially in earlier times, to the wife of the person styled crown prince.
Crown prince as a descriptive term has been used throughout history for the prince who is first-in-line to a throne and is expected to succeed (i.e. the heir apparent), barring any unforeseen future event preventing this. In certain monarchies, a more specific substantive title may be accorded and become associated with the position of heir apparent (e.g. Prince of Wales in the United Kingdom or Prince of Asturias in the Kingdom of Spain). In these monarchies, the term crown prince may be used less often than the substantive title (or never).
Until the late twentieth century, no modern monarchy adopted a system whereby females would be guaranteed to succeed to the throne (i.e. absolute primogeniture). A crown princess would therefore be more likely to refer to the spouse of a crown prince. She would be styled crown princess, not in her own right but by courtesy.
The term crown prince is not used in European monarchies where the hereditary sovereign holds a title below that of king/queen or emperor/empress (such as grand duke or prince), although it is sometimes used as a synonym for heir apparent.
In Europe, where primogeniture governed succession to all monarchies except those of the Papacy and Andorra, the eldest son or (more recently) eldest child of the current monarch fills the role of crown prince or princess, depending upon whether females of the dynasty enjoy personal succession rights. Male precedence has been abolished in Belgium, Denmark, Luxembourg, Norway, Sweden, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom.The eldest living child of a monarch is sometimes not the heir apparent or crown prince, because that position can be held by a descendant of a deceased older child who, by "right of representation", inherits the same place in the line of succession that would be held by the ancestor if he or she were still living (for example, Carl Gustaf, Duke of Jämtland was the crown prince of Sweden from 1950 to 1973, as the senior grandson by male primogeniture of King Gustaf VI Adolf of Sweden, although the former Prince Sigvard, Duke of Uppland was Gustaf VI Adolf's eldest living son, and Prince Bertil, Duke of Halland his eldest living dynastic son during those years).
In some monarchies, those of the Middle East for example, in which primogeniture is not the decisive factor in dynastic succession, a person may not possess the title or status of crown prince by right of birth, but may obtain (and lose) it as a result of an official designation made on some other legal or traditional basis, such as former crown prince Hassan bin Talal of Jordan.
Compare heir apparent and heir presumptive. In Scandinavian kingdoms, the heir presumptive to the crown may hold a different title from an heir apparent: hereditary prince (German: Erbprinz, French: prince héréditaire). It is also the title borne by the heir apparent of Liechtenstein, as well as the heir apparent or presumptive of Monaco. In Luxembourg, the heir apparent bears the title of hereditary grand duke (German: Erbgroßherzog, Luxembourgish: ierfgroussherzog); along with hereditary prince, it was also the title borne by the heirs apparent to the thrones of the grand duchies, sovereign duchies and principalities, and of mediatized princely families in the German monarchies abolished in 1918.
Many monarchies use or did use substantive titles for their heirs apparent, often of historical origin:
Some monarchies have used (although not always de jure ) a territorial title for heirs apparent which, though often perceived as a crown princely title, is not automatically hereditary. It generally requires a specific conferral by the sovereign, which may be withheld.
Current and past titles in this category include:
Currently, the following states use the term "crown prince" (or "crown princess") for the heirs apparent to their thrones:
In addition; the following heirs apparent to deposed monarchies use the title of Crown Prince as a title used by international courtesy:
Hindu tradition (Indian subcontinent):
East Asian traditions:
|if the heir apparent is a:||son||grandson|
|Chinese||Huang Taizi||Huang Taisun|
|Korean||Hwangtaeja (황태자)||Hwangtaeson (황태손)|
|Vietnamese||Hoàng Thái Tử||Hoàng Thái Tôn|
Southeast Asian traditions:
Equivalents in other cultures:
The Malay language has a complex system of styles, titles and honorifics which are used extensively in Brunei, Malaysia, and the southern Philippines.
Sultan Musa Ghiatuddin Riayat Shah Ibni Al-Marhum Sultan Alauddin Sulaiman Shah was Sultan of Selangor in Malaysia during the Japanese occupation of that state (1942–1945). He received the Order of the Rising Sun from the Emperor of Japan.
Sultan Sir Hisamuddin Alam Shah Al-Haj Ibni Almarhum Sultan Alaeddin Sulaiman Shah was the second Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaya from 14 April to 1 September 1960, and the sixth Sultan of Selangor between 1938–1942 and again from 1945–1960.
The Sultanate of Serdang was an ancient Malay-Indonesian monarchy, Serdang was founded in 1723 and joined the Republic of Indonesia in 1946. The Sultanate separated from Sultanate of Deli after a dispute over the royal throne in 1720. Like other kingdoms on the east coast of Sumatra, Serdang prospered because of the opening of tobacco, rubber and oil palm plantations.
Sultan Idris Iskandar Al-Mutawakkil Alallahi Shah Ibni Almarhum Sultan Iskandar Shah Kaddasullah, CMG was the 33rd Sultan of Perak from 5 January 1963 until his death on 31 January 1984. He was the son of Sultan Iskandar Shah.
