Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

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Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

Regno delle Due Sicilie
1816–1861
Flag of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (1738).svg
Flag of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (1860).svg
Top: 1816-1860; bottom 1860-1861
Flag
Great Royal Coat of Arms of theTwo Sicilies.svg
Coat of arms
Anthem:  Inno al Re
(Hymn to the King)
Kingdom of the Two Sicilies within Europe in 1839.svg
Location of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies within Europe in 1839.
Capital Palermo
(1816–1817)
Naples
(1817–1861)
Common languages Neapolitan, Sicilian, Italian, Arberesh, Molise Croatian, Griko, Greek-Bovesian, Gallo-Italic of Sicily
Religion
Roman Catholicism
Government Absolute monarchy
(1816–1848; 1849–1861)
Constitutional monarchy
(1848–1849)
King  
 1816–1825
Ferdinand I (first)
 1859–1861
Francis II (last)
History 
 Edict of Ferdinand IV of Naples
12 December 1816
5 May 1860
17 March 1861
Area
1860111,900 km2 (43,200 sq mi)
Population
 1860
8,703,000
Currency Two Sicilies ducat
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Bandiera del Regno di Sicilia 4.svg Kingdom of Sicily
Bandera de Napoles - Trastamara.svg Kingdom of Naples
Kingdom of Italy Flag of Italy (1861-1946).svg
Today part ofFlag of Italy.svg  Italy
Flag of Croatia.svg  Croatia [a]
a. ^ The archipelago of Palagruža was part of the province of Capitanata.

The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Neapolitan : Regno dê Doje Sicilie, Sicilian : Regnu dî Dui Sicili, Italian : Regno delle Due Sicilie, Spanish : Reino de las Dos Sicilias) [1] was the largest of the states of Italy before the Italian unification. [2] It was formed as a union of the Kingdom of Sicily and the Kingdom of Naples, which collectively had long been called the "Two Sicilies" (Utraque Sicilia, literally "both Sicilies").

Neapolitan language Italo-Dalmatian language spoken in Southern Italy

Neapolitan is a Romance language of the Italo-Dalmatian group spoken across much of southern Italy, except for southern Calabria, southern Apulia, and Sicily, as well as in a small part of central Italy. It is not named specifically after the city of Naples, but rather the homonymous Kingdom that once covered most of the area, and of which the city was the capital. On October 14, 2008, a law by the Region of Campania stated that Neapolitan was to be protected. While the term "Neapolitan language" is used in this article to refer to the language group of related dialects found in southern continental Italy, it may also refer more specifically to the dialect of the Neapolitan language spoken in the Naples area or in Campania.

Sicilian language Italo-Dalmatian language spoken in Southern Italy

Sicilian, also known as Siculo or Calabro-Sicilian, is a Romance language spoken on the island of Sicily and its satellite islands. It is also spoken in southern Calabria, specifically in the Province of Reggio Calabria, whose dialect is viewed as being part of the continuum of the Sicilian language. Central Calabria, the southern parts of Apulia and Campania, on the Italian peninsula, are viewed by some as being part of a broader Far Southern Italian language group.

Italian language Romance language

Italian is a Romance language of the Indo-European language family. Italian, together with Sardinian, is by most measures the closest language to Vulgar Latin of the Romance languages. Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino and Vatican City. It has an official minority status in western Istria. It formerly had official status in Albania, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro (Kotor) and Greece, and is generally understood in Corsica and Savoie. It also used to be an official language in the former Italian East Africa and Italian North Africa, where it plays a significant role in various sectors. Italian is also spoken by large expatriate communities in the Americas and Australia. Many speakers of Italian are native bilinguals of both Italian and other regional languages.

