Timeline of Italian history

Last updated

This is a timeline of Italian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Italy and its predecessor states, including Ancient Rome and Prehistoric Italy. Date of the prehistoric era are approximate. For further background, see history of Italy and list of prime ministers of Italy.


Millennia: 1st BC  · 1st–2nd  · 3rd

Centuries: 5th BC  · 4th BC  · 3rd BC  · 2nd BC  · 1st BC  · See also  · Bibliography
Centuries: 1st  · 2nd  · 3rd  · 4th  · 5th  · 6th  · 7th  · 8th  · 9th  · 10th  · 11th  · 12th  · 13th  · 14th  · 15th  · 16th  · 17th  · 18th  · 19th  · 20th  · 21st


85000 BC Oldest human habitation is discovered in Italy at Monte Poggiolo.
50000 BC Neanderthal presence in Italy.
33000 BC Paglicci 33 is discovered in Italy, the earliest evidence of Haplogroup I-M170.
12000 BC Villabruna 1 is discovered in Italy, the earliest evidence of Haplogroup R1b.

6th millennium BC

6000 BC Neolithic Italy begins with the spread of Cardium pottery.

4th millennium BC

3345 BC Otzi is born.
3300 BC Otzi is killed.

3rd millennium BC

3000 BC Remedello culture. This is the first evidence of copper use in Italy.
The Rinaldone culture appears.

2nd millennium BC

1800 BC Nuragic civilization in Sardinia.
1700 BC Terramare culture. Recent archaeology, along with ancient Greek accounts, links this culture to the Etruscans.
1500 BC Apennine culture.
1300 BC Canegrate culture.
1200 BC Proto-Villanovan culture appears in Italy. It is likely a southern extension of the Urnfield culture. This is possibly the introduction of Italic peoples into the peninsula.
1194 BC According to tradition, the beginning of the Trojan war.
1184 BC According to tradition, the end of the Trojan war and the beginning of the Trojan hero Aeneas's journey when he escaped the Greeks with others in search of a new land.
1181 BC According to legend, Aeneas lands in Italy, marries Lavinia, the daughter of Latinus, king of the Latins.
1151 BC Alba Longa is founded. According to legend, Alba Longa was founded by Ascanius, the son of Aeneas.

8th century BC

800 BC Etruscan civilization. First evidence of Old Italic script.
753 BC 21 April Rome was founded. According to Roman legend, Romulus was the founder and first king of Rome, beginning the Roman Kingdom.
720 BC The first Greek colony of Magna Graecia in mainland Italy, Kyme, is founded. [1]
715 BC Numa Pompilius became the second King of Rome.
706 BC Spartan immigrants found the colony of Taranto in Magna Graecia, Southern Italy.

7th century BC

673 BC Tullus Hostilius became the third King of Rome.
667 BC Byzantium was founded by Megarian colonists.
642 BC Tullus Hostilius died.
The Curiate Assembly, one of the legislative assemblies of the Roman Kingdom, elected Ancus Marcius King of Rome.
630 BC The lyric poet Stesichorus is born in Calabria in Southern Italy.
617 BC Ancus Marcius died.
616 BC The Curiate Assembly elected Lucius Tarquinius Priscus King of Rome.

6th century BC

579 BC Lucius Tarquinius Priscus was killed in a riot instigated by the sons of Ancus Marcius.
575 BC The Senate accepted the regent Servius Tullius as king of Rome.
540 BC The Ancient Greek city of Elea is founded in Southern Italy.
535 BC Servius Tullius was murdered by his daughter Tullia Minor and her husband Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, who declared himself King of Rome on the steps of the Curia Hostilia .
509 BC The patrician Lucretia was raped by Lucius Tarquinius Superbus's son Sextus Tarquinius.
Overthrow of the Roman monarchy : Following Lucretia's suicide, Lucius Junius Brutus called the Curiate Assembly, one of the legislative assemblies of the Roman Kingdom. The latter agreed to the overthrow and expulsion of Lucius Tarquinius Superbus and to a provisional constitution under which two consuls acted as a joint executive and a Curiate Assembly held legislative power, and swore never again to let a king rule Rome. It further elected Lucius Junius Brutus and Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus, Lucretia's husband, as consuls.
Battle of Silva Arsia : Tarquinian and Veientine forces loyal to Lucius Tarquinius Superbus were defeated in the Silva Arsia by a Roman army. Lucius Junius Brutus was killed. Publius Valerius Publicola, returning to Rome with the spoils of war, was awarded the first Roman Triumph on 1 March.
The consul Publius Valerius Publicola promulgated a number of liberal reforms, including opening the office of consul to all Roman citizens and placing the treasury under the administration of appointed quaestors.
13 SeptemberThe Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus was ceremonially dedicated to the Capitoline Triad.
508 BC Roman–Etruscan Wars : A Clusian army failed to conquer Rome.
501 BC In the face of a potential Sabine invasion, the Senate passed a senatus consultum authorizing the consuls to appoint a dictator, a magistrate who held absolute power during a national emergency. The dictator would in turn appoint the Magister equitum , the commander of the cavalry. The consuls Titus Larcius and Postumus Cominius Auruncus selected the former as dictator.

5th century BC

496 BC Battle of Lake Regillus : Latin League invasion near modern Frascati which sought to reinstall Lucius Tarquinius Superbus.
494 BC First secessio plebis:

Lucius Sicinius Vellutus, the plebs abandoned Rome for the nearby Monte Sacro.

474 BC The Battle of Cumae occurs, resulting in a Siracusani and Cumaea victory against the Etruscans and ending Etruscan expansion in Southern Italy.
471 BC After a law allowing organization of the plebs tribe, the Plebeian Council was reorganized by tribes rather than curiae.
459 BC Under popular pressure, the Senate increased the tribunes of the plebs from two to ten.
458 BC During the first dictatorship of Cincinnatus, the Aequians staged an offensive, breaking a truce. Cincinnatus defeated the Aquians at the Battle of Mount Algidus and after a triumph, returned to his farm after sixteen days. [2]
449 BC Resolutions of the Plebeian Council were given the full force of law subject to Senate veto.
The second of two decemviri, specially-elected ten man commissions, issued the last of the Twelve Tables, the fundamental laws of the Republic.
447 BC The Tribal Assembly was established, and granted the right to elect quaestors.
445 BC Marriage between patricians and plebeians was legalized.
443 BC The offices of the Tribuni militum consulari potestate were established. A collegium of three patrician or plebeian tribunes, one each from specific Roman tribes (the Titienses, the Ramnenses, and the Luceres), would hold the power of the consuls from year to year, subject to the Senate.
The office of the censor, a patrician magistrate responsible for conducting the census in years without a consul, was established.
439 BC Cincinnatus was called upon to accept a second dictatorship by the patricians to prevent Spurius Maelius from seizing power; the patricians suspected Spurius of using wheat to purchase the support of the plebeians, to set himself up as a king. Gaius Servilius Ahala was appointed magister equitum in order to stop Maelius; following an attack by Maelius, Ahala slew him. Cincinnatus again resigned his dictatorship and returned to his farm after 21 days. [3]
435 BC Fidenae, an important trade post on the Tiber, was captured from the Veii. [4]
408 BC The Tribuni militum consulari potestate held office.

4th century BC

396 BC Battle of Veii : Roman forces led by the dictator Marcus Furius Camillus conquered Veii.
Roman soldiers first earned a salary ("salary" from Latin for "salt").
394 BC The consuls held office.
391 BC The Tribuni militum consulari potestate held office.
390 BC 18 July Battle of the Allia : The Senones routed a Roman force at the confluence of the rivers Allia and Tiber.
The Senones sacked Rome.
367 BC The consuls held office.
366 BC Lucius Sextius was elected the first plebeian consul.
The office of Praetor , which took the judiciary responsibilities of the consul and could be held only by a patrician, was established.
351 BC The first plebeian dictator was elected.
The first plebeian censor was elected.
343 BC Samnite Wars : Rome marched against the Samnites, probably after an appeal from the Campanians.
Battle of Mount Gaurus : A Samnite force was routed by a Roman army near Mount Barbaro.
342 BC The Leges Genuciae were passed, banning a person from holding two offices at the same time, or during any ten-year period; charging interest on loans was also banned.
341 BC Samnite Wars: The Senate agreed a peace, following an appeal by the Samnite to a previous treaty of friendship.
340 BC Latin War : The Latin League invaded Samnium.
339 BC A law was passed which required the election of at least one plebeian censor every five years.
338 BC Latin War: Rome defeated the Latin League armies.
337 BC The first plebeian Praetor was elected.
328 BC Samnite Wars: Rome declared war on the Samnites after their failure to prevent their subjects raiding Fregellae.
321 BC Battle of the Caudine Forks : After being trapped in a mountain pass near Caudium without a water supply, Roman forces were allowed to retreat by a Samnite army.
315 BC Battle of Lautulae : A decisive Samnite victory near Terracina split Roman territory in two.
311 BC Samnite Wars: The Etruscans laid siege to Sutri.
310 BC Battle of Lake Vadimo (310 BC) : Rome inflicted a substantial military defeat on the Etruscans at Lake Vadimo.
308 BC Samnite Wars: The Umbri, Picentes and Marsi joined the Samnites against Rome.
306 BC The Hernici declared their independence from Rome.
305 BC Battle of Bovianum : A Roman force destroyed the majority of the Samnite army.
304 BC Rome conquered the Aequi.
Samnite Wars: The treaty of friendship between the Romans and Samnites was restored.
The Greek tyrant Agathocles takes the title of king of Sicily.

