Lord of the manor

Last updated

Ightham Mote, a 14th-century moated manor house near Sevenoaks, Kent, England IMote.jpg
Ightham Mote, a 14th-century moated manor house near Sevenoaks, Kent, England

Lord of the Manor is a title that, in Anglo-Saxon England, referred to the landholder of a rural estate. The lord enjoyed manorial rights (the rights to establish and occupy a residence, known as the manor house and demesne) as well as seignory, the right to grant or draw benefit from the estate. The title continues in modern England and Wales as a legally recognised form of property that can be held independently of its historical rights. [1] It may belong entirely to one person or be a moiety shared with other people.

Contents

A title similar to such a lordship is known in French as Sieur or Seigneur du Manoir, Gutsherr in German, Kaleağası (Kaleagasi) in Turkish, Godsherre in Norwegian and Swedish, Breyr in Welsh, Ambachtsheer in Dutch, and Signore or Vassallo in Italian.

Types

Historically a lord of the manor could either be a tenant-in-chief if he held a capital manor directly from the Crown, or a mesne lord if he was the vassal of another lord. [2] The origins of the lordship of manors arose in the Anglo-Saxon system of manorialism. Following the Norman conquest, land at the manorial level was recorded in the Domesday Book of 1086 [3] (the Normans' registry in Sicily was called, in Latin, the Catalogus Baronum , compiled a few years later). The title cannot nowadays be subdivided. [1] This has been prohibited since 1290 by the statute of Quia Emptores that prevents tenants from alienating their lands to others by subinfeudation, instead requiring all tenants wishing to alienate their land to do so by substitution. [4]

Lord Denning, in Corpus Christi College Oxford v Gloucestershire County Council [1983] QB 360, described the manor thus:

In medieval times the manor was the nucleus of English rural life. It was an administrative unit of an extensive area of land. The whole of it was owned originally by the lord of the manor. He lived in the big house called the manor house. Attached to it were many acres of grassland and woodlands called the park. These were the "demesne lands" which were for the personal use of the lord of the manor. Dotted all round were the enclosed homes and land occupied by the "tenants of the manor".

Naming individuals

The owner of a lordship of the manor can be described as Charles S, Lord/Lady of the Manor of [Placename], [1] sometimes shortened to Lord or Lady of [Placename]. [5] In modern times any person may choose to use a name that is not the property of another. Under English common law a person may choose to be known by any name he sees fit as long as it is not done to commit fraud or evade an obligation; such changes are often made by deed poll (a deed of declaration of change of name). [6]

A manorial lordship is not a noble title, but a semi-extinct form of hereditary landed property. Lordship in this sense is a synonym for ownership, although this ownership involved a historic legal jurisdiction in the form of the court baron. [7] The journal Justice of the Peace & Local Government Law advises that the position is unclear as to whether a lordship of a manor is a title of honour or a dignity, as this is yet to be tested by the courts. [8] Technically, lords of manors are barons, or freemen; however, they do not use the term as a title. Unlike titled barons, they did not have a right to sit in the House of Lords, which was the case for all noble peers until the House of Lords Act 1999. John Selden in his esteemed work Titles of Honour (1672) writes, "The word Baro (Latin for Baron) hath been also so much communicated, that not only all Lords of Manors have been from ancient time, and are at this day called sometimes Barons (as in the stile of their Court Barons, which is Curia Baronis, &c. And I have read hors de son Barony in a barr to an Avowry for hors de son fee) But also the Judges of the Exchequer have it from antient time fixed on them." [9]

The style 'Lord of the Manor of X' or 'Lord of X' is, in a sense, more of a description than a title, somewhat similar to the term Laird in Scotland. [10] King's College, Cambridge has given the view that the term 'indicated wealth and privilege, and it carried rights and responsibilities'. [11]

Manorial rights or incidents

Since 1965 lords of the manor have been entitled to compensation in the event of compulsory purchase. [12] Before the Land Registration Act 2002 it was possible for manors to be registered with HM Land Registry. No manorial rights could be created after 1925, following entry into force of the Law of Property Act 1922. Manorial incidents, which are the rights that a lord of the manor may exercise over other people's land, lapsed on 12 October 2013 if not registered by then with the Land Registry. This is a separate issue to the registration of lordships of manors, since both registered and unregistered lordships will continue to exist after that date. It is only their practical rights that will lose what is called 'overriding interest', or in other words the ability to affect land even if the interests or rights are not registered against that land, as of 12 October 2013. Manorial incidents can still be recorded for either registered or unregistered manors; however, proof of existence of the rights may need to be submitted to the Land Registry before they will be noted and they may not be registered at all after affected land is sold after 12 October 2013. This issue does not affect the existence of the title of lord of the manor. [1] There have been cases where manors have been sold and the seller has unknowingly parted with rights to unregistered land in England and Wales. [13]