Contents

The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies lasted from 1815 until 1860, when it was annexed by the Kingdom of Sardinia to form the Kingdom of Italy in 1861. The capitals of the Two Sicilies were in Naples and in Palermo. The kingdom extended over the Mezzogiorno (the southern part of mainland Italy) and the island of Sicily. Jordan Lancaster notes that the integration of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies into the Kingdom of Italy changed the status of Naples forever: "Abject poverty meant that, throughout Naples and Southern Italy, thousands decided to leave in search of a better future." Many went to the new world. [3] The kingdom was heavily agricultural, like the other Italian states; [4] the church owned 50–65% of the land by 1750. [5]

Kingdom of Sardinia former Italian state (1324–1861)

The Kingdom of Sardinia was a state in Southern Europe from the early 14th until the mid-19th century.

Naples Comune in Campania, Italy

Naples is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan. In 2017, around 967,069 people lived within the city's administrative limits while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,115,320 residents. Its continuously built-up metropolitan area is the second or third largest metropolitan area in Italy and one of the most densely populated cities in Europe.

Palermo Comune in Sicily, Italy

Palermo is a city of Southern Italy, the capital of both the autonomous region of Sicily and the Metropolitan City of Palermo. The city is noted for its history, culture, architecture and gastronomy, playing an important role throughout much of its existence; it is over 2,700 years old. Palermo is located in the northwest of the island of Sicily, right by the Gulf of Palermo in the Tyrrhenian Sea.

Name

The name "Two Sicilies" originated from the partition of the medieval Kingdom of Sicily. Until 1285, the island of Sicily and the Mezzogiorno were constituent parts of the Kingdom of Sicily. As a result of the War of the Sicilian Vespers (1282–1302), [6] the King of Sicily lost the Island of Sicily (also called Trinacria) to the Crown of Aragon, but remained ruler over the peninsular part of the realm. Although his territory became known unofficially as the Kingdom of Naples, he and his successors never gave up the title "King of Sicily" and still officially referred to their realm as the "Kingdom of Sicily". At the same time, the Aragonese rulers of the Island of Sicily also called their realm the "Kingdom of Sicily". Thus, there were two kingdoms called "Sicily": [6] hence, the Two Sicilies.

Kingdom of Sicily former state in southern Italy, 1130–1816

The Kingdom of Sicily was a state that existed in the south of the Italian peninsula and for a time the region of Ifriqiya from its founding by Roger II in 1130 until 1816. It was a successor state of the County of Sicily, which had been founded in 1071 during the Norman conquest of the southern peninsula. The island was divided into three regions: Val di Mazara, Val Demone and Val di Noto; val being the apocopic form of the word vallo, derived from the Arabic word wilāya.

Sicily Island in the Mediterranean and region of Italy

Sicily is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 20 regions of Italy. It is one of the five Italian autonomous regions, in Southern Italy along with surrounding minor islands, officially referred to as Regione Siciliana.

War of the Sicilian Vespers

The War of the Sicilian Vespers or just War of the Vespers was a conflict that started with the insurrection of the Sicilian Vespers against Charles of Anjou in 1282 and ended in 1302 with the Peace of Caltabellotta. It was fought in Sicily, Catalonia and elsewhere in the western Mediterranean between, on one side, the Angevin Charles of Anjou, his son Charles II, the kings of France, and the Papacy, and on the other side, the kings of Aragon. The war resulted in the division of the old Kingdom of Sicily; at Caltabellotta, Charles II was confirmed as king of the peninsular territories of Sicily, while Frederick III was confirmed as king of the island territories.

Background

Establishment of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies resulted from the re-unification of the Kingdom of Sicily with the Kingdom of Naples (called the Kingdom of Peninsular Sicily), by King Alfonso V of Aragon in 1442. The two states had functioned as separate realms since the War of the Sicilian Vespers in 1282. At the death of King Alfonso in 1458, the kingdom again became divided between his brother John II of Aragon, who kept the island of Sicily, and his illegitimate son Ferdinand, who became King of Naples.