3rd century BC

300 BC The Lex Ogulnia was passed, allowing plebeians to become priests.
298 BC Samnite Wars: Rome declared war on the Samnites after an appeal by the Lucani.
Samnite Wars: Rome captured the Samnite cities of Bojano and Castel di Sangro.
297 BC Battle of Tifernum : A Roman army defeated a numerically superior Samnite force at Città di Castello.
295 BC Battle of Sentinum : A Roman army decisively defeated a numerically superior force of Samnites, Etruscans, Umbri and Senones in coalition at Sentinum. The consul Publius Decius Mus (consul 312 BC) was killed.
294 BC Samnite Wars: Roman and Samnite forces battled at Lucera.
293 BC Battle of Aquilonia : A Roman army destroyed the majority of Samnite forces, probably in modern Agnone.
A census counted about 270,000 residents of Rome.
291 BC Samnite Wars: Rome conquered and colonized the Samnite city of Venosa.
290 BC Samnite Wars: The last effective Samnite resistance was eliminated.
289 BC Agathocles dies, and democracy is restored in Syracuse due to his wish to not have his sons succeed him as king.
287 BC Conflict of the Orders : A secessio plebis took place.
Conflict of the Orders: The Lex Hortensia was passed, ending the power of the Senate to veto resolutions of the Plebeian Council.
283 BC Battle of Lake Vadimo (283 BC) : A Roman army defeated a combined force of Etruscans, Boii and Senones near Lake Vadimo.
281 BC Taranto appealed to Epirus for aid against Rome.
280 BC Pyrrhic War : An Epirote army of some 25,000 landed at Taranto.
July Battle of Heraclea : A Greek coalition force led by the Epirote king Pyrrhus of Epirus defeated a Roman army after their deployment of war elephants at Heraclea Lucania.
279 BC Battle of Asculum : A Greek force led by the Epirote king Pyrrhus defeated a Roman army at modern Ascoli Satriano, despite suffering heavy losses.
275 BC Battle of Beneventum (275 BC) : Roman and Epirote armies met in a bloody battle at Benevento.
272 BC Pyrrhic War: Pyrrhus withdrew with his army to Epirus.
Pyrrhic War: Taranto surrendered to Rome.
267 BC The number of quaestors was raised from four to ten.
264 BC Battle of Messana : A Roman force defeated a Carthaginian and Siracusani garrison at Messina.
242 BC The office of the praetor qui inter peregrinos ius dicit, a Praetor with jurisdiction over foreigners, was created.
241 BC First Punic War : Sicily was organized as the province of Sicilia.
238 BC Mercenary War : Carthage surrendered its claims on Sardinia and Corsica to Rome.
229 BC Illyrian Wars : Rome invaded the territory of the Ardiaei.
228 BC Illyrian Wars: The Ardiaei surrendered some territory, including strategically significant ports, to Rome, ending the war.
225 BC Battle of Telamon : A Roman army decisively defeated a Gallic invasion near modern Talamone. The consul Gaius Atilius Regulus was killed.
219 BC Illyrian Wars: Rome invaded Hvar.
218 BC Second Punic War : A Carthaginian army departed Cartagena.
Illyrian Wars: Demetrius of Pharos fled to Macedonia.
216 BC 2 August Battle of Cannae : The Carthaginian general Hannibal decisively defeated a numerically superior Roman force at Cannae.
214 BC First Macedonian War : A Macedonian fleet captured Oricum.
Siege of Syracuse (214–212 BC) : Rome laid siege to Syracuse.
212 BC Siege of Syracuse (214–212 BC): Roman forces breached the inner citadel of Syracuse and slaughtered its inhabitants.
205 BC First Macedonian War: Rome and Macedonia signed the Treaty of Phoenice, according to which Macedonia renounced its alliance with Carthage in exchange for Roman recognition of its gains in Illyria.
All the cities of Magna Graecia lost their independence and were annexed to the Roman Republic. [5]
204 BC Second Punic War: The consul Scipio Africanus landed an invasion fleet at Utica.
202 BC 19 October Battle of Zama : A Roman army decisively defeated Carthage, probably near modern Sakiet Sidi Youssef.
202 BC Scipio defeats Hannibal in Africa at the Battle of Zama ending the Second Punic War
201 BC Second Punic War: Carthage accepted Roman conditions for peace, including disarmament, a war indemnity of ten thousand talents, and the cession of Iberia, ending the war.

2nd century BC

200 BC Second Macedonian War : A Roman fleet arrived in Illyria to relieve a Macedonian siege of Abydos.
197 BC The provinces of Hispania Ulterior and Hispania Citerior were organized.
The number of quaestors was increased to twelve.
The number of Praetors was increased to six.
196 BC Second Macedonian War: Macedonia surrendered its conquests in Greece and agreed to pay a war indemnity, ending the war.
192 BC Roman–Seleucid War : The Seleucid Empire invaded Greece.
188 BC Roman–Seleucid War: The Seleucid Empire signed the Treaty of Apamea, under which it surrendered all territory west of the Taurus Mountains to the Roman clients Rhodes and Pergamon and agreed to disarm its navy and pay a war indemnity of fifteen thousand talents of silver to Rome.
180 BC The Lex Villia annalis , which established minimum ages for high office and required a minimum of two years in private life between offices, was passed.
172 BC Third Macedonian War : Rome declared war on Macedonia.
167 BC Third Macedonian War: The Macedonian king Perseus of Macedon was captured. Macedonia was divided into four districts subject to Rome.
155 BC Lusitanian War : The Lusitanians of Hispania Ulterior rebelled against Rome.
150 BC Fourth Macedonian War : An Andriscus rebelled against Rome, claiming to be Perseus's son and the rightful king of Macedonia.
149 BC Third Punic War : Rome declared war on Carthage.
The Lex Calpurnia was passed, establishing a Praetor -led court to hear appeals against extortionate taxes levied by governors in the provinces.
148 BC Fourth Macedonian War: Andriscus was surrendered to Rome to be executed.
146 BC Third Punic War: Roman forces breached the city of Carthage, burned it, and enslaved its surviving inhabitants.
Battle of Corinth (146 BC) : Roman forces decisively defeated the armies of the Achaean League at Corinth.
The province of Macedonia was organized.
The province of Africa was organized on captured Carthaginian territory.
139 BC Lusitanian War: The Lusitanian leader Viriatus was assassinated by his three ambassadors to Rome Audax, Ditalcus and Minurus.
135 BC The First Servile War, an unsuccessful slave revolt against the Roman Republic, begins.
133 BC The Tribune of the Plebs Tiberius Gracchus was beaten to death by a mob of senators led by the Pontifex Maximus Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica Serapio (consul 138 BC).
121 BC The province of Gallia Narbonensis was organized.
The first Senatus consultum ultimum was passed, granting the consul Lucius Opimius emergency powers to defeat the partisans of Gaius Gracchus.
112 BC Jugurthine War : Rome declared war on Numidia.
107 BC Gaius Marius was elected consul.
106 BC Marius was reelected consul.
Jugurthine War: The Numidian king Jugurtha was imprisoned in the Mamertine Prison.
105 BC 6 October Battle of Arausio : A coalition of the Cimbri and Teutons inflicted a serious defeat on the Roman army at modern Orange. Some hundred thousand Roman soldiers were killed.
104 BC

Marius was elected consul for the first of three years in a row.

The Second Servile War, another failed slave rebellion against the Romans, begins.
102 BC Battle of Aquae Sextiae : Rome decisively defeated the forces of the Teutons and Ambrones and killed some ninety thousand soldiers and civilians.
101 BC Battle of Vercellae : An invasion of Italy by the Cimbri was decisively defeated by a numerically inferior Roman force. Some hundred thousand Cimbri soldiers and civilians were killed along with their king Boiorix.

1st century BC (needs editing)