Tenancy

In England in the Middle Ages, land was held of the English monarch or ruler by a powerful local supporter, who gave protection in return. The people who had sworn homage to the lord were known as vassals. Vassals were nobles who served loyalty for the king, in return for being given the use of land. After the Norman conquest of England, however, all land in England was owned by the monarch who then granted the use of it by means of a transaction known as enfeoffment, to earls, barons, and others, in return for military service. The person who held feudal land directly from the king was known as a tenant-in-chief (see also Land tenure).

Sub-tenancy

Military service was based upon units of ten knights (see Knight-service). An important tenant-in-chief might be expected to provide all ten knights, and lesser tenants-in-chief, half of one. Some tenants-in-chief 'sub-infeuded', that is, granted, some land to a sub-tenant. Further sub-infeudation could occur down to the level of a lord of a single manor, which in itself might represent only a fraction of a knight's fee. A mesne lord was the level of lord in the middle holding several manors, between the lords of a manor and the superior lord. The sub-tenant might have to provide knight-service, or finance just a portion of it, or pay something purely nominal. Any further sub-infeudation was prohibited by the Statute of Quia Emptores in 1290. Knight-service was abolished by the Tenures Abolition Act 1660.

Manorial courts

Manors were defined as an area of land and became closely associated to the advowson of the church; often by default the advowson was appended to the rights of the Manor, sometimes separated into moieties. [14] [15] Many lords of the manor were known as squires, at a time when land ownership was the basis of power. [15] While some inhabitants were serfs who were bound to the land, others were freeholders, often known as franklins, who were free from customary services. Periodically all the tenants met at a 'manorial court', with the lord of the manor (or squire), or a steward, as chairman. These courts, known as courts baron, dealt with the tenants' rights and duties, changes of occupancy, and disputes between tenants. Some manorial courts also had the status of a court leet, and so they elected constables and other officials and were effectively magistrates' courts for minor offences.

Later history

The tenure of the freeholders was protected by the royal courts. After the Black Death, labour was in demand and so it became difficult for the lords of manors to impose duties on serfs. However their customary tenure continued and in the 16th century the royal courts also began to protect these customary tenants, who became known as copyholders. The name arises because the tenant was given a copy of the court's record of the fact as a title deed.

During the 19th century, traditional manor courts were phased out. This was largely because by the mid 17th century, large English cities had leading residents such as John Harrison (died 1656) of Leeds, who saw the possession of the manor by only one resident as "giving him too great a superiority over his fellow townsmen, and exposing him to considerable odium". Thus, the Manor of Leeds was divided between several people (shares). [16] This situation could create legal problems. In January 1872, as a group, the "lords of the manor of Leeds" applied to the Law Courts to ascertain if they could "exercise acts of ownership" over land at a time when manorial rights were being sold to larger city corporations. In 1854, the lords of the manor of Leeds had "sold" these acts of ownership to the "corporation of Leeds" which would become the City of Leeds. [17] [18]

By 1925, copyhold tenure had formally ended with the enactment of Law of Property Acts, Law of Property Act 1922 and Law of Property (Amendment) Act 1924, converting copyhold to fee simple. Although copyhold was abolished, the title of Lord of the Manor remains, and certain rights attached to it will also remain if they are registered under the Land Registration Act 2002. This Act ended manorial incidents unprotected by registration at the Land Registry after October 2013. [19] The Land Registration Act 2002 does not affect the existence of unregistered lordships after October 2013, only the rights that would have previously been attached to the same.

During the latter part of the 20th century, many of these titles were sold to wealthy individuals seeking a distinction. However, certain purchasers, such as Mark Roberts, controversially exploited the right to claim unregistered land. [13] [20] [21] A manorial title (i.e. Lord of the Manor) is not a title of nobility, as in a peerage title. [22]

Today

Manor house in Crofton, Yorks Lord of the Manor, Crofton - geograph.org.uk - 1087774.jpg
Manor house in Crofton, Yorks

Feudal lordships of the manor exist today in English property law, being legal titles historically dating back to the Norman invasion of England in 1066. Being incorporated into property law (whether physical or non-physical) they can be bought and sold, as historic artifacts. The title itself as stated below can be separated from the physical property just as any other right can. Rights like the lordship, mineral and sporting can all be separate from the physical property. The title since 1290 cannot be sub-divided. Land, sporting rights, and mineral rights can be separated. Property lawyers usually handle such transactions.