Kingdom of Naples former state in Italy

The Kingdom of Naples comprised that part of the Italian Peninsula south of the Papal States between 1282 and 1816. It was created as a result of the War of the Sicilian Vespers (1282–1302), when the island of Sicily revolted and was conquered by the Crown of Aragon, becoming a separate Kingdom of Sicily. Naples continued to be officially known as the Kingdom of Sicily, the name of the formerly unified kingdom. For much of its existence, the realm was contested between French and Spanish dynasties. In 1816, it was reunified with the island kingdom of Sicily once again to form the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.

Alfonso V of Aragon King of Aragon, Valencia, Naples, Sicily and Sardinia

Alfonso the Magnanimous was the King of Aragon, Valencia, Majorca, Sardinia and Corsica, Sicily and Count of Barcelona from 1416, and King of Naples from 1442 until his death. He was one of the most prominent figures of the early Renaissance and a knight of the Order of the Dragon.

John II of Aragon King of Aragon

John II, called the Great or the Faithless, was the King of Navarre through his wife from 1425 and the King of Aragon in his own right from 1458 until his death. He was the son of Ferdinand I and his wife Eleanor of Alburquerque. John was also King of Sicily from 1458-1468.

In 1501, King Ferdinand II of Aragon, son of John II, conquered Naples and reunified the two kingdoms under the authority of the newly united Spanish throne. The Kings of Spain then bore the title King of Both Sicilies [7] or King of Sicily and of the Two Coasts of the Strait until the War of the Spanish Succession.[ citation needed ] At the end of that war, the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 granted Sicily to the Duke of Savoy until the Treaty of Rastatt in 1714 left Naples to the Emperor Charles VI. In 1720 the Emperor and Savoy exchanged Sicily for Sardinia, thus reuniting Naples and Sicily.

Ferdinand II of Aragon 15th and 16th-century King of Aragon, Sicily, Naples, and Valencia

Ferdinand II, called the Catholic, was King of Aragon from 1479 until his death. His marriage in 1469 to Isabella, the future queen of Castile, was the marital and political "cornerstone in the foundation of the Spanish monarchy." As a consequence of his marriage to Isabella I, he was de jure uxoris King of Castile as Ferdinand V from 1474 until her death in 1504. At Isabella's death the crown of Castile passed to their daughter Joanna, by the terms of their prenuptial agreement and her last will and testament. Following the death of Joanna's husband Philip I of Spain, and her alleged mental illness, Ferdinand was recognized as regent of Castile from 1508 until his own death. In 1504, after a war with France, he became King of Naples as Ferdinand III, reuniting Naples with Sicily permanently and for the first time since 1458. In 1512, he became King of Navarre by conquest. In 1506 he married Germaine of Foix of France, but Ferdinand's only son and child of that marriage died soon after birth; had the child survived, the personal union of the crowns of Aragon and Castile would have ceased.

War of the Spanish Succession 18th-century conflict in Europe

The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was a European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death of the childless Charles II of Spain in November 1700, eventually evolving into a global conflict due to overseas colonies and allies. His closest heirs were members of the Austrian Habsburg and French Bourbon families; acquisition of an undivided Spanish Empire by either threatened the European balance of power.

In 1734, Charles, Duke of Parma, son of Philip V of Spain, took the Sicilian crown from the Austrians and became Charles VII & V, giving Parma to his younger brother, Philip. In 1759, Charles became King Carlos III of Spain and resigned Sicily and Naples to his younger son, who became Ferdinand III of Sicily and Ferdinand IV of Naples, later crowned Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies in 1816. Apart from an interruption under Napoleon, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies remained under the Bourbon line (Bourbon Duo-Sicilie) continually until 1860.

Charles III of Spain King of Spain and the Spanish Indies from 1759 to 1788

Charles III was King of Spain (1759–1788), after ruling Naples as Charles VII and Sicily as Charles V (1734–1759). He was the fifth son of Philip V of Spain, and the eldest son of Philip's second wife, Elisabeth Farnese. A proponent of enlightened absolutism, he succeeded to the Spanish throne on 10 August 1759, upon the death of his half-brother Ferdinand VI, who left no heirs.