100 BC Julius Caesar is born.
100 BC Marius was elected consul.
10 DecemberAssassin hired by Lucius Appuleius Saturninus and Gaius Servilius Glaucia beat to death Gaius Memmius, a candidate for the consulship.
91 BC The assassination of a tribune named Marcus Livius Drusus helps spark the Marsic War.
91 BC Social War (91–88 BC) : The Roman clients in Italy the Marsi, the Paeligni, the Vestini, the Marrucini, the Picentes, the Fretani, the Hirpini, the Iapyges, Pompeii, Venosa, Lucania and Samnium rebelled against Rome.
88 BC The Marsic War ends in a Roman military victory, though the rest of Italians were granted rights.
88 BC The Roman consul Sulla led an army of his partisans across the pomerium into Rome.
Social War (91–88 BC): The war started.
87 BC First Mithridatic War : Roman forces landed at Epirus.
85 BC First Mithridatic War: A peace was agreed between Rome and Pontus under which the latter returned to its prewar borders.
83 BC Sulla's civil war : Sulla landed with an army at Brindisi.
Second Mithridatic War : The Roman general Lucius Licinius Murena invaded Pontus.
82 BC Sulla's civil war: Sulla was declared dictator.
81 BC Second Mithridatic War: Murena withdrew from Pontus.
80 BC Sertorian War : Quintus Sertorius landed on the Iberian Peninsula in support of a Lusitanian rebellion.
73 BC The Third Servile War begins; one of the participants is the famous Thracian gladiator known as Spartacus. [6]
73 BC Third Mithridatic War : Pontus invaded Bithynia.
Third Servile War : Some seventy gladiators, slaves of Lentulus Batiatus in Capua, made a violent escape.
72 BC Sertorian War: Marcus Perpenna Vento, by now the leader of the Romans in revolt in Iberia, was executed by the general Pompey.
71 BC Like the other Servile Wars, the Third Servile War ends in a Roman victory against the uprising slaves.
71 BC Third Servile War: The slaves in rebellion were decisively defeated by Roman forces near Petelia. Their leader Spartacus was killed.
66 BC The last of the Cilician pirates were wiped out by Pompey.
63 BC Third Mithridatic War: Defeated, the Pontic king Mithridates VI of Pontus ordered his friend and bodyguard to kill him.
Siege of Jerusalem (63 BC) : Pompey conquered Jerusalem and entered the Holy of Holies of the Second Temple.
Cicero was elected consul.
Second Catilinarian conspiracy : A conspiracy led by the senator Catiline to overthrow the Republic was exposed before the Senate. The five conspirators present were summarily executed in the Mamertine Prison.
59 BC Pompey joined a political alliance, the so-called First Triumvirate, with the consul Julius Caesar and the censor Marcus Licinius Crassus.
58 BC Gallic Wars : Roman forces barred the westward migration of the Helvetii across the Rhône.
53 BC 6 May Battle of Carrhae : A Parthian army decisively defeated a numerically superior Roman invasion force near Harran. Crassus was killed.
50 BC Gallic Wars: The last Gaulish rebels were defeated.
49 BC 10 January Caesar's Civil War : Caesar illegally crossed the Rubicon into Italy with his army.
48 BC 4 JanuaryCaesar's Civil War: Caesar landed at Durrës in pursuit of Pompey and his partisans the optimates.
46 BC November Caesar left Africa for Iberia in pursuit of Pompey's sons Gnaeus Pompeius (son of Pompey the Great) and Sextus Pompey.
44 BC 15 March Assassination of Julius Caesar : Caesar was assassinated in the Theatre of Pompey by a conspiracy of senators.
44 BC 15 March, Ides of March Julius Caesar is assassinated.
43 BC 27 NovemberThe Lex Titia was passed, granting the Second Triumvirate of Augustus, Mark Antony and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (triumvir) the power to make and annul laws and appoint magistrates.
42 BC Liberators' civil war : Augustus and Antony led some thirty legions to northern Greece in pursuit of Caesar's assassins Marcus Junius Brutus the Younger and Gaius Cassius Longinus.
23 OctoberLiberators' civil war: Brutus committed suicide after being defeated in battle.
33 BC Antony's Parthian War : A campaign led by Antony against the Parthian Empire ended in failure.
The Second Triumvirate expired.
31 BC 2 September Battle of Actium : Forces loyal to Augustus defeated Antony and his lover Cleopatra, queen of Egypt, in a naval battle near Actium.
30 BC 1 August Final War of the Roman Republic : Antony's forces defected to Augustus. He committed suicide.
30 August Cleopatra committed suicide, probably in Roman custody and by snakebite.
The province of Egypt was organized. Augustus took the title pharaoh.
29 BC Moesia was annexed to Rome.
Cantabrian Wars : Rome deployed some eighty thousand soldiers against the Cantabri in Iberia.
27 BC 16 JanuaryThe Senate granted Augustus the titles augustus , majestic, and princeps , first.
25 BC Augustus indicated his nephew Marcus Claudius Marcellus (Julio-Claudian dynasty) as his chosen successor by marrying him to his only daughter Julia the Elder.
The Roman client Amyntas of Galatia died. Augustus organized his territory as the province of Galatia.
24 BC Augustus' campaigns against the Cantabrians in Hispania Tarraconensis, the Cantabrian Wars, ended.
23 BC Coinage reform of Augustus : Augustus centralized the minting of and reformed the composition and value of the Roman currency.
Marcellus died.
21 BC Augustus married Julia to his general Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa.
19 BC Cantabrian Wars: The last major combat operations ended. The Cantabri and Astures were pacified.
17 BC Augustus adopted the sons of Agrippa and Julia, his grandsons Gaius Caesar and Lucius Caesar, as his own sons.
16 BC Raetia and Noricum were conquered and annexed to Rome.
12 BC Germanic Wars : Roman forces crossed the Rhine into Germania.
Agrippa died of fever.
11 BC Augustus married Julia to his general and stepson Tiberius.
9 BC The Roman general Nero Claudius Drusus died from injuries sustained falling from a horse.
Pannonia was annexed and incorporated into Illyricum.
6 BC Augustus offered Tiberius tribunician power and imperium over the eastern half of the Empire. Tiberius refused, announcing his retirement to Hodson.
2 BC Augustus was acclaimed Pater Patriae , father of the country, by the Senate. [7]
Augustus convicted Julia of adultery and treason, annulled her marriage to Tiberius, and exiled her with her mother Scribonia to Ventotene.

1st century

AD 2 2 August Lucius Caesar died of a sudden illness.
Augustus allowed Tiberius to return to Rome as a private citizen.
AD 4 21 February Gaius Caesar died in Lycia from wounds suffered in battle.
Augustus adopted Tiberius as his son and granted him tribunician power.
AD 6 Augustus deposed Herod Archelaus, ethnarch in Samaria, Judea and Idumea, and organized the province of Judea on his territories.
Bellum Batonianum : The Daesitiates, an Illyrian people, rose up against Roman authority in Illyricum.
AD 9 Bellum Batonianum: The Daesitiate chieftain Bato (Daesitiate chieftain) surrendered to Roman forces.
September Battle of the Teutoburg Forest : A coalition of Germanic forces ambushed and destroyed three Roman legions in the Teutoburg Forest. Publius Quinctilius Varus, the commander of Roman forces in Germania, committed suicide.
AD 10 Tiberius assumed command of Roman forces in Germania.
Illyricum was divided into the provinces of Pannonia and Dalmatia.
AD 13 Tiberius was granted power equal to Augustus as co- princeps .
AD 14 19 August Augustus died.
Germanicus, son of Nero Claudius Drusus and adoptive son of Tiberius, was appointed commander of Roman forces in Germania.
Germanicus and Tiberius's natural son Drusus Julius Caesar were sent to suppress mutinies in Germania and Pannonia, respectively.
AD 15 Lucius Seius Strabo was appointed governor of Egypt. His son Sejanus remained as the sole prefect of the Praetorian Guard.
AD 16 Battle of the Weser River : A Roman army led by Germanicus decisively defeated a Germanic force on the Weser.
AD 17 Archelaus of Cappadocia, king in Cappadocia and a Roman client, died. Tiberius annexed his territory, organizing it as the province of Cappadocia.
Antiochus III of Commagene, king of Commagene and a Roman client, died. Tiberius annexed his territory to the province of Syria.
AD 18 Tiberius granted Germanicus imperium over the eastern half of the Empire.
AD 19 10 October Germanicus died in Antioch, possibly after being poisoned on Tiberius's orders.
AD 22 Tiberius granted Drusus Julius Caesar tribunician power, marking him as his choice as successor.
AD 23 14 September Drusus Julius Caesar died, possibly after being poisoned by Sejanus or his wife Livilla.
AD 26 Tiberius retired to Capri, leaving Sejanus in control of Rome through his office.
AD 28 The Frisii hanged their Roman tax collectors and expelled the governor.
AD 29 Livia, Augustus's widow and Tiberius's mother, died.
AD 31 18 October Sejanus was executed on Tiberius's orders.
Tiberius invited Germanicus's son Caligula to join him on Capri.
AD 37 16 March Tiberius died. His will left his offices jointly to Caligula and Drusus Julius Caesar's son, his grandson Tiberius Gemellus.
AD 38 Tiberius Gemellus was murdered on Caligula's orders.
AD 40 Ptolemy of Mauretania, king of Mauretania and a Roman client, was murdered on Caligula's orders during a state visit to Rome. His slave Aedemon rose in revolt against Roman rule.
AD 41 The general Gaius Suetonius Paulinus was appointed to suppress the rebellion in Mauretania.
24 January Caligula was assassinated by the centurion Cassius Chaerea.
The Praetorian Guard acclaimed Nero Claudius Drusus's son Claudius princeps .
Claudius restored the Judean monarchy under king Herod Agrippa.
AD 42 The territory of the former Mauretania was organized into the provinces of Mauretania Caesariensis and Mauretania Tingitana.
AD 43 Roman conquest of Britain : The senator Aulus Plautius led four legions into Great Britain in support of king Verica of the Atrebates.
Claudius annexed Lycia into the Empire as a province.
AD 46 The Odrysian king Rhoemetalces III, a Roman client, was killed by anti-Roman insurgents.
Odrysia was incorporated into the Empire as the province of Thracia.
AD 48 Claudius's wife Messalina was executed for conspiracy.
Claudius appointed Herod Agrippa's son Herod Agrippa II king of Judea.
AD 49 Claudius married his niece, Germanicus's daughter Agrippina the Younger.
AD 50 Claudius adopted Agrippina's son Nero as his own son.
AD 54 13 October Claudius died after being poisoned by Agrippina. Nero succeeded him as princeps .
AD 55 11 February Claudius's young natural son Britannicus died, probably by poison.
AD 58 Roman–Parthian War of 58–63 : Roman forces attacked Armenia in support of their preferred king Tigranes VI of Armenia against the Parthian candidate Tiridates I of Armenia.
AD 59 23 March Agrippina died, probably murdered by her son Nero.
AD 60 Boudica, a queen of the Iceni, was appointed to lead a revolt of the Iceni and the Trinovantes against Rome.
AD 61 Battle of Watling Street : Some eighty thousand soldiers and civilians among the Iceni and Trinovantes were killed, probably in the modern West Midlands, ending Boudica's revolt.
AD 63 Roman–Parthian War of 58–63: The Roman and Parthian Empires agreed that Tiridates and his descendants would remain kings of Armenia as Roman clients, ending the war.
AD 64 18 July Great Fire of Rome : A fire began which would cause massive property damage and loss of life over six days in Rome.
Nero began construction of his large and extravagant villa the Domus Aurea.
AD 65 19 April Pisonian conspiracy : Nero was informed of a broad conspiracy to assassinate him and appoint the senator Gaius Calpurnius Piso leader of Rome.
AD 66 First Jewish–Roman War : The Jewish population of Judea revolted against Roman rule.
AD 68 9 June Nero, then in hiding in the villa of the freedman Phaon (freedman), was notified that the Senate had declared him an enemy of the state and ordered him brought to the Forum to be publicly beaten to death. He ordered his secretary Epaphroditos to kill him.
The Senate accepted Galba, governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, as ruler of Rome.
Zealot Temple Siege : The forces of Ananus ben Ananus, the Jewish former High Priest of Israel, laid siege to the Zealots in the Second Temple.
AD 69 15 JanuaryThe Praetorian Guard assassinated Galba and acclaimed Otho ruler of Rome.
16 AprilFollowing his defeat by Vitellius, the commander of the Roman army on the lower Rhine, near modern Calvatone, and to prevent further civil war, Otho committed suicide.
Revolt of the Batavi : Gaius Julius Civilis, commander of the Batavi auxiliaries in the Rhine legions, turned against Rome.
DecemberThe Senate recognized Vespasian, the commander of Roman forces in Egypt and Judea, as ruler of Rome.
22 December Vitellius was executed in Rome by troops loyal to Vespasian.
AD 70 Revolt of the Batavi: Following a series of battlefield reversals, Civilis accepted peace terms from the Roman general Quintus Petillius Cerialis.
September Siege of Jerusalem (70 CE) : The Roman general Titus breached the walls of Jerusalem, sacked the city and destroyed the Second Temple.
AD 71 Roman conquest of Britain: Roman forces entered modern Scotland.
AD 73 16 April Siege of Masada : Roman forces breached the walls of Masada, a mountain fortress held by the Jewish extremist sect the Sicarii.
AD 77 Gnaeus Julius Agricola was appointed consul and governor of Britain.
AD 79 23 June Vespasian died. He was succeeded by his son Titus.
24 August Eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 : Mount Vesuvius erupted, destroying the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum. The eruption of Mount Vesuvius spews massive amounts of volcanic gas, ash, and molten rock. Several Roman settlements, including Pompeii and Herculaneum, are annihilated and buried under colossal amounts of ashfall deposits and rock fragments.
AD 80 Rome was partially destroyed by fire.
MarchThe Colosseum was completed.
AD 81 13 September Titus died of fever. He was succeeded by his younger brother Domitian.
AD 85 Agricola was recalled to Rome.
AD 86 Domitian's Dacian War : The Dacian king Decebalus invaded Moesia.
AD 88 Domitian's Dacian War: Decebalus agreed to return all Roman prisoners of war and accept his status as a Roman client in exchange for an annual subsidy of eight million sestertii, ending the war.
AD 89 1 January Lucius Antonius Saturninus, governor of Germania Superior, revolted against Domitian's rule.
Saturninus was executed.
AD 96 18 September Domitian was assassinated by members of the royal household.
Nerva was declared ruler of Rome by the Senate.
AD 97 Nerva adopted the general and former consul Trajan as his son.
AD 98 27 January Nerva died. Trajan succeeded him.

