|Feudal land tenure in England|
In the kingdom of England, a feudal barony or barony by tenure was the highest degree of feudal land tenure, namely per baroniam (Latin for "by barony"), under which the land-holder owed the service of being one of the king's barons. The duties owed by and the privileges granted to feudal barons are not exactly defined, but they involved the duty of providing soldiers to the royal feudal army on demand by the king, and the privilege of attendance at the king's feudal court, the precursor of parliament.
If the estate-in-land held by barony contained a significant castle as its caput baroniaeand if it was especially large – consisting of more than about 20 knight's fees (each loosely equivalent to a manor) – then it was termed an honour. The typical honour had properties scattered over several shires, intermingled with the properties of others. This was a specific policy of the Norman kings, to avoid establishing any one area under the control of a single lord. Usually, though, a more concentrated cluster existed somewhere. Here would lie the caput (head) of the honour, with a castle that gave its name to the honour and served as its administrative headquarters. The term honour is particularly useful for the eleventh and twelfth centuries, before the development of an extensive peerage hierarchy.
This type of barony is different from the type of feudal barony which existed within a county palatine. A county palatine was an independent franchise so its baronies were considered the highest rank of feudal tenure in the county and not the kingdom, such as the barony of Halton within the Palatinate of Chester.
William the Conqueror established his favoured followers as barons by enfeoffing them as tenants-in-chief with great fiefdoms to be held per baroniam, a largely standard feudal contract of tenure, common to all his barons. Such barons were not necessarily always from the greater Norman nobles, but were selected often on account of their personal abilities and usefulness. Thus, for instance, Turstin FitzRolf, the relatively humble and obscure knight who had stepped in at the last minute to accept the position of Duke William's standard-bearer at the Battle of Hastings, was granted a barony which comprised well over twenty manors.
Lands forming a barony were often located in several different counties, not necessarily adjoining. The name of such a barony is generally deemed to be the name of the chief manor within it, known as the Caput , Latin for "head", generally assumed to have been the seat or chief residence of the first baron. So, for instance, the barony of Turstin FitzRolf became known as the barony of North Cadbury, Somerset.
The exact date of creation of most feudal baronies cannot be determined, as their founding charters have been lost. Many of them are first recorded in the Domesday Book survey of 1086.
The feudal obligation imposed by the grant of a barony was termed in Latin the servitium debitum or "service owed" and was set as a quota of knights to be provided for the king's service. It bore no constant relation to the amount of land comprised by the barony, but was fixed by a bargain between the king and the baron.
It was at the discretion of the baron as to how these knights were found. The commonest method was for him to split his barony into several fiefs of between a few hundred acres possibly up to a thousand acres each, into each of which he would sub-enfeoff one knight, by the tenure of knight-service. This tenure gave the knight use of the fief and all its revenues, on condition that he should provide to the baron, now his overlord, 40 days of military service, complete with retinue of esquires, horses and armour. The fief so allotted is known as a knight's fee. Alternatively the baron could keep the entire barony, or a part of it, in demesne, that is to say "in-hand" or under his own management, using the revenues it produced to buy the services of mercenary knights known as "stipendiary knights".
Where a baron had sub-enfeoffed fewer knights than required by the servitium debitum, the barony was said to be "under-enfeoffed", and the balance of knights owing had to be produced super dominium, that is "on the demesne". This does not mean they were resident within the baron's demesne, but that they had to be hired with the revenue arising from it.
Conversely, a barony was "over-enfeoffed" where more knights had been enfeoffed than was required by the servitium debitum, and this indicated that the barony had been obtained on overly-favourable terms.
The Cartae Baronum ("Charters of the Barons") was a survey commissioned by the Treasury in 1166. It required each baronto declare how many knights he had enfeoffed and how many were super dominium, with the names of all. It appears that the survey was designed to identify baronies from which a greater servitium debitum could in future be obtained by the king. An example is given from the return of Lambert of Etocquigny:
To his reverend lord, Henry, king of the English, Lambert of Etocquigny, greeting. Know that I hold from you by your favour 16 carucates of land and 2 bovates by the service of 10 knights. In these 16 carucates of land I have 5 knights enfeoffed by the old enfeoffment:
- Richard de Haia holds 1 knight's fee; and he withheld the service which he owes to you and to me from the day of your coronation up to now, except that he paid me 2 marks.