There are three elements to a manor (collectively called an honour):

  1. the lordship or dignity – the title granted by the manor,
  2. the manorial – the manor and its land,
  3. the seignory – the rights granted to the holder of the manor.

These three elements may exist separately or be combined, the first element being the title may be held in moieties and may not be subdivided, this is prohibited by the statute of Quia Emptores preventing subinfeudation whereas the second and third elements can be subdivided. [1] Although manorial lordship titles today no longer have rights attached to them, historically the lordship title itself had the power to collect fealty (i.e. services) and taxes. [23] [24]

The Historical Manuscripts Commission maintains two Manorial Document Registers that cover southern England. [25] One register is arranged under parishes, the other is arranged under manors and shows the last-known whereabouts of the manorial records, the records are often very limited. The National Archives at Kew, London, and county record offices maintain many documents that mention manors or manorial rights, in some cases manorial court rolls have survived, such documents are now protected by law. [26]

The issues of land claims were raised in the UK Parliament in 2004 and were debated with a reply on the subject from the Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Constitutional Affairs acknowledging 'need for reform of the remnants of feudal and manorial law' as a case was highlighted in Peterstone Wentloog, Wales, where villagers were being charged excessive fees to cross manorial land to access their homes. [21]

In 2007, a caution against first registration caused houses to stop selling in Alstonefield after Mark Roberts, a businessman from Wales also previously involved in the Peterstone Wentloog case, registered a caution against first registration for 25,000 acres (100 km2) after purchasing the lordship of the manor of Alstonefield for £10,000 in 1999. Judith Bray, land law expert from Buckingham University, speaking to BBC about the case, said that "the legal situation is very confusing because a piece of legislation in the 1920s separated manorial rights from the ownership of land." [13]

In reports about the Alstonefield case, the BBC stated, "Scores of titles are bought and sold every year, some like the one Chris Eubank bought for fun, others seen as a business opportunity. It is entirely lawful, and there is no doubt the titles can be valuable. As well as rights to land like wastes and commons, they can also give the holder rights over land." The report goes on to say that the Law Commission in England and Wales were considering a project to abolish feudal land law but would not review manorial rights. [13]

In many cases, a title of lord of the manor may not have any land or rights, and in such cases the title is known as an 'incorporeal hereditament'. Before the Land Registration Act 2002 it was possible to volunteer to register lordship titles with the Land Registry; most did not seek to register. Dealings in previously registered Manors are subject to compulsory registration; however, lords of manors may opt to de-register their titles and they will continue to exist unregistered. [1] Manorial rights such as mineral rights ceased to be registerable after midnight on 12 October 2013. [27]

A manorial lordship or ladyship is not connected to the British honours system, but rather the feudal system. [7] Ownership of a manorial lordship can be noted on request in British passports through an official observation worded, 'The Holder is the Lord of the Manor of ................'. [22] The feudal title of lord of the manor, unlike titles of peerage, can be inherited by females. In addition, it is the only title that can be purchased. Lordships of the manor are considered non-physical property in England and are fully enforceable in the English court system. Like their English counterparts, by 1600 manorial titles in the formerly Norman territories in France and Italy did not ennoble their holders in the same way as, for example, did a barony. The status of lord of the manor is associated with the rank of esquire by prescription. [28] [29]

Mineral ownership

There were fears in 2014 and earlier, [30] that holders of the manorial rights would allow fracking under the homes and near local communities of people living within the manorial estate after a disclosure that 73,000 applications to assert manorial mineral rights had been received by the Land Registry. Many of the applications received were from the Duchy of Lancaster and the Duchy of Cornwall asserting their historic "manorial mineral ownership". [31]

See also

Notes and references

Notes

    Related Research Articles

    Manorialism Economic, political and judicial institution during the Middle Ages in Europe

    Manorialism, also known as the manor system or manorial system, was the method of land ownership in parts of Europe, notably France and later England, during the Middle Ages. Its defining features included a large, sometimes fortified manor house in which the lord of the manor and his dependents lived and administered a rural estate, and a population of labourers who worked the surrounding land to support themselves and the lord. These labourers fulfilled their obligations with labour time or in-kind produce at first, and later by cash payment as commercial activity increased. Manorialism is sometimes included as part of the feudal system.