2nd century

101 First Dacian War : Rome invaded Dacia.
September Second Battle of Tapae : Dacian forces retreated from contact with the Romans at Tapae.
102 First Dacian War: The Dacian king Decebalus reaffirmed his loyalty to Rome, ending the war.
105 Second Dacian War : Trajan responded to the resumption of raids on Roman settlements in Moesia by invading Dacia.
106 Battle of Sarmisegetusa : Roman forces breached the Dacian capital Sarmizegetusa Regia. The Dacian king Decebalus escaped to the east.
The Nabatean king Rabbel II Soter died.
22 March Nabatea was annexed to the Roman empire as the province of Arabia Petraea.
Second Dacian War: The Dacian king Decebalus committed suicide in his fortification at Ranisstorum to avoid capture.
107 The province of Dacia was organized.
112 Trajan's Forum was inaugurated.
113 Roman–Parthian Wars: Trajan launched an expedition against Parthia.
Trajan's Column was erected in Trajan's Forum to commemorate the victory over Dacia.
114 Trajan deposed the Armenian king Parthamasiris of Armenia, a Roman client, and organized the province of Armenia on his territory.
115 Kitos War : The Jews in Cyrene rose up against Roman authority.
116 The provinces of Mesopotamia and Assyria were organized on territory conquered from Parthia.
Trajan captured the Parthian capital Ctesiphon and deposed its shah Osroes I in favor of his son Parthamaspates of Parthia.
117 Kitos War: Roman forces captured the rebel stronghold of Lod and executed many of its inhabitants.
8 August Trajan died.
10 AugustThe Senate accepted the general Hadrian as ruler of Rome, following the appearance of documents indicating he had been adopted by Trajan.
Osroes I deposed his son Parthamaspates of Parthia and replaced him as shah of Parthia.
118 Hadrian withdrew from the territories of Armenia, Assyria and Mesopotamia, allowing the return of their respective client monarchies.
119 A rebellion took place in Britain.
122 The construction of Hadrian's Wall at the northern border of Britain began.
123 Hadrian arrived in Mauretania to suppress a local revolt.
124 Hadrian travelled to Greece.
126 Hadrian returned to Rome.
The rebuilt Pantheon was dedicated to Agrippa, its original builder.
132 Bar Kokhba revolt : Simon bar Kokhba, believed by his followers to be the Messiah, launched a revolt against Roman authority in Judea.
135 Bar Kokhba revolt: The revolt ended at a cost of tens of thousands of Roman soldiers and some six hundred thousand Jewish rebels and civilians, including bar Kokhba, killed. Judea and Syria were combined into the single province of Syria Palaestina.
136 Hadrian adopted Lucius Aelius as his son and successor.
138 1 January Lucius Aelius died.
25 February Hadrian adopted Antoninus Pius as his son and successor and granted him tribunician power and imperium , on the condition that he in turn adopt Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus as his sons.
10 July Hadrian died, probably from heart failure.
11 July Antoninus succeeded Hadrian.
141 Roman conquest of Britain: Roman forces invaded modern Scotland under the command of the British governor Quintus Lollius Urbicus.
142 The construction of the Antonine Wall at the northern border of Britain began.
161 7 March Antoninus died. He was succeeded by Marcus and Lucius Verus.
Roman–Parthian War of 161–166 : The Parthian Empire deposed the Armenian king Sohaemus of Armenia, a Roman client, and installed Bakur.
165 Antonine Plague : A pandemic, probably of smallpox or measles, began which would kill some five million people throughout the Roman Empire.
166 Roman–Parthian War of 161–166: Roman forces sacked the Parthian capital Ctesiphon.
169 Lucius Verus died of disease, leaving Marcus the sole ruler of Rome.
Marcomannic Wars : A coalition of Germanic tribes led by the Marcomanni invaded the Roman Empire across the Danube.
175 Marcomannic Wars: Rome and the Iazyges signed a treaty under which the latter agreed to return Roman prisoners of war and supply troops to the Auxilia, ending the war.
177 Marcus named his natural son Commodus co-ruler with himself.
180 17 March Marcus died.
Antonine Plague: The pandemic ended.
184 The Antonine Wall was abandoned by Roman forces.
192 31 December Commodus was strangled to death.
193 1 JanuaryThe Praetorian Guard acclaimed the consul Pertinax ruler of Rome at the Castra Praetoria.
28 March Pertinax was assassinated by the Praetorian Guard.
The Praetorian Guard acclaimed the former consul Didius Julianus, who had provided the highest bid, ruler of Rome.
9 April Pescennius Niger, the legatus Augusti pro praetore of Syria Palaestina, was proclaimed ruler of Rome by his legions.
14 AprilThe Legio XIV Gemina acclaimed its commander Septimius Severus ruler of Rome at Carnuntum.
MayThe Senate recognized Septimius Severus as ruler of Rome and sentenced Julianus to death.
194 Battle of Issus (194) : Niger's forces were decisively defeated by the armies of Septimius Severus at Issus.
196 Clodius Albinus, the commander of Roman troops in Britain and Iberia, took the title Imperator Caesar Decimus Clodius Septimius Albinus Augustus.
197 19 February Battle of Lugdunum : Septimius Severus and Albinus met in battle at Lugdunum.
Albinus committed suicide or was killed.
Roman–Parthian Wars: Septimius Severus sacked the Parthian capital Ctesiphon.
198 Septimius Severus appointed his eldest natural son Caracalla co-ruler with himself.

3rd century

208 Roman invasion of Caledonia 208–210 : Septimius Severus invaded modern Scotland.
209 Septimius Severus named his youngest natural son Publius Septimius Geta co-ruler with himself and Caracalla.
211 4 February Septimius Severus died.
Roman invasion of Caledonia 208–210: Caracalla ended the campaign.
26 December Geta was murdered in his mother's arms by members of the Praetorian Guard loyal to Caracalla.
217 8 April Caracalla was assassinated by a member of his bodyguard.
The Praetorian Guard acclaimed their prefect Macrinus ruler of Rome.
218 8 June Macrinus was captured and executed by an army loyal to Elagabalus, supposedly the illegitimate son of Caracalla.
222 11 March Elagabalus was assassinated by the Praetorian Guard, which installed his young cousin Severus Alexander as ruler of Rome.
230 Roman–Persian Wars : The Sasanian shah Ardashir I invaded Mesopotamia and Syria.
232 Roman–Persian Wars: Alexander repelled the Sasanian invasion.
235 19 March Alexander was killed in a mutiny of the Legio XXII Primigenia at Mainz.
20 MarchThe army elected Maximinus Thrax, commander of the Legio IV Italica, ruler of Rome.
In 235 AD, Maximinus Thrax leads a rebellion against 26-year-old Emperor Alexander Severus. Thrax's men approached Alexander who pleads with his soldiers to take up arms, but instead abandon a weeping Severus to the Imperial tent and his mother's arms there to await capture and execution.

Civil wars would follow with the first breaking out in 238, another in 249 followed by a third in 253. From 235 through 284 the average reign of a Roman Emperor was just 18 months, down from average just over 9 years during the first centuries of the Empire.