The Sultan of Johor is a hereditary seat and the sovereign ruler of the Malaysian state of Johor. In the past, the sultan held absolute power over the state and was advised by a bendahara. Currently, the role of bendahara has been taken over by first minister with the constitutional monarchy system via Johor State Constitution. The Sultan is the constitutional head of state of Johor. The Sultan has his own independent military force, the Royal Johor Military Force. The Sultan is also the Head of Islam in Johor state.
The Sultan of Perak is one of the oldest hereditary seats among the Malay states.
Sultan of Selangor is the title of the constitutional ruler of Selangor, Malaysia who is the head of state and head of the Islamic religion in Selangor. The current monarch, Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah ascended the throne on the death of his father, on 22 November 2001.
Tunku Ismail Idris Abdul Majid Abu Bakar Iskandar ibni Sultan Ibrahim Ismail is currently the Pemangku Raja (Regent) of Johor, heir apparent and first in line of succession to the throne of Johor. He is the eldest son of the current Sultan of Johor, Sultan Ibrahim Ismail and his consort Permaisuri (Queen) of Johor, Raja Zarith Sofiah. He is the grandson of both Sultan Iskandar of Johor and Sultan Idris Shah II of Perak.
The Sultan of Kelantan is the constitutional head of Kelantan state in Malaysia. The executive power of the state is vested in him as the monarch of the state. The current sultan, Muhammad V, is the 29th Sultan of Kelantan. He is the Head of Islam in the state and the source of all titles, honours and dignities of its people. He was the 15th Yang di-Pertuan Agong or the monarch and head of state of Malaysia from 13 December 2016 to his abdication on 6 January 2019, after his election on 14 October 2016 at the 243th (special) Conference of Rulers.
Sultan Sharafuddin Idris Shah Al-Haj Ibni Almarhum Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah Al-Haj is the ninth and current Sultan of the Malaysian state of Selangor. He ascended the throne on 22 November 2001, succeeding his father, Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah.
Al-Sultan Abdullah Ri'ayatuddin Al-Mustafa Billah Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah Al-Musta'in Billah has reigned as the 16th Yang di-Pertuan Agong (King) of Malaysia and the 6th Sultan of Pahang since January 2019. He was proclaimed as sultan on 15 January 2019, succeeding his father, Sultan Ahmad Shah, whose abdication was decided at a Royal Council meeting on 11 January 2019.
Tengku Muhammad Fa-iz Petra ibni Almarhum Sultan Ismail Petra is the current Tengku Mahkota or Crown Prince of the Malaysian state of Kelantan, heir presumptive and first in line of succession to the throne of Kelantan. He was proclaimed as the Crown Prince of Kelantan on 18 October 2010 upon the accession of his elder brother, Sultan Muhammad V as the 29th Sultan of Kelantan.
Tunku Abdul Malik ibni Almarhum Sultan Badlishah was the heir presumptive to the throne of Kedah. He was the son of Sultan Badlishah and the brother of the late ruler, Sultan Abdul Halim. He served as Regent of Kedah from 1970 to 1975.
Malaysia practises an elective monarchy, so there is no distinct line of succession to the Malaysian thrones. In the event where the current seat of the throne falls vacant, the Conference of Rulers meet to elect the new Yang di-Pertuan Agong (monarch) from among the rulers of the nine Malay states. The deputy king does not automatically succeed the throne. The election is regulated by Article 32 of the Constitution of Malaysia.
Al Aminul Karim Sultan Sallehuddin ibni Almarhum Sultan Badlishah is the 29th Sultan of Kedah, Malaysia. He was proclaimed Sultan on 12 September 2017, upon the death of his elder half brother, Sultan Abdul Halim Mu'adzam Shah.
Tunku Iskandar Abdul Jalil Abu Bakar Ibrahim ibni Tunku Ismail is the Raja Muda of Johor, first son and second child of the current Tunku Mahkota of Johor, Tunku Ismail Idris Abdul Majid Abu Bakar Iskandar ibni Sultan Ibrahim Ismail and his wife, Che' Puan Besar Khaleeda Bustamam. As his father is the heir apparent, upon his birth, Tunku Iskandar become second in line of succession to the throne of Johor. He is the eldest grandson of the current Sultan of Johor, Sultan Ibrahim Ismail and his consort Permaisuri Raja Zarith Sofiah. He is also the great grandson of the Sultan Iskandar of Johor and the Sultan Idris Shah II of Perak.
Tengku Sarafudin Badlishah ibni Sultan Sallehuddin is the current Raja Muda of Kedah. He was proclaimed as Raja Muda of Kedah on 26 November 2017, upon the accession of his father, Sultan Sallehuddin ibni Almarhum Sultan Badlishah as the 29th Sultan of Kedah.
Tengku Hassanal Ibrahim Alam Shah ibni Al-Sultan Abdullah Ri’ayatuddin Al-Mustafa Billah Shah is a member of Pahang Royal Family and currently reigning as Regent and 4th Crown Prince of Pahang. His father is the current Sultan of Pahang, Al-Sultan Abdullah and his mother is the current Tengku Ampuan of Pahang, Tunku Azizah Aminah Maimunah Iskandariah.