- Odo de Cranesbi holds 1 knight's fee.
- Thomas, son of William, holds 1 knight's fee.
- Roger de Millers holds 2 knight's fees.
And from my demesne I provide the balance of the service I owe you, to wit, that of 5 knights. And from that demesne I have given Robert de Portemort 3⁄4 of 1 knight's fee. Therefore I pray you that you will send me your judgement concerning Richard de Haia who holds back the service of his fee, because I cannot obtain that service except by your order. This is the total service in the aforesaid 16 carucates of land. Farewell.
The privilege which balanced the burden of the servitium debitum was the baron's right to attend the king's council. Originally[ when? ] all barons who held per baroniam received individual writs of summons to attend Parliament. This was a practical measure because the early kings almost continually travelled around the kingdom, taking their court (i.e. administration) with them.
A king only called a parliament, or council, when the need arose either for advice or funding. This lack of a parliamentary schedule meant that the barons needed to be informed when and where to attend. As baronies became fragmented over time due to failure of male heirs and descent via co-heiresses (see below), many of those who held per baroniam became holders of relatively small fiefdoms. Eventually, the king refused to summon such minor nobles to Parliament by personal writ, sending instead a general writ of summons to the sheriff of each shire, who was to summon only representatives of these so-called lesser barons. The greater barons, who retained sufficient power to insist upon it, continued to receive personal summonses. The king came to realise, from the complacency of the lesser barons with this new procedure, that in practice it was not tenure per baroniam which determined attendance at Parliament, but receipt of a writ of summons originated by himself.
The next logical development was that the king started issuing writs to persons who did not hold per baroniam and who were not therefore feudal barons, but "barons by writ". The reason for summoning by writ was based on personal characteristics, for example the man summoned might be one of exceptional judgement or have valuable military skills. The arbitrary summons by personal writ signalled the start of the decline of feudalism, eventually evolving into summons by public proclamation in the form of letters patent.
The higher prelates such as archbishops and bishops were deemed to hold per baroniam, and were thus members of the baronage entitled to attend Parliament, indeed they formed the greatest grouping of all. Marcher lords in Wales often held their lordships by right of conquest and appear to have been deemed feudal barons. The Barons of the Cinque Ports were also deemed feudal barons by virtue of their military service at sea,and were thus entitled to attend Parliament.
Baronial relief was payable by an heir so that he might lawfully take possession of his inheritance.It was a form of one-off taxation, or more accurately a variety of "feudal incident", levyable by the King on his tenants-in-chief for a variety of reasons. A prospective heir to a barony generally paid £100 in baronial relief for his inheritance. The term "relief" implies "elevation", both words being derived from the Latin levo, to raise up, into a position of honour.
Where a barony was split into two, for example on the death of a baron leaving two co-heiresses, each daughter's husband would become a baron in respect of his moiety (mediaeval French for "half"), paying half of the full baronial relief. A tenant-in-chief could be the lord of fractions of several different baronies, if he or his ancestors had married co-heiresses. The tenure of even the smallest fraction of a barony conferred baronial status on the lord of these lands.This natural fragmentation of the baronies led to great difficulties within the royal administration as the king relied on an ever-increasing number of men responsible for supplying soldiers for the royal army, and the records of the identities of these fractional barons became more complex and unreliable. The early English jurist Henry de Bracton (died 1268) was one of the first writers to examine the concept of the feudal barony.
This section needs additional citations for verification .(December 2013)
The power of the feudal barons to control their landholding was considerably weakened in 1290 by the statute of Quia Emptores . This prohibited land from being the subject of a feudal grant, and allowed its transfer without the feudal lord's permission.