    Copyhold

    Copyhold was a form of customary land ownership common from the Late Middle Ages into modern times in England. The name for this type of land tenure is derived from the act of giving a copy of the relevant title deed that is recorded in the manorial court roll to the tenant; not the actual land deed itself. The legal owner of the manor land remained the mesne lord, who was legally the copyholder, according to the titles and customs written down in the manorial roll. In return for being given land, a copyhold tenant was required to carry out specific manorial duties or services. The specific rights and duties of copyhold tenants varied greatly from one manor to another and many were established by custom. By the 19th century, many customary duties had been replaced with the payment of rent.

    Lord is an appellation for a person or deity who has authority, control, or power over others, acting as a master, chief, or ruler. The appellation can also denote certain persons who hold a title of the peerage in the United Kingdom, or are entitled to courtesy titles. The collective "Lords" can refer to a group or body of peers.

    Escheat is a common law doctrine that transfers the real property of a person who has died without heirs to the crown or state. It serves to ensure that property is not left in "limbo" without recognized ownership. It originally applied to a number of situations where a legal interest in land was destroyed by operation of law, so that the ownership of the land reverted to the immediately superior feudal lord.

    False titles of nobility are claimed titles of social rank that have been fabricated or assumed by an individual or family without recognition by the authorities of a country in which titles of nobility exist or once existed. They have received an increasing amount of press attention, as more schemes that purport to confer or sell such honorifics are promoted on the internet. Concern about the use of titles which lack legal standing or a basis in tradition has prompted increased vigilance and denunciation, although under English common law a person may choose to be known by any name they see fit as long as it is not done to "commit fraud or evade an obligation".

    Manor house Historically, the main residence of the lord of the manor

    A manor house was historically the main residence of the lord of the manor. The house formed the administrative centre of a manor in the European feudal system; within its great hall were held the lord's manorial courts, communal meals with manorial tenants and great banquets. The term is today loosely applied to various country houses, frequently dating from the Late Middle Ages, which formerly housed the landed gentry.

    The court leet was a historical court baron of England and Wales and Ireland that exercised the "view of frankpledge" and its attendant police jurisdiction, which was normally restricted to the hundred courts.

    <i>Quia Emptores</i> English statute of 1290

    Quia Emptores is a statute passed by the Parliament of England in 1290 during the reign of Edward I that prevented tenants from alienating their lands to others by subinfeudation, instead requiring all tenants who wished to alienate their land to do so by substitution. The statute, along with its companion statute Quo Warranto also passed in 1290, was intended to remedy land ownership disputes and consequent financial difficulties that had resulted from the decline of the traditional feudal system in England during the High Middle Ages. The name Quia Emptores derives from the first two words of the statute in its original mediaeval Latin, which can be translated as "because the buyers". Its long title is A Statute of our Lord The King, concerning the Selling and Buying of Land. It is also cited as the Statute of Westminster III, one of many English and British statutes with that title.

    Mesne lord

    A mesne lord was a lord in the feudal system who had vassals who held land from him, but who was himself the vassal of a higher lord. Owing to Quia Emptores, the concept of a mesne lordship technically still exists today: the partitioning of the lord of the manor's estate among co-heirs creating the mesne lordships.

    Overlord

    An overlord in the English feudal system was a lord of a manor who had subinfeudated a particular manor, estate or fee, to a tenant. The tenant thenceforth owed to the overlord one of a variety of services, usually military service or serjeanty, depending on which form of tenure the estate was held under. The highest overlord of all, or paramount lord, was the monarch, who due to his ancestor William the Conqueror's personal conquest of the Kingdom of England, owned by inheritance from him all the land in England under allodial title and had no superior overlord, "holding from God and his sword", although certain monarchs, notably King John (1199–1216) purported to grant the Kingdom of England to Pope Innocent III, who would thus have become overlord to English monarchs.

    Newton-in-Bowland Human settlement in England

    Newton or Newton-in-Bowland is a village and civil parish in the Ribble Valley district, in the county of Lancashire, England, formerly known as Newton-on-Hodder. The civil parish had a population of 237 in 2001, according to the United Kingdom Census, increasing to 315 at the 2011 Census. The township covers almost 6,000 acres of the Forest of Bowland. Historically, the village is part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, but was transferred to Lancashire for administrative purposes on 1 April 1974, under the provisions of the Local Government Act 1972.