In January 1799, Napoleon Bonaparte, in the name of the French Republic, captured Naples and proclaimed the Parthenopaean Republic, a French client state, as successor to the kingdom. King Ferdinand fled from Naples to Sicily until June of that year. In 1806, Napoleon, by then French Emperor, again dethroned King Ferdinand and appointed his brother, Joseph Bonaparte, as King of Naples. In the Edict of Bayonne of 1808 Napoleon moved Joseph to Spain and appointed their brother-in-law, Joachim Murat, as King of the Two Sicilies, though this only meant control of the mainland portion of the kingdom. [8] [9] Throughout this Napoleonic interruption, King Ferdinand remained in Sicily, with Palermo as his capital.

The Congress of Vienna restored King Ferdinand in 1815. He established a concordat with the Papal States, which previously had a claim to the land. [10]

Several rebellions took place on the island of Sicily against King Ferdinand II (reigned 1830–1859), but the end of the kingdom came only with the Expedition of the Thousand in 1860, led by Garibaldi – an icon of Italian unification – with the support of the House of Savoy and their Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia. The expedition resulted in a striking series of defeats for the Sicilian armies facing the growing troops of Garibaldi. After the capture of Palermo and Sicily, Garibaldi disembarked in Calabria and moved towards Naples, while in the meantime the Piedmontese also invaded the Kingdom from the Marche. The last battles took place at Volturnus in 1860 and at the siege of Gaeta, where King Francis II (reigned 1859–1861) had sought shelter, hoping for French help, which never came. The last towns to resist Garibaldi's expedition, Messina and Civitella del Tronto, capitulated on 13 March 1861 and on 20 March 1861 respectively. The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies dissolved and the new Kingdom of Italy, founded in the same year annexed its territory. [ citation needed ] The fall of the Sicilian aristocracy in the face of Garibaldi's invasion forms the subject of the novel The Leopard by Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa and its film adaptation. [ citation needed ]

Origins of the two kingdoms

Cappella Palatina, church of first unifier Roger II of Sicily. Chapelle Palatine.jpg
Cappella Palatina, church of first unifier Roger II of Sicily.

A monarchy over the areas which would later become known as the Two Sicilies existed as one single kingdom, including a peninsular and an insular part, dating from the Middle Ages. The Norman king Roger II formed the Kingdom of Sicily by combining the County of Sicily with the southern part of the Italian Peninsula (then known as the Duchy of Apulia and Calabria) as well as with the Maltese Islands. The capital of this kingdom was Palermo  — which is on the island of Sicily.

The state existed in that form from 1130 until 1285. In the period of the Capetian House of Anjou during the reign (1266–1285) of King Charles I, the kingdom was split by the War of the Sicilian Vespers of 1282–1302. [6] Charles, who was of French origin, lost Sicily proper to the House of Barcelona, who were Aragonese and Catalan, after they were able to gain the support of the natives. Charles remained king over the peninsular part of the realm, thereafter informally known as the Kingdom of Naples. Officially Charles never gave up the title of "The Kingdom of Sicily", thus there existed two separate kingdoms calling themselves "Sicily". [6]

Aragonese and Spanish direct rule

Crown of Aragon, greatest extent Imperi de la Corona d'Arago.png
Crown of Aragon, greatest extent

Only with the Peace of Caltabellotta (1302), sponsored by Pope Boniface VIII, did the two kings of "Sicily" recognize each other's legitimacy; the island kingdom then became the "Kingdom of Trinacria" in official contexts, though the populace still called it Sicily. [6] Eventually by 1442 the Angevin line of the Kings of Naples was coming to an end. Alfonso V of Aragon, king of insular Sicily, conquered Naples and became king of both (1442).