Feudal baronies became perhaps obsolete (but not extinct) on the abolition of feudal tenure during the Civil War, as confirmed by the Tenures Abolition Act 1660 passed under the Restoration which took away knights service and other legal rights.
Under the Tenures Abolition Act 1660, many baronies by tenure were converted into baronies by writ. The rest ceased to exist as feudal baronies by tenure, becoming baronies in free socage, that is to say under a "free" (hereditable) contract requiring payment of monetary rents. Thus baronies could no longer be held by military service. Parliamentary titles of honour had been limited since the 15th century by the Modus Tenenda Parliamenta act, and could thenceforth only be created by writ of summons or letters patent.
Tenure by knight-service was abolished and discharged and the lands covered by such tenures, including once-feudal baronies, were henceforth held by socage (i.e. in exchange for monetary rents). The English Fitzwalter Case in 1670 ruled that barony by tenure had been discontinued for many years and any claims to a peerage on such basis, meaning a right to sit in the House of Lords, were not to be revived, nor any right of succession based on them.In the Berkeley Case in 1861, an attempt was made to claim a seat in the House of Lords by right of a barony by tenure, but the House of Lords ruled that whatever might have been the case in the past, baronies by tenure no longer existed, meaning that a barony could not be held "by tenure", and confirmed the Tenures Abolition Act 1660. Three Redesdale Committee Reports in the early 19th century reached the same conclusion. There has been at least one legal opinion which asserts the continuing legal existence of the feudal barony in England and Wales, namely that from 1996 of A W & C Barsby, Barristers of Grays's Inn.
Survivals of feudal baronies, in their geographical form, are the Barony of Westmorland or Appleby, the Barony of Kendal, the Barony of Arundel and the Barony of Abergavenny.The first two terms now describe areas of the historic county of Westmorland, in the same way that the word "county" itself has lost its feudal meaning of a land area under the control of a count or earl.
Ivor J. Sanders searched the archives, for example Exchequer documents such as fine rolls and pipe rolls, for entries recording the payment of baronial relief and published his results in English Baronies, a Study of their Origin and Descent 1086–1327 (Oxford, 1960). He identified a number of certain baronies where evidence was found of payment of baronial relief, and a further group which he termed "probable baronies" where the evidence was less clear. Where he could not identify a caput, Sanders named the barony after the name of the baron, for example the "Barony of Miles of Gloucester". The following lists include all of Sanders' certain and probable baronies.
For a full comprehensive list of feudal baronies in the 13th century along with earldoms, bishoprics, and archbishoprics see List of nobles and magnates of England in the 13th century.
|Name of barony||County of caput||First known tenant||Earliest record|
|Arundel||Sussex||Roger de Montgomery||pre 1087|
|Ashby||Lincolnshire||Gilbert de Neville||1162|
|Atherleigh||Lancashire||Domhnall Uí Bhriain||post 1086|
|Bampton||Devon||Walter de Douai||1086|
|Biset||–||Manasser Biset (d.1177)||pre 1177|