    A lordship is a territory held by a lord. It was a landed estate that served as the lowest administrative and judicial unit in rural areas. It originated as a unit under the feudal system during the Middle Ages. In a lordship, the functions of economic and legal management are assigned to a lord, who, at the same time, is not endowed with indispensable rights and duties of the sovereign. Lordship in its essence is clearly different from the fief and, along with the allod, is one of the ways to exercise the right.

    Manorial court

    The manorial courts were the lowest courts of law in England during the feudal period. They had a civil jurisdiction limited both in subject matter and geography. They dealt with matters over which the lord of the manor had jurisdiction, primarily torts, local contracts and land tenure, and their powers only extended to those who lived within the lands of the manor: the demesne and such lands as the lord had enfeoffed to others, and to those who held land therein. Historians have divided manorial courts into those that were primarily seignorial – based on feudal responsibilities – and those based on separate delegation of authority from the monarch. There were three types of manorial court: the court of the honour; the court baron; and the court customary, also known as the halmote court.

    The Manorial Society of Great Britain Limited is a private limited company and incorporated on 30 December 1996. It has a membership of approximately 1,900, comprising Lords of the Manor, feudal barons, peers, and historians mainly from the United Kingdom but also some from the Republic of Ireland.

    In law, a moiety title is the ownership of part of a property. The word derives from Old French moitié, "half", from Latin medietas ("middle"), from medius.

    Heerlijkheid Lowest administrative and judicial unit in Low Countries before 1800

    A heerlijkheid was a landed estate that served as the lowest administrative and judicial unit in rural areas in the Dutch-speaking Low Countries before 1800. It originated as a unit of lordship under the feudal system during the Middle Ages. The English equivalents are manor, seigniory and lordship. The German equivalent is Herrschaft. The heerlijkheid system was the Dutch version of manorialism that prevailed in the Low Countries and was the precursor to the modern municipality system in the Netherlands and Flemish Belgium.

    The history of English land law can be traced back to Roman times, and subsequently through the Early Middle Ages under post-Roman chieftains and Saxon monarchs where, as for most of human history, land was the dominant source of personal wealth. English land law transformed further from the Saxon days, to post-Norman Invasion feudal encastellation, from the Industrial Revolution and over the 19th century, as the political power of the landed aristocracy diminished, and modern legislation increasingly made land a social form of wealth, subject to extensive social regulation, such as for housing, national parks, and agriculture.

    Even before the Norman Conquest, there was a strong tradition of landholding in Anglo-Saxon law. When William the Conqueror asserted sovereignty over England in 1066, he confiscated the property of the recalcitrant English landowners. Over the next dozen years, he granted land to his lords and to the dispossessed Englishmen, or affirmed their existing land holdings, in exchange for fealty and promises of military and other services. At the time of the Domesday Book, all land in England was held by someone, and from that time there has been no allodial land in England. In order to legitimise the notion of the Crown's paramount lordship, a legal fiction—that all land titles were held by the King's subjects as a result of a royal grant—was adopted.

    Feudalism in England

    Feudalism as practiced in the Kingdoms of England during the medieval period was a state of human society that organized political and military leadership and force around a stratified formal structure based on land tenure. As a military defense and socio-economic paradigm designed to direct the wealth of the land to the king while it levied military troops to his causes, feudal society was ordered around relationships derived from the holding of land. Such landholdings are termed fiefdoms, traders, fiefs, or fees.

    <span class="mw-page-title-main">English land law</span> Law of real property in England and Wales

    English land law is the law of real property in England and Wales. Because of its heavy historical and social significance, land is usually seen as the most important part of English property law. Ownership of land has its roots in the feudal system established by William the Conqueror after 1066, and with a gradually diminishing aristocratic presence, now sees a large number of owners playing in an active market for real estate. The modern law's sources derive from the old courts of common law and equity, along with legislation such as the Law of Property Act 1925, the Settled Land Act 1925, the Land Charges Act 1972, the Trusts of Land and Appointment of Trustees Act 1996 and the Land Registration Act 2002. At its core, English land law involves the acquisition, content and priority of rights and obligations among people with interests in land. Having a property right in land, as opposed to a contractual or some other personal right, matters because it creates privileges over other people's claims, particularly if the land is sold on, the possessor goes insolvent, or when claiming various remedies, like specific performance, in court.