238 22 March Gordian I, governor of Africa, accepted the rule of Rome at the urging of rebels in his province. He appointed his son Gordian II to rule jointly with him.
2 AprilThe Senate accepted Gordian I and Gordian II as rulers of Rome.
Battle of Carthage (238) : Forces loyal to Gordian I and Gordian II were defeated by the army of Capelianus, the governor of Numidia, who claimed fealty to Maximinus. Gordian II was killed. Gordian I committed suicide.
22 AprilThe Senate elected two senators, Pupienus and Balbinus, as joint rulers of the Empire.
Facing popular opposition to Pupienus and Balbinus, the Senate gave Gordian I's young grandson Gordian III the title Caesar.
May Maximinus was murdered with his son during a mutiny of the Legio II Parthica at Aquileia.
29 July Pupienus and Balbinus were tortured and murdered by the Praetorian Guard in their barracks.
243 Battle of Resaena : Roman forces defeated the Sasanian Empire at Resaena.
244 Battle of Misiche : The Sasanian Empire decisively defeated a Roman force at Misiche, near modern Fallujah. Gordian III was killed, probably by a fellow Roman. He was succeeded by Philip the Arab, the prefect of the Praetorian Guard, who was forced to cede Mesopotamia and Armenia to the Sasanian Empire.
249 Philip was killed at Verona in battle with Decius, commander of Roman forces in Pannonia and Moesia.
251 Decius appointed his natural son Herennius Etruscus co-ruler of Rome jointly with himself.
Battle of Abritus : Roman forces were dealt a bloody defeat by the Goths near modern Razgrad. Decius and Herennius were killed.
The armies of the Danube region acclaimed their commander Trebonianus Gallus ruler of Rome.
The Senate recognized Decius's son Hostilian as ruler of Rome. Gallus adopted Hostilian as his son.
Plague of Cyprian : Hostilian died, probably of plague.
Gallus appointed his natural son Volusianus co-ruler jointly with himself.
253 Battle of Barbalissos : A Sasanian force destroyed a Roman army at Barbalissos.
August Gallus and Volusianus were killed in a mutiny at Terni. The army acclaimed Aemilianus, governor of Pannonia and Moesia, ruler of Rome.
Aemilianus was killed by his own soldiers in the face of the army of the general Valerian (emperor).
22 October Valerian gave his son Gallienus the title Caesar.
256 The Sasanian Empire conquered and sacked Antioch.
257 Valerian reconquered Antioch.
258 The Goths invaded Asia Minor.
260 Death of Dacian king Regalianus that became Roman emperor for a brief period.
260 Valerian was taken prisoner by the Sasanian Empire during truce negotiations.
SeptemberThe general Postumus was declared ruler of Rome in the Gallic Empire.
264 Valerian died in captivity.
267 Odaenathus, the king of Palmyra and a Roman client, was assassinated. His widow Zenobia took power as regent for their son Vaballathus.
268 Gallienus was murdered by his soldiers during a siege of Pontirolo Nuovo.
SeptemberThe general Claudius Gothicus was declared ruler of Rome by his soldiers.
269 Postumus was killed by his soldiers, who in turn acclaimed one of their own, Marcus Aurelius Marius, emperor of the Gallic Empire.
Marius was murdered by Victorinus, formerly prefect of Postumus's Praetorian Guard, who replaced him as emperor of the Gallic Empire.
Zenobia conquered Egypt.
Battle of Naissus : Roman forces decisively defeated the Goths at modern Niš, stalling an invasion of the Balkans.
270 January Claudius Gothicus died. He was succeeded by his brother Quintillus.
April Quintillus died at Aquileia.
September Aurelian became ruler of Rome.
271 Battle of Fano : A Roman force defeated the Juthungi on the Metauro.
Victorinus was murdered by an officer he had cuckolded.
Tetricus I, praeses of Gallia Aquitania was acclaimed emperor of the Gallic Empire. He appointed his natural son Tetricus II to rule jointly with him.
272 Zenobia was arrested en route to refuge in the Sasanian Empire.
273 Palmyra rebelled against Roman authority and was destroyed.
274 Battle of Châlons (274) : Aurelian defeated the forces of Tetricus I and Tetricus II at modern Châlons-en-Champagne.
275 September Aurelian was murdered by the Praetorian Guard.
25 SeptemberThe Senate elected Tacitus (emperor) ruler of Rome.
276 June Tacitus died.
Marcus Aurelius Probus, commander of Roman forces in the east and Tacitus's half-brother, was acclaimed ruler of Rome by his troops.
Florianus, prefect of the Praetorian Guard and commander of Roman forces in the west, was acclaimed ruler of Rome by his troops.
September Florianus was assassinated near Tarsus by his troops following a defeat at the hands of Probus.
279 Probus launched a campaign against the Vandals in Illyricum.
282 The Praetorian Guard elected their prefect Carus ruler of Rome.
Probus was assassinated.
Carus gave his sons Carinus and Numerian the title Caesar.
283 Carus died.
284 Numerian died.
20 NovemberRoman forces in the east elected the consul Diocletian their ruler and proclaimed him augustus .
285 July Battle of the Margus : Forces loyal to Diocletian defeated Carinus in battle on the Morava. Carinus was killed.
July Diocletian gave Maximian the title Caesar.
286 Carausian Revolt : The naval commander Carausius declared himself emperor in Britain and northern Gaul.
2 April Diocletian proclaimed Maximian augustus of the west, ruling himself as augustus of the east.
293 Diocletian established the Tetrarchy, appointing Constantius Chlorus to hold the office of Caesar under Maximian in the west and Galerius to hold the title under himself in the east.
Carausian Revolt: Constantius Chlorus conquered Carausius's Gallic territories.
Carausius was murdered by his finance minister Allectus, who replaced him as emperor in Britain.
296 Carausian Revolt: Allectus was defeated in battle and killed at Calleva Atrebatum.

4th century

301 Diocletian issued the Edict on Maximum Prices, reforming the currency and setting price ceilings on a number of goods.
303 24 February Diocletianic Persecution : Diocletian issued his first edict against Christians, calling for the destruction of Christian holy books and places of worship and stripping Christians of their government positions and political rights.
305 1 May Diocletian and Maximian abdicated. Constantius and Galerius were elevated to augusti in the west and east. Galerius appointed Flavius Valerius Severus Caesar in the west and Maximinus II Caesar in the east.
306 25 July Constantius died at Eboracum. By his dying wish, his troops acclaimed his son Constantine the Great augustus .
Galerius recognized Flavius Valerius Severus as augustus in the west and granted Constantine the Great the lesser title of Caesar, which he accepted.
Civil wars of the Tetrarchy : Rioters in Rome acclaimed Maximian's son Maxentius ruler of Rome. He took the title princeps invictus, undefeated prince.
Maxentius invited Maximian to reclaim the title augustus .
307 Civil wars of the Tetrarchy: Flavius Valerius Severus surrendered to Maximian at Ravenna.
Civil wars of the Tetrarchy: Galerius laid siege to Rome. Many of his soldiers defected to Maxentius and he was forced to flee.
308 Civil wars of the Tetrarchy: After a failed coup against his son Maxentius, Maximian was forced to flee to Constantine's court.
11 November Maximian resigned as augustus . Galerius appointed Licinius augustus of the west and confirmed his recognition of Constantine the Great as Caesar of the west.
310 JulyCivil wars of the Tetrarchy: Maximian was forced to commit suicide following a failed coup against Constantine the Great.
311 May Galerius died. Licinius and Maximinus agreed to divide the eastern Empire between themselves.
Civil wars of the Tetrarchy: Constantine the Great concluded an alliance with Licinius, offering his half-sister Flavia Julia Constantia to him in marriage.
Civil wars of the Tetrarchy: Maximinus entered a secret alliance with Maxentius.
3 December Diocletian died, possibly from suicide.
312 28 October Battle of the Milvian Bridge : Constantine the Great had a vision of the cross appearing over the sun at the Ponte Milvio with the words "in this sign, conquer." His forces defeated and killed Maxentius.
313 February Constantine the Great and Licinius issued the Edict of Milan, providing for restitution to Christians injured during the persecutions.
March Licinius married Constantia.
30 April Battle of Tzirallum : Licinius defeated a vastly numerically superior force loyal to Maximinus at modern Çorlu. Maximinus fled to Nicomedia.
August Maximinus died at Tarsus.
314 8 October Battle of Cibalae : Constantine the Great dealt a bloody defeat to Licinius's forces at modern Vinkovci.
317 Battle of Mardia : After a bloody battle, probably at modern Harmanli, Licinius retreated from contact with Constantine the Great.
1 March Licinius recognized Constantine the Great as his superior, ceded all his territories outside of Thrace, and agreed to depose and execute Valerius Valens, whom he had raised to augustus .
324 3 July Battle of Adrianople (324) : Licinius suffered a bloody defeat at the hands of Constantine the Great on the Maritsa.
18 September Battle of Chrysopolis : Constantine the Great dealt a decisive defeat to the remnants of Licinius's army. Licinius surrendered.
325 20 May First Council of Nicaea : An ecumenical council called by Constantine the Great at Nicaea opened which would establish the Nicene Creed, asserting Jesus to be equal to and of the same substance as God the Father.
Licinius was executed.
326 Constantine the Great ordered the death of his oldest son Crispus.
330 11 May Constantine the Great moved his capital to Byzantium and renamed the city Constantinople, city of Constantine.
332 Constantine the Great campaigned against the Goths.
334 Constantine the Great campaigned against the Sarmatians.
337 Roman–Persian Wars: The Sasanian shah Shapur II invaded Armenia and Mesopotamia.
22 May Constantine the Great died.
9 September Constantine the Great's three sons declared themselves augusti and divided their father's empire into three parts, with Constantine II (emperor) receiving Britain, Iberia, Gaul and Illyria, Constantius II Asia, Syria Palaestina and Egypt, and Constans Italy and Africa. The young Constans was placed under Constantine II's guardianship.
338 Constantine II campaigned against the Alemanni.
Constantine II granted Illyria to his brother Constans.
340 Constantine II invaded Italy. He was ambushed and slain at Aquileia by Constans, who inherited his territory.
341 Constans and Constantius II issued a ban against pagan sacrifice.
344 Siege of Singara : Sasanian forces failed to capture the Roman fortress of Singara.
350 18 January Magnentius, commander of the Jovians and Herculians, was acclaimed ruler of Rome by his legions.
Constans was killed in Elne by followers of Magnentius.
3 June Constantius Chlorus's grandson Nepotianus entered Rome with a band of gladiators and there declared himself imperator.
30 June Marcellinus (magister officiorum), one of Magnentius's generals, entered Rome and executed Nepotianus.
351 15 March Constantius II granted his cousin Constantius Gallus the title Caesar.
28 September Battle of Mursa Major : Constantius II defeated Magnentius in a bloody battle in the valley of the Drava.
353 Battle of Mons Seleucus : Constantius II dealt Magnentius a decisive defeat at modern La Bâtie-Montsaléon. Magnentius committed suicide.
354 Gallus was put to death.
355 6 November Constantius II declared Julian (emperor) Caesar and granted him command in Gaul.
357 Battle of Strasbourg : Julian defeated a vastly superior Alemanni force near Argentoratum, solidifying Roman control west of the Rhine.
360 FebruaryThe Petulantes , ordered east from Paris in preparation for a war with the Sasanian Empire, instead mutinied and proclaimed Julian augustus .
361 3 November Constantius II named Julian as his successor before dying of fever.
363 5 March Julian's Persian War : Roman forces embarked from Antioch on a punitive expedition against the Sasanian Empire.
26 June Battle of Samarra : Sasanian forces harassed a Roman army in retreat at Samarra from a failed siege of their capital Ctesiphon. Julian was killed.
27 June Julian's army declared one of their generals, Jovian (emperor), augustus .
JulyJulian's Persian War: Jovian agreed to cede the five provinces east of the Tigris to the Sasanian Empire, ending the war.
364 17 February Jovian died.
26 FebruaryThe army acclaimed the general Valentinian I the Great augustus .
28 March Valentinian the Great appointed his younger brother Valens augustus with rule over the eastern Empire, and continued as augustus in the west.
36521 JulyAn earthquake near Crete with a magnitude of at least eight affects the Eastern Mediterranean. Combined with a subsequent tsunami, residents of Sicily are among the casualties.
375 17 November Valentinian the Great died of a stroke. His son Gratian, then junior augustus in the west, succeeded him as senior augustus.
22 NovemberThe army acclaimed Valentinian the Great's young son Valentinian II augustus of the west.
376 Fleeing Hunnic aggression, the Goths, under the leadership of the Thervingi chieftain Fritigern, crossed the Danube and entered the eastern Empire as political refugees.
Gothic War (376–382) : Following the deaths of several Roman soldiers during civil unrest in Thrace, the officer Lupicinus arrested Fritigern and the Greuthungi chieftain Alatheus.
378 9 August Battle of Adrianople : A combined Gothic-Alanic force decisively defeated the Roman army near Edirne. Valens was killed.
379 19 January Gratian named the general Theodosius I the Great augustus in the east.
380 27 February Theodosius the Great issued the Edict of Thessalonica, making Christianity the state church of the Roman Empire.
382 3 OctoberGothic War (376–382): The Goths were made foederati of Rome and granted land and autonomy in Thrace, ending the war.
383 25 August Gratian was delivered by mutineers to the Magister equitum Andragathius and executed.
392 15 May Valentinian II was found hanged in his residence. He may have been murdered by his guardian, the Frankish general Arbogast (magister militum).
22 August Arbogast declared Eugenius augustus and ruler in the west.
393 23 January Theodosius the Great appointed his younger son Honorius (emperor) augustus in the west.
394 6 September Battle of the Frigidus : Forces loyal to Theodosius the Great defeated and killed Arbogast and Eugenius, probably near the Vipava.
395 17 January Theodosius the Great died. His elder son Arcadius succeeded him as augustus in the eastern Byzantine Empire. The young Honorius became sole augustus in the Western Roman Empire under the regency of Magister militum Stilicho.
398 Gildonic War : Gildo, comes of Africa, was killed following a failed rebellion against the Western Roman Empire.