Alfonso V described the geographical area in Latin as Utriusque Siciliæ, meaning "of both Sicilies", and used the name as part of his title. [11] [ not in citation given ] After the death of Alfonso in 1458, both Sicilies remained under the direct rule of the Crown of Aragon, but Naples had a different Aragonese king from the island of Sicily from 1458 until 1501. For a brief period Naples was controlled by a different power other than Sicily, in the form of French king Louis XII of France, who took the mainland kingdom and held it (1501–1504) for around three years. After the French lost the Battle of Garigliano (1503), the last Aragonese king, Ferdinand II of Aragon, re-united the two areas once again under control of the same power and the same king.

From 1516, when Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor became the first King of Spain, both Naples and Sicily came under direct Spanish rule. In 1530 Charles V granted the islands of Malta and Gozo, which had been part of the Kingdom of Sicily for four centuries, to the Knights Hospitaller (thereafter known as the Order of Malta). The period of direct Spanish rule under the same line of kings lasted until 1713, when control of Spain and of both Sicilies passed to the French prince Philip, duke of Anjou, who founded the Spanish branch of the House of Bourbon. After an eight-year spell of Savoy rule in Sicily (1713–1720), the two Sicilian kingdoms once again came under the same king after the Treaty of The Hague (1720) appointed the Austrian king Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor as their ruler.

History

Unification of the Crowns

Ferdinand I Ferdinand IV of Naples.jpg
Ferdinand I

The kingdoms were conquered from the Austrians by a young Spanish prince during the War of the Polish Succession; he became Charles VII of Naples. The two kingdoms were then recognised as both independent and under Charles' rule as a cadet branch of the Spanish Bourbons by the Treaty of Vienna. [12] After Charles' brother, Fernando VI of Spain died childless, Charles inherited the Spanish Crown in 1759, reigning as Charles III of Spain. His son Ferdinand then became king of the two kingdoms so as to maintain them as separate realms as required by the treaties restoring the junior Spanish royalty to the southern Italian kingdoms. Ferdinand was highly popular with the poorest class. Ferdinand's reign was highly eventful. For a brief period the Parthenopaean Republic controlled Naples with the support of those who supported the French Revolution. However, a counter-revolutionary army of the poorest class retook Naples in order to restore royal power. [13]

Joachim Murat Murat2.jpg
Joachim Murat
Joseph Bonaparte Ritratto di Giuseppe Bonaparte.jpg
Joseph Bonaparte

Eight years later, Napoleon conquered the peninsular portion of the kingdom during the War of the Third Coalition and placed his brother Joseph Bonaparte on the throne as King he conferred the title "Prince of Naples" on his children and grandchildren. [14]

Ferdinand fled to his other kingdom, on the island of Sicily itself. Here the alliance he had previously made with George III of the United Kingdom and Tory Prime Minister the Earl of Liverpool saved him. The British protected Ferdinand and the island of Sicily from Napoleonic conquest with the presence of a powerful Royal Navy fleet. [15]

Back on the mainland, Joachim Murat had become the second Bonapartist king. In the Edict of Bayonne he was named as "King of the Two Sicilies", [8] though de facto he never actually held the island of Sicily where Ferdinand was, and is usually referred to as just the King of Naples. [16] Murat actually switched sides for a while, abandoning the Grand Army after the disastrous Battle of Leipzig in an attempt to save his Neapolitan throne. However, as the Congress of Vienna progressed, tensions arose as there was strong pressure to restore Ferdinand to the Neapolitan kingdom as well as keeping his Sicilian one. [14] Murat returned to Napoleon and together they declared war on the Austrian Empire, leading to the Neapolitan War in March 1815. Ferdinand and his allies Austria, Britain and Tuscany were victorious, restoring him to his Neapolitan throne. To avoid further French attempts, it was agreed at the Congress of Vienna that Ferdinand would reunite his kingdom.

When talking about the period from 1816 until 1861, historians refer to the Kingdom of Naples and the Kingdom of Sicily together as one state - the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. For the period prior to 1816, instead, historians refer to them separately with their own name, as they were separate kingdoms.