    References

    1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Land Registry Practice Guide 22".
    2. Hey, David (1997). "mesne lord". The Oxford Dictionary of Local and Family History. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 24 August 2011.
    3. "A Short History of Land Registration in England and Wales" (PDF). p. 3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 November 2007.
    4. Sir William Searle (2002). An historical introduction to the land law. pp. 105–106. ISBN   9781584772620.
    5. Time Traveller's Handbook: A guide to the past published by Ontario Genealogical Society & Dundurn Press
    6. "National Archives". Archived from the original on 6 October 2010. Retrieved 13 July 2010.
    7. 1 2 "Can I buy a British title?" (page from British embassy in US)
    8. Justice of the Peace Local Government Law (legal journal)
    9. Selden, J. (1672). Titles of Honor: By the Late and Famous Antiquary John Selden of Inner Temple, Esquire (Third ed.). London: Thomas Dring. p. 570.
    10. "The Court of the Lord Lyon, Lairds". Archived from the original on 28 July 2012. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
    11. King's College Cambridge, Estates: Lord of the manors
    12. "Compulsory Purchase Act 1965". legislation.gov.uk. HMSO. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
    13. 1 2 3 4 "To The Manor Bought". BBC News. 31 July 2007.
    14. A digest of the laws of England respecting real property, Volume 5 page 3 item 8
    15. 1 2 Lord and peasant in nineteenth century Britain, London : Croom Helm; Totowa, N.J. : Rowman and Littlefield, 1980. Chapter 1 from page 15 & 16
    16. White's History, gazetteer and directory of the West Riding of Yorkshire 1837. 1837. Retrieved 14 April 2020. At the request of John Harrison, the founder of St. John's Church, who thought that the possession of the manor by a single individual, a resident in the place, would give him too great a superiority over his fellow townsmen, and expose him to considerable odium, Mr Sykes permitted him and several other gentlemen to become joint purchasers with him, reserving only one share for himself and another for his son. It has ever since been divided into nine shares.
    17. "Reports of All the Cases Decided by All the Superior Courts Relating to Magistrates, Municipal, and Parochial Law". Law Times Office. 1873. p. 407. Archived from the original on 26 February 2019. Retrieved 26 February 2017.
    18. Morris, J. (2002). Atlas of Industrializing Britain, 1780–1914. Routledge. p. 172. ISBN   9781135836450. Archived from the original on 26 February 2019. Retrieved 26 February 2017. In the 1830s, William Lupton left his widow with land..... in Merrion and Belgrave streets (Briggate)...the enclosed fields of the manor of Leeds were already occupied by a woollen mill and its reservoir and the house and outbuildings of William Lupton – a gentleman merchant
    19. "Protecting Manorial Rights". Farrer & Co. Briefings. 2010. Archived from the original on 24 March 2012. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
    20. Hinks, Frank (4 September 2008). "To the manor bought". Legal Week. Archived from the original on 18 November 2008. Retrieved 5 September 2008.
    21. 1 2 Hansard, 3 February 2004 : Column 204WH, 3 February 2004 : Column 205WH
    22. 1 2 "Titles included in passports" (PDF). Home Office. United Kingdom.
    23. "The British Titles System | The Barony of North Cadbury, Somerset, England". baronyofnorthcadbury.com (in German). Retrieved 11 August 2022.
    24. Manorial Counsel Ltd. (23 January 2015). "Lordship Rights in Law - Manorial Counsel Limited". Manorial Counsel. Retrieved 2 August 2022.
    25. "Manorial Records". The National Archives.
    26. "Manorial Records in The National Archives Legal Records Information 1, 5. Court Rolls". The National Archives.
    27. "Land Registry Practice Guide 66 – Overriding interests losing automatic protection in 2013". February 2011. Archived from the original on 13 June 2011. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
    28. Young, John H. (1881). Our Deportment, Or the Manners, Conduct and Dress of the Most Refined Society; Including Forms for Letters, Invitations, Etc., Etc. Also, Valuable Suggestions on Home Culture and Training. Detroit, Mich./Harrisburgh, Pa./Chicago, Ill: F.B. Dickerson & Co./Pennsylvania Publishing House/Union Publishing House.
    29. Dodd, Charles R. (1843). A manual of dignities, privilege, and precedence: including lists of the great public functionaries, from the revolution to the present time. London: Whittaker & Co. p.  248.
    30. Gray, Louise. "'Lords of the Manor' to cash in on 'fracking'". Telegraph. Archived from the original on 5 November 2011. Retrieved 7 February 2014.
    31. Gosden, Emily. "Fracking fears as landowners lay claim to ancient rights". Telegraph. Archived from the original on 16 January 2014. Retrieved 7 February 2014.

    Further reading