5th century

402 The capital of the Western Roman Empire was moved to Ravenna.
406 31 December Crossing of the Rhine : A coalition of foreign tribes including the Germanic Vandals, Suebi and Iranian Alans invaded the Western Roman Empire across the Rhine.
408 1 May Arcadius died.
410 24 August Sack of Rome (410) : Rome was sacked by the Visigoths under their king Alaric I.
End of Roman rule in Britain : The last Roman forces left Britain.
421 8 February Honorius appointed his brother-in-law and Magister militum Constantius III co-ruler of the Western Roman Empire with himself.
2 September Constantius III died.
423 15 August Honorius died.
The Western Roman patrician Castinus declared the primicerius Joannes augustus .
424 23 OctoberThe Byzantine augustus Theodosius II the Younger, the Calligrapher named the young Valentinian III, his cousin and Constantius III's son, Caesar with rule over the west. His mother Galla Placidia was appointed regent.
425 Joannes was executed in Aquileia.
447 Battle of the Utus : The Huns under Attila defeated a Byzantine army in a bloody battle near the river Utus.
450 28 July Theodosius the Younger died in a riding accident.
452 Attila abandoned his invasion of Italy following a meeting at the Mincio with the pope Pope Leo I.
455 16 March Valentinian III was assassinated on orders of the senator Petronius Maximus.
17 MarchThe Senate acclaimed Maximus augustus of the Western Roman Empire.
31 May Maximus was killed by a mob as he attempted to flee Rome in the face of a Vandal advance.
2 June Sack of Rome (455) : The Vandals entered and began to sack Rome.
9 JulyThe Magister militum Avitus was pronounced augustus of the Western Roman Empire at Toulouse by the Visigothic king Theodoric II.
456 17 October Avitus was forced to flee Rome following a military coup by the general Ricimer and the domesticus Majorian.
457 Avitus died.
27 JanuaryThe Byzantine augustus Marcian died.
28 FebruaryThe Byzantine augustus Leo I the Thracian appointed Majorian Magister militum in the west.
1 AprilThe army acclaimed Majorian augustus of the Western Roman Empire.
461 7 August Majorian was killed after torture near the Staffora on Ricimer's orders.
19 NovemberThe Senate elected Libius Severus from among their number as augustus of the Western Roman Empire.
465 15 August Severus died.
467 12 April Leo the Thracian elevated the comes Anthemius to Caesar with rule over the Western Roman Empire.
468 Battle of Cap Bon (468) : The Vandal Kingdom destroyed a combined Western Roman and Byzantine invasion fleet at Cap Bon.
472 11 July Anthemius was killed in flight following Ricimer's conquest of Rome. Maximus's son Olybrius was acclaimed augustus of the Western Roman Empire.
18 August Ricimer died.
Ricimer's nephew Gundobad succeeded him as Magister militum and took the title Patrician.
Olybrius died.
473 3 MarchThe Germanic elements of the army elected the domesticus Glycerius augustus of the Western Roman Empire.
Gundobad relinquished his Western Roman titles to succeed his father as king of Burgundy.
474 Leo the Thracian appointed Julius Nepos, his nephew and governor of Dalmatia, ruler of the Western Roman Empire in opposition to Glycerius.
18 January Leo the Thracian died. He was succeeded by his grandson Leo II (emperor).
9 February Zeno (emperor) became co- augustus of the Byzantine Empire with his young son Leo II.
July Nepos deposed Glycerius.
17 November Leo II died, possibly after being poisoned by his mother Ariadne (empress).
475 January Zeno was forced to flee Constantinople for his homeland Isauria in the face of a popular revolt.
9 January Basiliscus, brother of Leo the Thracian's widow Verina, was acclaimed augustus of the Byzantine Empire by the Byzantine Senate.
Nepos appointed Orestes (father of Romulus Augustulus) Magister militum and commander-in-chief of the Western Roman military.
28 August Orestes took control of the Western Roman capital Ravenna, forcing Nepos to flee to Dalmatia.
31 October Orestes declared his young son Romulus Augustulus augustus of the Western Roman Empire.
476 August Zeno recaptured Constantinople and accepted Basiliscus's surrender.
23 August Germanic foederati under the command of the general Odoacer renounced Western Roman authority and declared Odoacer their king.
28 August Odoacer captured and executed Orestes at Piacenza.
4 September Odoacer conquered the Western Roman capital Ravenna, forced Romulus to abdicate and declared himself king of Italy, the first King of Italy
The Senate sent Zeno the imperial regalia of the Western Roman Empire.
480 25 April Nepos was murdered in his residence in Split.
491 9 April Zeno died.
493An Ostrogoth known as Theoderic the Great succeeds Odoacer as King of Italy.

6th century

518 9 July Augustus Anastasius I Dicorus died.
527 1 April Augustus Justin I appointed his older son Justinian I the Great co-augustus with himself.
1 August Justin I died.
529 7 AprilThe Codex Justinianus , which attempted to consolidate and reconcile contradictions in Roman law, was promulgated.
St. Benedict of Nursia establishes his first monastery at the hill of Monte Cassino.
532 Justinian the Great ordered the construction of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople.
533 21 June Vandalic War : A Byzantine force under the general Belisarius departed for the Vandal Kingdom.
13 September Battle of Ad Decimum : A Byzantine army defeated a Vandal force near Carthage.
15 December Battle of Tricamarum : The Byzantines defeated a Vandal army and forced their king Gelimer into flight.
534 MarchVandalic War: Gelimer surrendered to Belisarius and accepted his offer of a peaceful retirement in Galatia, ending the war. The territory of the Vandal Kingdom was reorganized as the praetorian prefecture of Africa.
535 Gothic War (535–554) : Byzantine forces crossing from Africa invaded Sicily, then an Ostrogothic possession.
536 DecemberGothic War (535–554): Byzantium took Rome with little Ostrogothic resistance.
537 27 DecemberThe Hagia Sophia was completed.
552 July Battle of Taginae : A Byzantine army dealt a decisive defeat to the Ostrogoths at Gualdo Tadino. The Ostrogoth king Totila was killed.
553 Battle of Mons Lactarius : An Ostrogothic force was ambushed and destroyed at Monti Lattari on its way to relieve a Byzantine siege of Cumae. The Ostrogoth king Teia was killed.
565 March Belisarius died.
14 November Justinian the Great died.
568 The Lombards invade the Italian Peninsula and establish the Kingdom of the Lombards.
573 The general Narses died.
574 Augustus Justin II began to suffer from fits of insanity.
578 5 October Justin II died.
582 14 August Augustus Tiberius II Constantine died.