Invasion by Piedmont

Between 1816 and 1848, the island of Sicily experienced three popular revolts against Bourbon rule, including the revolution of independence of 1848, when the island was fully independent of Bourbon control for 16 months.

In 1860, Sicily was invaded by a corps of volunteers, led by Giuseppe Garibaldi from the Kingdom of Sardinia. They successfully conquered the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, and incorporated the territory into the new Kingdom of Italy.

Geography

Departments

Departments and Districts of Kingdom of the Two Sicilies Suddivisione amministrativa del Regno delle Due Sicilie.png
Departments and Districts of Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

The peninsula was divided into fifteen departments [17] and Sicily was divided into seven departments. [18] The island itself had a special administrative status, with its base at Palermo.[ citation needed ] In 1860, when the Two Sicilies were conquered by the Kingdom of Sardinia, the departments became provinces of Italy, according to the Rattazzi law.[ citation needed ]

Peninsula Capital
1 Coat of Arms of Abruzzo Ultra I (last version).svg Abruzzo Ultra I Teramo
2 Coat of Arms of Abruzzo Ultra (wings inverted).svg Abruzzo Ultra II Aquila
3 Coat of Arms of Abruzzo Citra.svg Abruzzo Citra Chieti
4 Coat of Arms of Contado di Molise.svg Contado di Molise Campobasso
5 Coat of Arms of Terra di Lavoro.svg Terra di Lavoro Capua,
Caserta from 1818
6 Coat of Arms of the Province of Naples (historical province).svg Province of Naples Naples
7 Coat of Arms of Principato Ultra.svg Principato Ultra Avellino [lower-alpha 1]
8 Coat of Arms of Principato Citra.svg Principato Citra Salerno
9 Coat of Arms of Capitanata.svg Capitanata originally San Severo,then Foggia
10 Coat of Arms of Terra di Bari.svg Terra di Bari Bari
11 Coat of Arms of Terra d'Otranto.svg Terra d'Otranto Lecce
12 Coat of Arms of Basilicata.svg Basilicata Potenza
13 Coat of Arms of Calabria Citra.svg Calabria Citra Cosenza
14 Coat of Arms of Calabria Ultra.svg Calabria Ultra II Catanzaro
15 Coat of Arms of the Province of Reggio-Calabria.svg Calabria Ultra I Reggio
 
Insular Capital
16 Caltanissetta-Stemma.png Caltanissetta Caltanissetta
17 Provincia di Catania-Stemma.svg Catania Catania
18 Girgenti Girgenti
19 Messina Messina
20 Noto Noto
21 Palermo Palermo
22 Trapani Trapani
  1. The city of Benevento was formally included in this department, but it was occupied by the Papal States and was de facto an exclave of that country.[ citation needed ]

Economy

Industry

Industry was the highest form of income if compared with the other preunitarian states. One of the most important industrial complexes in the kingdom was the Shipyard of Castellammare di Stabia, which employed 1800 workers. The engineering factory of Pietrarsa, was the largest industrial plant in the Italian peninsula producing tools, cannons, rails, locomotives. The complex also included a school for train drivers, and naval engineers and thanks to this school, the kingdom was able to replace the English personnel which was necessary until then. The first steamboat with screw propulsion known in the Mediterranean Sea is the "Giglio delle Onde", with mail delivery and passenger transport purposes after 1847.

In Calabria were located the Fonderia Ferdinandea was a large foundry where cast iron was produced. The Reali ferriere ed Officine di Mongiana was an iron foundry and weapons factory. Founded in 1770, it employed 1600 workers in 1860 and closed in 1880. In Sicily (near Catania and Agrigento), sulphur was mined for gunpowder. The Sicilian mines were able to satisfy most of the global demand for sulfur. Silk cloth production was focused in San Leucio (near Caserta). The region of Basilicata also had several mills in Potenza and San Chirico Raparo, where cotton, wool and silk were processed. Food processing was widespread, especially near Naples (Torre Annunziata and Gragnano). Almost 99% of the industries present in the Kingdom were destroyed and relocated to the north by the occupying forces of the house of Savoy after the unification.