|Gloucester (baronial court at Bristol )||Gloucestershire||Robert FitzHamon(d.1107)||pre 1107|
|Miles of Gloucester/Brecon||Brecon||Miles de Gloucester||1125|
|Basing||Hampshire||Hugh de Port||1086|
|Bedford||Bedfordshire||Hugh de Beauchamp||1086|
|Belvoir||Leicestershire||Robert de Todeni||1086|
|Benington||Hertfordshire||Peter I de Valoynes||1086|
|Berkeley||Gloucestershire||Robert FitzHarding||temp. Henry II, pre 1166|
|Berkhampstead||Hertfordshire||Robert, count of Mortain||1086|
|Beverstone||Gloucestershire||Robert de Gurney||1235|
|Blagdon||Somerset||Serlo de Burci||1086|
|Blankney||Lincolnshire||Walter I de Aincourt||1086|
|Bolham||Northumberland||James de Newcastle||1154|
|Bolingbroke||Lincolnshire||Ivo de Taillebois||1086|
|Burgh-by-Sands||Cumberland||Robert de Trevers||temp. Henry I (1100–1135)|
|Burstwick/"Holderness"||Yorkshire||Drogo de Brevere||1086|
|Bywell||Northumberland||Guy de Balliol||temp. William II(1087–1100)|
|Cainhoe||Bedfordshire||Nigel d'Aubigny (died before 1107)||1086|
|Castle Cary||Somerset||Walter de Douai||1086|
|Castle Combe||Wiltshire||Humphrey de Insula||1086|
|Cause||Shropshire||Roger FitzCorbet||11th century|
|Cavendish||Suffolk||Ralph I de Limesy||1086|
|Caxton||Cambridgeshire||Hardwin de Scales||1086|
|Chatham||Kent||Robert le Latin (held under Odo Bp. of Bayeux)||1086|
|Chester||Cheshire||Gerbod the Fleming||1070|
|Chipping Warden||Northamptonshire||Guy de Reinbuedcurt||1086|
|Clare||Suffolk||Richard fitz Gilbert||c. 1090|
|Clifford||Hereford||Ralph de Tony||1086|
|Cogges||Oxfordshire||Wadard (held under Odo Bp. of Bayeux)||1086|
|Curry Malet||Somerset||Roger de Courcelles||1086|
|Eaton Bray||Bedfordshire||William I de Cantilupe||1205|
|Eaton Socon||Bedfordshire||Eudo Dapifer||1086|
|Ellingham||Northumberland||Nicholas de Grenville||temp. Henry I|
|Embleton||Northumberland||John FitzOdard||temp. Henry I|
|Erlestoke||Wiltshire||Roger I de Mandeville||temp. Henry I|
|Ewyas Harold||Herefordshire||Alfred of Marlborough||1086|
|Field Dalling/St.Hilary||Norfolk||Hasculf de St James||1138|
|Flockthorpe in Hardingham||Norfolk||Ralph de Camoys||1236|
|Folkestone||Kent||William de Arques (held under Odo Bp. of Bayeux)||c. 1090|
|Folkingham||Lincolnshire||Gilbert de Gant||1086|
|Framlingham||Suffolk||Roger I Bigod||1086/temp. Henry I|
|Freiston||Lincolnshire||Guy de Craon||1086|
|Great Bealings||Suffolk||Hervey de Bourges||1086|
|Great Torrington||Devon||Odo FitzGamelin||1086|
|Great Weldon||Northamptonshire||Robert de Buci||1086|
|Greystoke||Cumberland||Forne son of Sigulf||1086|
|Hanslope||Buckinghamshire||Winemar the Fleming||1086|
|Hatch Beauchamp||Somerset||Robert FitzIvo (under Count of Mortain)||1086|
|Headingham||Essex||Aubry I de Vere||1086|
|Helmsley||Yorkshire||Walter Espec||temp. Henry I|
|Hockering||Norfolk||Ralph de Belfou||1086|
|Holderness (see caput:Burstwick)|
|Hook Norton||Oxfordshire||Robert d'Oilly||1086|
|Hooton Pagnell||Yorkshire||Richard de Surdeval (under Count of Mortain) (part) Ralph Pagnell (under King) (part)||1086|
|Hunsingore||Yorkshire||Erneis de Burun||1086|
|Kendal||Westmorland||Ivo de Taillebois||temp. William II|
|Kington||Herefordshire||Adam de Port||c. 1121|
|Kirklinton||Cumberland||Adam I de Boivill(?)||post temp. Henry I|
|Knaresborough||Yorkshire||William de Stuteville||c. 1175|
|Kymmer-yn-Edeirnion||Merionethshire||Gruffydd ab Iorwerth ab Owain Brogyntyn||1284|
|Launceston||Cornwall||Descent as Earl of Cornwall||1086|