7th century

602 Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 : The Sasanian Empire declared war on Byzantium.
607 1 August Augustus Phocas dedicated the Column of Phocas in the Roman Forum.
626 June Siege of Constantinople (626) : Sasanian and Avar forces laid siege to Constantinople.
634 April Muslim conquest of the Levant : A Rashidun army departed Medina for the Levant.
640 January Muslim conquest of Egypt : A Rashidun force laid siege to Pelusium.
The legions of the East Roman army were reorganized into themes.
641 8 November Siege of Alexandria (641) : Byzantine authorities in the Egyptian capital Alexandria surrendered to the besieging Rashidun army.
661 Brothers Perctarit and Godepert share the ruling power of King of the Lombards.
662 Grimoald, King of the Lombards.
663 Basileus Constans II visited Rome.
698 Battle of Carthage (698) : An Umayyad siege and blockade of Carthage forced the retreat of Byzantine forces. The city was conquered and destroyed.

8th century

730 Basileus Leo III the Isaurian promulgated an edict forbidding the veneration of religious images, beginning the first Byzantine Iconoclasm.
774 10 July Charlemagne is crowned in Pavia and becomes King of the Lombards.
787 23 October Second Council of Nicaea : An ecumenical council in Nicaea ended which endorsed the veneration of images, ending the first Byzantine Iconoclasm.

9th century

813Charlemagne crowns his son Louis the Pious of Aquitaine as co-emperor.
81428 JanuaryCharlemagne dies in Aachen of pleurisy.

10th century

96125 December Otto I becomes King of Italy.
9737 MayOtto I succumbs to a fever and dies.
98025 December Otto II becomes King of Italy.
9837 DecemberOtto II dies due to an outbreak of malaria.
99612 April Otto III becomes King of Italy.

11th century

100223 JanuaryOtto III dies of a sudden fever in a castle near Civita Castellana.
1046Italian feudal ruler and militant noblewoman Matilda of Tuscany is born.
1087In the Mahdia campaign of 1087, seafaring vessels from the Italian maritime republics of Genoa and Pisa attack the North African town of Mahdia, burning Mahdia's Muslim fleet in the harbour.

12th century

111524 JulyMatilda of Tuscany dies of gout.
1170Leonardo of Pisa, an Italian mathematician more famously known as Fibonacci, is born.
117629 May Battle of Legnano : the troops of the Lombard League defeated forces of the Holy Roman Empire. The battle is alluded to in the Canto degli Italiani by Goffredo Mameli and Michele Novaro, which reads: «From the Alps to Sicily, Legnano is everywhere» in memory of the victory of Italian populations over foreign ones. [8] Thanks to this battle, Legnano is the only city, besides Rome, to be mentioned in the Italian national anthem. [8]
1194 Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor conquered Kingdom of Sicily.

13th century

1202Fibonacci's Liber Abaci , a book on arithmetic, helps to popularise the Hindu–Arabic numeral system and brings the idea of the integer sequence known as the Fibonacci number to locations outside India.
1254 Marco Polo is born in the Republic of Venice.
1265 Dante Alighieri is born. He is considered the father of the Italian language for writing works in his dialect, which would become standardized into Modern Italian.

14th century

1308 Dante Alighieri begins writing the Divine Comedy.
1320 Dante Alighieri finished writing his Divine Comedy.
1377 Filippo Brunelleschi, a famous Italian architect, is born in Florence, Italy.

15th century

1451October Christopher Columbus is born.
145215 April Leonardo da Vinci is born
14756 March Michelangelo is born
1494The Italian War of 1494–1498, or First Italian War, begins, marking the first major battle in the Italian Wars.
1498The First Italian War ends in a victory for the League of Venice.
1499The Italian War of 1499-1504, or Second Italian War, begins.

16th century

1501-1504Michelangelo created the David
1503-1513Reign of pope Julius II
15256 MayThe Sack of Rome (1527) happens due to mutinous troops of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor during the War of the League of Cognac. It's considered one of the causes of the decline of the High Renaissance.
1551The Italian War of 1551-1559, or Last Italian War begins.
1545-1563 Council of Trent
15593 AprilThe Last Italian War ends with a peace treaty signed between Henry II of France, Elizabeth I of England, Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, and Philip II of Spain at Le Cateau-Cambrésis.
1564 15 February Galileo is born in Pisa.

17th century

1633The Palio di Siena is held for the first time.
16784 March Antonio Vivaldi, a famous Italian Baroque composer, is born in Venice.

18th century

1725Antonio Vivaldi publishes a now-famous set of concertos entitled The Four Seasons as part of a set of twelve concerti called Il cimento dell'armonia e dell'inventione .
174128 JulyWithout a sustainable source of income or royal protection, the impoverished Antonio Vivaldi dies of infection during the night.
1768 Corsica passes from the Republic of Genoa to France after the Treaty of Versailles.
178921 AugustThe national colours of Italy first appear on a tricolour cockade.
1796 Napoleon Bonaparte and his French Army of Italy invade Italy.
17 NovemberNapoleon defeats József Alvinczi at the Battle of Arcole. [9]
17977 JanuaryThe Italian tricolour is adopted for the first time as official flag, by the government of the Cispadane Republic.
12 May Fall of the Republic of Venice.

19th century

1809Napoleon Bonaparte occupies Rome, exiles Pope Pius VII to Savona and then to France, and takes the Papal States' art collections to the Louvre.
181310 October Giuseppe Verdi is born
1821A revolt in Piedmont, led by Annibale Santorre di Rossi de Pomarolo, takes place in an attempt to remove the Austrians from Italy and unify the Italian territories under the House of Savoy.
1830A series of uprisings along the Italian Peninsula occur, calling out for the merging of the different territories in the peninsula into one unified nation.
1831SpringAustrian troops gradually crush political resistance along the Italian peninsula.
JulyThe political movement Young Italy is formed by activist Giuseppe Mazzini, promoting insurrection in Italian states and Austrian lands to help unify Italy. [10]
183428 MayMazzini is arrested in Solothurn and exiled from Switzerland.
1846 Pope Pius IX is elected, and his support of the unification of Italy helps to further popularise the movement. [11]
184710 December Il Canto degli Italiani , the Italian national anthem since 1946, makes its public debut.
1848Fuelled by the revolutionary republican ideology of Mazzini, uprisings lead to revolutionary governments being briefly installed in Rome, Milan (see Cinque giornate di Milano), and Venice, and the establishment of constitutions in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the Papal States, and Tuscany. Takeover by reactionary forces and the defeat of Piedmont-Sardinia by Austria lead to a failure in the First Italian War of Independence.
18499 FebruaryA Roman Republic is declared following an election.
MarchMazzini arrives in Rome and is appointed Chief Minister of the Roman Republic.
1856The Congress of Paris, a peace conference held between Austria, France, Prussia, the Kingdom of Great Britain, the Ottoman Empire, the Russian Empire, and the Kingdom of Sardinia, is held to make peace after the Crimean War.
Italian statesman Camillo Benso of Cavour disparages Austria's intrusive presence in the Italian Peninsula.
1858 Napoleon III and Cavour meet secretly in France, in Plombières-les-Bains, where they make the Plombières Agreement. They decide that Cavour will provoke rebellion in Austrian territories in Northern Italy so as to tempt Austria into making a military decision.
1859After having allied with France, under the lead of Cavour, the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia provokes Austria to war and secure the takeover of Milan and Lombardy (Second Italian War of Independence). Plebiscites subsequently guarantee the annexation of Tuscany, Emilian dukedoms, and Papal-controlled central Italy. Savoy and Nice are ceded to France in exchange for recognition. (to 1860) The annexation of Nice to France caused the Niçard exodus, or the emigration of a quarter of the Niçard Italians to Italy, [12] and the Niçard Vespers.
1860The Expedition of the Thousand takes place, in which volunteers led by Giuseppe Garibaldi set out to conquer the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, which collapses. The Papal States are reduced to Latium.
186117 MarchMost of the states of the Italian Peninsula are united under King Victor Emmanuel II of the Savoy dynasty, proclamated King of Italy.
1865The capital of Italy is moved from Turin to Florence, in order to approach it to Rome, considered the natural capital, but still under Papal rule and French protection.
186620 June – 12 AugustThe Third Italian War of Independence, between the Kingdom of Italy and Austrian Empire, occurs, resulting in no true victory by either side.
3 OctoberAfter some heavy losses, like Custoza and Lissa, and few wins (most of them by Giuseppe Garibaldi), thanks to Prussian victories the Kingdom of Italy gains Veneto and western Friuli by the Treaty of Vienna. Trento and Trieste remains "irredeemed".
187020 SeptemberFollowing the defeat of Napoleon III in the French-Prussian War, Italian forces occupy Rome, which becomes the new capital of Italy the following year. The Italian Army breaks into the walls of Rome by the breach of Porta Pia.
2 OctoberRome replaces Florence as the capital city of Italy.
18783 JanuaryKing Victor Emmanuel II of Italy dies.
9 JanuaryVictor Emmanuel II's son, Umberto I, takes the throne.
18825 JulyThe bay of Assab (Eritrea) becomes the first official Italian colonial possession in Africa.
1889 Somalia is established as the second Italian colony in Africa.
189521-year-old Guglielmo Marconi invents the radio telegraph.
1896The French Lumière brothers publicly screen some of the earliest films in the history of cinema in various locations in Italy. The first Italian director is considered to be Vittorio Calcina, a collaborator of the Lumière Brothers, who filmed Pope Leo XIII in 1896, giving birth to the cinema of Italy. [13]
1900the population is about 32.4 million
29 JulyKing Umberto I is assassinated. Umberto I's son, Victor Emmanuel III, takes the throne