Transport

Rail lines of the Italian Peninsula in 1861 Italia ferrovie 1861.03.17.png
Rail lines of the Italian Peninsula in 1861
Rail lines in Italy in 1870 Italia ferrovie 1870 09 20.png
Rail lines in Italy in 1870

With all of its major cities boasting successful ports, transport and trade in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was most efficiently conducted by sea. The Kingdom possessed the largest merchant fleet in the Mediterranean. Urban road conditions were to the best European standards, by 1839, the main streets of Naples were gas-lit. Efforts were made to tackle the tough mountainous terrain, Ferdinand II built the cliff-top road along the Sorrentine peninsula. Road conditions in the interior and hinterland areas of the kingdom made internal trade difficult. The first railways and iron-suspension bridges in Italy were developed in the south, as was the first overland electric telegraph cable.

Technological and scientific achievements

The kingdom achieved several scientific and technological accomplishments, such as the first steamboat in the Mediterrean Sea (1818), built in the shipyard of Stanislao Filosa al ponte di Vigliena, near Naples, and the first railway in the Italian peninsula (1839), which connected Naples to Portici. However, until the Italian unification, the railway development was highly limited. In the year 1859, the kingdom had only 99 kilometers of rails, compared to the 800 kilometers of Piedmont. This was because the kingdom could count on a very large and efficient merchant navy, which was able to compensate for the need for railways. Also, southern landscape was mainly mountainous making the process of building railways quite difficult, as building railway tunnels was much harder at the time. However, the first railway tunnel in the world was built there. Among the other achievements, one worth mentioning is the first suspension bridge in Continental Europe (1832), the first gaslight in Italy (1839), the first volcano observatory in the world, l'Osservatorio Vesuviano (1841), the first and actual archaeological excavations in the world (in the ancient cities of Pompei and Ercolano), the first faculty of Economics in Europe and the first faculty of Astronomy in Italy. The first suspension bridge, built in iron, the "Real Ferdinando" on the river Garigliano and it was built in the Reali Ferriere factory and Weapons factory in Mongiana. The rails for the first Italian railways were built in Mongiana as well. All the rails of the old railways that went from the south to as far as Bologna were built in Mongiana. Naples was the most populated city in Italy, and the third most populated city in Europe. [ citation needed ]

Monarchy

Kings of the Two Sicilies

In 1860–61 the kingdom was conquered by the Kingdom of Sardinia, and the title dropped. It is still claimed by the head of the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies.

Titles of King of the Two Sicilies

Francis I, King of the Two Sicilies, of Jerusalem, etc., Duke of Parma, Piacenza, Castro, etc., Hereditary Grand Prince of Tuscany, etc.

House of Bourbon in exile

Some sovereigns continued to maintain diplomatic relations with the exiled court, including the Emperor of Austria, the Kings of Bavaria, Württemberg and Hanover, the Queen of Spain, the Emperor of Russia, and the Papacy. [ when? ]

Heads of the Royal House of the Two Sicilies, 1861–present

Upon Ferdinando Pio's death in 1960, there was a dispute about who inherited the headship of the house. Ferdinando's next brother Carlo had, in anticipation of his marriage to the eldest sister and heiress presumptive of King Alfonso XIII of Spain, signed the so-called Act of Cannes on 14 December 1900:

Here present is His Royal Highness Prince Don Carlo our dearest loved Son and he has declared that he shall be entering into marriage with Her Royal Highness the Infanta Doña Maria Mercedes, Princess of the Asturias, and assuming by that marriage the nationality and quality of Spanish Prince, intends to renounce, and by this present act solemnly renounces for Himself and for his Heirs and Successors to any right and rights to the eventual succession to the Crown of the Two Sicilies and to all the Properties of the Royal House found in Italy and elsewhere and this according to our laws, constitutions and customs of the Family and in execution of the Pragmatic Decree of King Charles III, Our August ancestor, of the 6th October 1759, to whose prescriptions he declares freely and explicitly to subscribe to and obey. [19]