|Leicester||Leicestershire||Hugh de Grandmesnil||1086|
|Long Crendon||Buckinghamshire||Walter I Giffard||1086|
|Marshwood||Dorset||Geoffrey de Mandeville (c. 1070 – c. 1119)||temp. Henry I|
|Morpeth||Northumberland||William I de Merlay||temp. Henry I|
|Much Marcle||Herefordshire||William fitzBaderon||1086|
|Nether Stowey||Somerset||Alfred de Hispania||1086|
|Nocton||Lincolnshire||Norman I de Darcy||1086|
|North Cadbury||Somerset||Turstin FitzRolf||1086|
|Odell||Bedfordshire||Walter le Fleming||1086|
|Old Buckenham||Norfolk||William d'Aubigny Pincerna||temp. Henry I|
|Oswestry||Shropshire||Warin the Bold (held from Roger of Montgomery)||temp. William II|
|Pleshy||Essex||Geoffrey I de Mandeville||1086|
|Poorstock||Dorset||Roger I Arundel||1086|
|Prudhoe||Northumberland||Robert I de Umfraville||temp. William I|
|Pulverbatch||Shropshire||Roger I Venator (held from Roger of Montgomery)||1086|
|Richard's Castle||Herefordshire||Osbern fitzRichard||1086|
|Salwarpe||Worcestershire||Urse d'Abitot (held from Roger of Montgomery)||1086|
|Shelford||Nottinghamshire||Geoffrey de Alselin||1086|
|Skelton||Yorkshire||Robert de Brus||temp. Henry I|
|Skirpenbeck||Yorkshire||Odo the Crossbowman||1086|
|Snodhill||Herefordshire||Hugh the Ass||1086|
|Sotby||Lincolnshire||William I Kyme (held from Walden the Engineer)||1086|
|Southoe||Huntingdonshire||Eustace Sheriff of Huntingdonshire||1086|
|Stafford||Staffordshire||Robert I de Stafford||1086|
|Stainton le Vale||Lincolnshire||Ralph de Criol||temp. Henry I|
|Stansted Mountfitchet||Essex||Robert Gernon||1086|
|Staveley||Derbyshire||Hascuil I Musard||1086|
|Stoke Trister||Somerset||Bretel St Clair||1086|
|Styford||Northumberland||Walter I de Bolbec||temp. Henry I|
|Sudeley||Gloucestershire||Harold de Sudeley||1066|
|Tarrington||Herefordshire||Ansfrid de Cormeilles||1086|
|Tattershall||Lincolnshire||Eudo son of Spirewic||1086|
|Thoresway||Lincolnshire||Alfred of Lincoln||1086|
|Totnes||Devon||Juhel de Totnes||1086|
|Trematon||Cornwall||Reginald I de Vautort (held from Count of Mortain)||1086|
|Walkern||Hertfordshire||Derman||temp. William I|
|Warwick||Warwickshire||Robert de Beaumont, Count of Meulan||1086|
|Weedon Pinkeny/Lois||Northamptonshire||Ghilo I de Pinkeny||1086|
|Wem||Shropshire||William Pantulf (held from Roger, Earl of Montgomery)||temp. William II|
|Weobley||Herefordshire||Walter de Lacy||temp. William I|
|West Dean||Wiltshire||Waleran the Huntsman||1086|
|West Greenwich||Kent||Gilbert de Maminot, Bishop of Lisieux (held from Odo Bishop of Bayeux)||1086|
|Whitchurch||Buckinghamshire||Hugh I de Bolbec||1086|
|Wigmore||Herefordshire||William FitzOsbern||temp. William I|
|Winterbourne St Martin||Dorset||widow of Hugh FitzGrip||1086|
|Wolverton||Buckinghamshire||Manno le Breton||1086|
|Wormegay||Norfolk||Hermer de Ferrers||1086|
|Writtle||Essex||Isobel of Huntingdon, sister & co-heir of John the Scot, Earl of Chester||1241|
Source: Sanders (1960)
|Name of barony||County of caput||First known tenant||Earliest record|
|Alnwick||Northumberland||Ivo de Vesci||11th century|
|Appleby||Westmorland||Robert de Vieuxpont||1203/4|
|Barnstaple||Devon||Geoffrey de Mowbray (see House of Mowbray)||1086|
|Barony of Port||Kent||Hugh de Port||1086|
|Barony de Ros||Kent||Geoffrey I de Ros||1086|
|Beanley||Northumberland||Gospatric, Earl of Dunbar||temp. Henry I (1100–1135)|
|Berry Pomeroy||Devon||Ralph de Pomeroy||1086|
|Bothal||Northumberland||Richard I Bertram||pre.1162|