The laws of the deposed Sicilian dynasty and the Pragmatic Decree of Charles III, issued by him as King of Spain and the Two Sicilies on 6 October 1759, required a renunciation only if the Crown of Spain (or the heir apparent thereto) and the "Italian sovereignties" were united in the same person, and in no other circumstances. This could only have happened in 1900 if the Count of Caserta, his oldest son Ferdinand, and King Alfonso XIII had all died, thereby leaving Prince Carlo as heir to the Two Sicilies crown and his wife as Queen of Spain, and if the Two Sicilies crown had been restored. It is claimed that theories advanced to suggest that the 1900 renunciation were in some way unnecessary have been formulated long after the fact, [ citation needed ] but by 1907 a son (the first of four, along with two daughters) had been born to Alfonso XIII and Queen Victoria Eugenia and Prince Carlos's older brother Ferdinand had also had a son, Roggero, Duke of Noto, so it soon became irrelevant.

Calabria line

Prince Carlo's son, Infante Alfonso, became the senior male of the house on the death of his uncle, Ferdinando Pio, Duke of Calabria, in 1960 and was proclaimed Head of the Royal House of the Two Sicilies, with the recognition of the Heads of the royal houses of Spain, Parma and Portugal, and the senior line (Bourbon) pretender to the throne of France. Prince Carlo and his descendants continued to be included as Princes of the Two Sicilies in the Almanach de Gotha from 1901 to 1944, and in the Libro d'Oro of the Italian Nobility from the first edition in 1907 until 1964, at which time the editor came out in support of the cadet line claimant. Infante Don Alfonso took the title of Duke of Calabria, considering that the title of Duke of Castro (a Farnese inheritance) had been lost with the sale of the last portions of the duchy to the Italian government in 1941 (a sale from which Prince Carlo received his portion of the proceeds, along with his brothers and sisters, although if the alleged renunciation of 1900 had been valid he would not have been entitled to do so). Carlo married as his second wife, in 1907, Princess Louise of Orléans, and by her had a son (Carlos, killed in the Spanish Civil War) and three daughters (of whom Princess Maria Mercedes married Juan, Count of Barcelona and was the mother of King Juan Carlos I of Spain, and Princess Esperanza married Prince Pedro Gastão of Orléans-Braganza). The descent in the senior line is as follows:

The latter's immediate heir is Jaime, Duke of Noto.

Castro line

The rest of the Bourbon-Two Sicilies family rejected Alfonso's claims, however, and recognized Ranieri, the next surviving brother of Ferdinando Pius, as head of the house. Ranieri took the style of "Duke of Castro" as his title of pretence. The representatives of the junior branch are as follows:

They also claim the office of the Grand Master of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George.

Current lines of succession

Flags of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies

Description of the arms appearing in the flag. Corrections: the upper part of the block marked "Flanders" is Burgundy Ancient; Burgundy Modern (as it is called in English; shown here as New Burgundy) includes a red-and-white border; the block marked "Aragon Two Sicilies" is only for Sicily proper (the other "Sicily" being the Angevin kingdom of Naples). Arms of the flag of two sicilies.png
Description of the arms appearing in the flag. Corrections: the upper part of the block marked "Flanders" is Burgundy Ancient; Burgundy Modern (as it is called in English; shown here as New Burgundy) includes a red-and-white border; the block marked "Aragon Two Sicilies" is only for Sicily proper (the other "Sicily" being the Angevin kingdom of Naples).

Orders of knighthood

Further reading

See also

Related Research Articles

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References

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  3. Jordan Lancaster, In the shadow of Vesuvius: a cultural history of Naples (2005) pp. 199–206[ ISBN missing ]
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Further reading