|Bourne||Lincolnshire||William de Rollos||1100–1130|
|Bramber||Sussex||William I de Braose||1086|
|Callerton||Northumberland||Hubert de la Val||11th century|
|Cardinham||Cornwall||Richard FitzTurold||temp. William I(1066–1087)|
|Chepstow||Monmouthshire||William FitzOsbern, 1st Earl of Hereford||pre.1070|
|Chilham||Kent||Fulbert I de Dover||1086|
|Chitterne||Wiltshire||Edward of Salisbury||1086|
|Christchurch||Hampshire||Richard de Reviers||1100–1107|
|Clun||Shropshire||Robert "Picot de Say"||1086|
|Dunster||Somerset||William I de Mohun||1086|
|Dursley||Gloucestershire||Roger I de Berkeley||1086|
|Egremont||Cumberland||William Meschin||temp. Henry I (1100–1135)|
|Elston-in-Orcheston St George||Wiltshire||Osbern Giffard||1086|
|Flamstead||Hertfordshire||Ralph I de Tony||1086|
|Fotheringay||Northamptonshire||Waltheof son of Siward, Earl of Huntingdon and Northampton||pre-1086|
|Hadstone||Northumberland||Aschantinus de Worcester||temp. Henry I (1100–1135)|
|Hastings||Sussex||William II, Count of Eu||1086|
|Hatfield Peverel||Essex||Ranulph Peverel||1086|
|Haughley||Suffolk||Hugh de Montfort||1086|
|Horsley||Derbyshire||Ralph de Burun||1086|
|Irthington||Cumberland||Ranulph le Meschin||c. 1100|
|Keevil||Wiltshire||Ernulph de Hesding||pre.1091|
|Kempsford||Gloucestershire||Ernulf I de Hesding||11th/12th centuries|
|Lancaster||Lancashire||Roger the Poitevin||temp. William I|
|Langley||Northumberland||Adam I de Tindale||1165|
|Lavendon||Buckinghamshire||Bishop of Coutances||1086|
|Lewes||Sussex||William I de Warenne||1086|
|Liddel Strength||Cumberland||Ranulph le Meschin||pre. 1121|
|Little Dunmow||Essex||Ralph Bayard||1086|
|Little Easton||Essex||Walter the Deacon||1086|
|Manchester||Lancashire||Albert de Gresle||temp. William II|
|Mitford||Northumberland||John||pre temp. Henry I|
|Odcombe||Somerset||Ansgar I Brito||1086|
|Old Wardon||Bedfordshire||William Speche (Espec)||1086|
|Papcastle||Cumberland||Waldeve||temp. Henry I|
|Peak||Derbyshire||William I Peverel||1086|
|Pevensey||Sussex||Gilbert I de l'Aigle||1106–1114|
|Plympton||Devon||Richard I de Reviers||1087–1107|
|Pontefract||Yorkshire||Ilbert I de Lacy||1086|
|Rayleigh||Essex||Swain of Essex||1086|
|Rayne||Essex||Roger de Raimes||1086|
|Rothersthorpe||Northamptonshire||Gunfrid de Cioches||1086|
|Skipton||Yorkshire||Robert de Rumilly||temp. William II|
|Stogursey (Stoke Courcy)||Somerset||William de Falaise||1086|
|Tarrant Keyneston||Dorset||Ralph de Kaines||temp. Henry I|
|Thirsk||Yorkshire||Robert de Mowbray||pre-1095|
|Tickhill||Yorkshire||Roger de Busli||1086|
|Topcliffe||Yorkshire||William I de Percy||1086|
|Tutbury||Staffordshire||Henry de Ferrers||1086|
|Wark||Northumberland||Walter Espec||temp. Henry I (1100–1135)|
|Warter||Yorkshire||Geoffrey FitzPain||c. 1101|
|Witham||Essex||Eustace II, Count of Boulogne||1086|
|Wrinstead||Kent||William Peverel||post 1088|
Source, unless otherwise stated: Sanders (1960), pp. 103–151
Baron is a rank of nobility or title of honour, often hereditary, in various European countries, either current or historical. The female equivalent is baroness. Typically, the title denotes an aristocrat who ranks higher than a lord or knight, but lower than a viscount or count. Often, barons hold their fief – their lands and income – directly from the monarch. Barons are less often the vassals of other nobles. In many kingdoms, they were entitled to wear a smaller form of a crown called a coronet.
The title Baron Percy has been created several times in the Peerage of England. The first, soon after 1066, a feudal barony rather than a barony by writ, which continued in parallel with the later baronies by writ, until the abolition of feudal tenure by the Tenures Abolition Act 1660. The second, created by writ in 1299, became extinct in 1517. The third, created by writ in 1557, became extinct in 1670. The present creation was in 1722, by writ of summons.
The title Baron Berkeley originated as a feudal title and was subsequently created twice in the Peerage of England by writ. It was first granted by writ to Thomas de Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley (1245–1321), 6th feudal Baron Berkeley, in 1295, but the title of that creation became extinct at the death of his great-great-grandson, the fifth Baron by writ, when no male heirs to the barony by writ remained, although the feudal barony continued. The next creation by writ was in 1421, for the last baron's nephew and heir James Berkeley. His son and successor William was created Viscount Berkeley in 1481, Earl of Nottingham in 1483, and Marquess of Berkeley in 1488. He had no surviving male issue, so the Marquessate and his other non-inherited titles became extinct on his death in 1491, whilst the barony passed de jure to his younger brother Maurice. However William had disinherited Maurice because he considered him to have brought shame on the noble House of Berkeley by marrying beneath his status to Isabel, daughter of Philip Mead of Wraxhall, an Alderman and Mayor of Bristol. Instead he bequeathed the castle, lands and lordships comprising the Barony of Berkeley to King Henry VII and his heirs male, failing which to descend to William's own rightful heirs. Thus on the death of King Edward VI in 1553, Henry VII's unmarried grandson, the Berkeley inheritance returned to the family. Therefore, Maurice and his descendants from 1492 to 1553 were de jure barons only, until the return of the title to the senior heir Henry, becoming de facto 7th Baron in 1553. Upon his death he was succeeded by his relative George Harding.
In medieval and early modern Europe, the term tenant-in-chief denoted a person who held his lands under various forms of feudal land tenure directly from the king or territorial prince to whom he did homage, as opposed to holding them from another nobleman or senior member of the clergy. The tenure was one which denoted great honour, but also carried heavy responsibilities. The tenants-in-chief were originally responsible for providing knights and soldiers for the king's feudal army.
In Scotland, a baron or baroness is the head of a feudal barony, also known as a prescriptive barony. This used to be attached to a particular piece of land on which was situated the caput or essence of the barony, normally a building, such as a castle or manor house. Accordingly, the owner of the piece of land containing the caput was called a baron or baroness. According to Grant, there were around 350 identifiable local baronies in Scotland by the early fifteenth century and these could mostly be mapped against local parish boundaries. The term baron was in general use from the thirteenth century to describe what would have been known in England as a knight of the shire.
Knight-service was a form of feudal land tenure under which a knight held a fief or estate of land termed a knight's fee from an overlord conditional on him as tenant performing military service for his overlord.
A feudal baron is a vassal holding a heritable fief called a barony, comprising a specific portion of land, granted by an overlord in return for allegiance and service. Following the end of European feudalism, feudal baronies have largely been superseded by baronies held as a rank of nobility, without any attachment to a fief. However, in Scotland, the feudal dignity of baron remains in existence, and may be bought and sold independently of the land to which it was formerly attached.
Mulgrave Castle refers to one of three structures on the same property in Lythe, near Whitby, North Yorkshire, England. One of these, known as the "old" or "ancient" castle, was by legend founded by Wada, a 6th-century ruler of Hälsingland. The second castle, caput of the feudal barony of Mulgrave, was of Norman construction and remained active until destroyed by order of Parliament in 1647. The third is a country house which was constructed by Lady Catherine Darnley and passed in 1718 by marriage into the Phipps family, when her daughter Lady Catherine Annesley married William Phipps. The Phipps family later held the titles of Baron Mulgrave, Earl of Mulgrave and Marquess of Normanby.
Feudal relief was a one-off "fine" or form of taxation payable to an overlord by the heir of a feudal tenant to license him to take possession of his fief, i.e. an estate-in-land, by inheritance. It is comparable to a death duty or inheritance tax.
An Irish feudal barony was a customary title of nobility: the holder was always referred to as a Baron, but was not the holder of a peerage, and had no right to sit in the Irish House of Lords. In 1614 the Dublin Government noted that there were "diverse gentlemen" in Ireland who were called Baron, yet: "Never was any of them Lord Baron nor summoned to any Parliament".
Feudalism as practiced in the Kingdoms of England during the medieval period was a state of human society that organized political and military leadership and force around a stratified formal structure based on land tenure. As a military defense and socio-economic paradigm designed to direct the wealth of the land to the king while it levied military troops to his causes, feudal society was ordered around relationships derived from the holding of land. Such landholdings are termed fiefdoms, traders, fiefs, or fees.
The Manor of Dyrham was a former manorial estate in the parish of Dyrham in South Gloucestershire, England.
The feudal barony of Okehampton was a very large feudal barony, the largest mediaeval fiefdom in the county of Devon, England, whose caput was Okehampton Castle and manor. It was one of eight feudal baronies in Devonshire which existed during the mediaeval era.
The feudal barony of Gloucester or Honour of Gloucester was one of the largest of the mediaeval English feudal baronies in 1166, comprising 279 knight's fees, or manors. The constituent landholdings were spread over many counties. The location of the caput at Gloucester is not certain as Gloucester Castle appears to have been a royal castle, but it is known that the baronial court was held at Bristol in Gloucestershire.
The Feudal barony of Cardinham is one of the three feudal baronies in Cornwall which existed during the medieval era. Its caput was at Cardinham Castle, Cornwall. The Barony was held in recent times by the Vivian family, the last being Nicholas Vivian, 6th Baron Vivian. Brigadier Nicholas Crespigny Laurence Vivian, 6th Baron Vivian, conveyed the title to John Anthony Vincent of Edifici Maxim's, Carrer General, Arsinal, Principat Andora, in 1995. Mr. Vincent was a member of the Manorial Society of Great Britain and died in Douglas, Isle of Man, on 31 March 2018. The Barony was then conveyed after the probate of his estate to an American citizen on 25 May 2019.
The feudal barony of Plympton was a large feudal barony in the county of Devon, England, whose caput was Plympton Castle and manor, Plympton. It was one of eight feudal baronies in Devonshire which existed during the medieval era. It included the so-called Honour of Christchurch in Hampshire, which was not however technically a barony. The de Redvers family, first holders of the barony, were also Lords of the Isle of Wight, which lordship was not inherited by the Courtenays, as was the barony of Plympton, as it had been sold to the king by the last in the line Isabel de Redvers, 8th Countess of Devon (1237–1293).
There have been four different baronies held by the Marmion family, two feudal baronies, one purported barony created by Simon de Montfort and one barony by writ.
The feudal barony of Appleby was a feudal barony with its caput at Appleby Castle in Appleby, Westmorland, England.
Baron St Maur was a barony created by writ in 1314 for the soldier Nicholas de St Maur, of Rode in Somerset.
The feudal barony of Hatch Beauchamp or honour of Hatch Beauchamp was an English feudal barony with its caput at the manor of Hatch Beauchamp in Somerset. The site of the mediaeval manor house, to the immediate south of the ancient parish church of St John the Baptist, is today occupied by Hatch Court, a grade I listed mansion built in about 1755 in the Palladian style.