20th century

1906 The poet Giosuè Carducci is the first Italian to win the Nobel Prize in Literature.
1907 Maria Montessori establishes her first Casa dei Bambini in Rome.
Ernestina Prola becomes the first Italian woman to get a driving licence.
1908The 7.1 Mw Messina earthquake shakes Southern Italy with a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI (Extreme), killing between 75,000 and 200,000.
1911Italy defeats the Ottoman Empire and gains control over Libya and the Rhodes archipelago.
The Anniversary of the Unification of Italy is established.
4 JuneThe Altare della Patria is solemnly inaugurated.
191523 MayAlthough initially aligned with Germany and Austria-Hungary, Italy enters World War I on the side of the Anglo-French Allies after the Treaty of London.
19184 November Armistice of Villa Giusti, with which Austria-Hungary surrenders to Italy, ending the war. After World War I, Italy expands its borders well beyond Trento and Trieste, including Bolzano/Bozen, Pola/Pula, Fiume/Rijeka and Zara/Zadar.
1919 Benito Mussolini and his supporters found the Fasci Italiani di Combattimento, the predecessor of the National Fascist Party.
Enzo Ferrari, having no other job perspective, eventually settles for a job at a small car company called CMN (Costruzioni Meccaniche Nazionali) redesigning used truck bodies into small passenger cars.
The National Unity and Armed Forces Day is established.
19214 NovemberThe body of the Italian Unknown Soldier is solemnly buried at the Altare della Patria.
1922After the lack of a compromise between socialists and Christian-democrats, and the March on Rome of the fascist militias, Benito Mussolini is named by the King as prime minister of Italy.
1926Mussolini assumes dictatorial powers.
The novelist Grazia Deledda is the first Italian woman who is awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature.
19293 JanuaryItalian film director Sergio Leone is born.
1934The Italy national football team wins its first FIFA World Cup.
1936Following the invasion of Ethiopia, Italy is expelled from the League of Nations. Mussolini and Hitler signed the Rome-Berlin Axis.
1938The Italy national football team wins its second FIFA World Cup.
Enrico Fermi is awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on induced radioactivity.
1940Italy enters World War II by invading Greece from Albania, which had been occupied in 1939.
1941While they are confined on the island of Ventotene by the Fascist regime, Altiero Spinelli and Ernesto Rossi compile the Ventotene Manifesto, entitled "Towards a Free and United Europe". With his Manifesto, Spinelli gives the major contribution to the formulation of the Federalist thinking and is later one of the main figures of the European Parliament.
1943Nazi troops occupy Northern Italy, release Mussolini from prison and have him leading the puppet Italian Social Republic. Anglo-American troops fight in the following two years to free the whole peninsula. The Italian Resistance plays a growing role in harassing German occupation forces.
25 JulyAfter the Allied occupy Sicily, the government of Mussolini is overthrown by the same Grand Council of Fascism.
8 SeptemberGeneral Badoglio signs the Armistice of Cassibile.
194525 AprilMilan is finally liberated on 25 April 1945. Resistance fighters catch Benito Mussolini as he flees north in the hope of reaching Switzerland. They shoot him along with his lover, Clara Petacci. The corpses are brought back to Milan and hang in a gas station in Piazzale Loreto.
2 May Surrender of Caserta, whereby the German forces in Italy surrender, ending the Italian Campaign of World War II and the Italian Civil War.
10 December Alcide De Gasperi becomes prime minister, holding the office until 1953. He is one of the Founding Fathers of the European Union and the first republican prime minister of Italy.
194622 AprilThe Liberation Day is established.
2 June Italians vote to abolish the monarchy and establish a new republic; King Umberto II, who succeeded his father Victor Emmanuel III on 9 May 1946, goes into exile.
10 June Birth of the Italian Republic: Italy becomes a republic after the results of a popular referendum. The Constituent Assembly is elected to draft the Republican Constitution and women are granted suffrage.
1947 Primo Levi publishes If This Is a Man , based on his experiences in Auschwitz. [14]
10 February Treaty of Paris between Italy and the Allied Powers, with which Istria, Kvarner, most of the Julian March as well as the Dalmatian city of Zara was annexed by Yugoslavia from Italy causing the Istrian-Dalmatian exodus, which led to the emigration of between 230,000 and 350,000 of local ethnic Italians (Istrian Italians and Dalmatian Italians), the others being ethnic Slovenians, ethnic Croatians, and ethnic Istro-Romanians, choosing to maintain Italian citizenship. [15]
The Festa della Repubblica is established.
194818 AprilThe general election sanctions the supremacy of the Christian Democracy party, and the belonging of Italy to the Western side.
24 NovemberThe film Bicycle Thieves is released. [16]
22 DecemberThe Constitution of the Italian Republic, agreed between Christian-democrats, Socialists and Communists, comes into force.
1949Italy joins NATO.
1952Italy becomes a founding member of the European Coal and Steel Community.
195310 FebruaryThe national oil company ENI (Ente Nazionale Idrocarburi) is established, with Enrico Mattei as his first President. The ENI will become a strong actor in Italian foreign policy towards Arab countries.
1954The state-owned RAI broadcasts the first Italian official TV program.
1955The Messina Conference achieves the basic agreement on the European Economic Community
Italy joins the United Nations, along with fifteen other states, after years of stalemate due to opposed vetoes between the United States and the Soviet Union.
1957The Treaty of Rome founds the European Economic Community.
195822 SeptemberSinger-songwriter Andrea Bocelli is born in Lajatico.
1959 Valentino opens his first atelier, in Rome on Via Condotti.
1960Italian film director Federico Fellini shoots La Dolce Vita , an episodic study of life along Via Veneto in Rome.
Rightist riots in Reggio Calabria against the regional capital being set in Catanzaro.
Leftist riots in Genoa and Reggio Emilia against the Tambroni Cabinet led by Fernando Tambroni, a coalition between DC and post-fascist Italian Social Movement.
25 AugustThe 1960 Summer Olympics opens in Rome.
1963The DC switches to a strategy of alliance with the socialist PSI. Electric energy is nationalised and the high school system is reformed.
30 June Ciaculli massacre: a bomb intended for the mafia boss Salvatore Greco "Ciaschiteddu" explodes in Ciaculli, killing seven police and military officers.
9 OctoberTwo thousand people die when a landslide causes the overtopping of the Vajont Dam north of Venice; the flooding wave completely wipes out several villages.
1964Singer-songwriter Cristina d'Avena is born.
196412 SeptemberSergio Leone's A Fistful of Dollars , the first of three films in his Dollars Trilogy of Spaghetti Westerns starring Clint Eastwood, is released.
An attempted coup (Piano Solo) is defused.
Michele, the son of Mastro Pietro Ferrero, modifies his father's recipe for the "supercrema gianduja" (invented in 1946) and renames it Nutella.
196518 NovemberThe film For a Few Dollars More is released.
8 DecemberEnd of Second Vatican Council.
196630 October Socialist and Democratic Socialist Party joined forces in the Unified Socialist Party.
15 DecemberThe film The Good, the Bad and the Ugly is released. The film is now considered to be one of the greatest films of all time.
196814 JanuaryThe Belice earthquake sequence took place in Sicily between 14 and 15 January. [17] The largest shock measured 5.5 on the moment magnitude scale, with five others of magnitude 5+. [18] The maximum perceived intensity was X (Extreme) on the Mercalli intensity scale. The earthquake sequence, centred between the towns of Gibellina, Salaparuta and Poggioreale, killed at least 231 people, possibly more than 400, with between 632 and about 1,000 injured and left 100,000 homeless.
31 JanuaryThe University of Trento is occupied by students.
10 JuneThe Italy national football team wins its first UEFA European Championship at Rome, against Yugoslavia.
24 June Giovanni Leone was appointed First Minister: remains in office until December.
2 DecemberIn Sicily clashes between strikers and police.
12 December Mariano Rumor reconstitutes a center-left government.
1969JulyPublished the first issue of Il manifesto (it will become daily in 1971).
4 JulyNew split the Unified Socialist Party: reborn PSI and PSDI.
September–DecemberThe "Hot Autumn" of 1969 features occupations of factories and universities, and violence between right and left-wing students.
19 NovemberDuring the disorders of far-left peoples of lyrical theatre, in Milan, policeman Antonio Annarumma was hit by an iron tube, according to the court inquiry. After his death his vehicle without guidance hit another police officer. [19] Students believe it is the accident which killed him, but this claim was repudiated by the medical examination. [20] Annarumma considered to be the first victim of the Years of Lead, a period of social and political upheaval in Italy.
20 NovemberAgreement between Italy and Austria for a system of self-government in South Tyrol.
12 DecemberFar-right terrorists bomb the Banca Nazionale dell'Agricoltura in Milan (Piazza Fontana bombing), killing 17 people and wounding 88. Four more bombs detonate without victims. Investigations are blurred, and no responsible party has been held accountable.
19706 AugustAfter the resignation of Mariano Rumor (6 July), Emilio Colombo forms a new Government.
September–OctoberSerious incidents of violence across Italy.
1 DecemberParliament approved the law on divorce.
7–8 DecemberAnother rightist coup attempt is defused (golpe Borghese).
197116 FebruaryThe regional council of Calabria recognizes Catanzaro regional capital.
FebruaryIn Italy resume violent riots.
13 JunePartial local elections showed a decline of the Christian Democrats and an advanced of MSI.
OctoberThe band Pink Floyd films performances for their songs "Echoes", "One of These Days", and "A Saucerful of Secrets" in Pompeii. The footage was included in their concert documentary film Pink Floyd: Live at Pompeii .
24 December Giovanni Leone is elected President of the Republic at the twenty-third ballot.
197412 MayA referendum asking voters to repeal a government law allowing divorce is defeated. The result of Italian divorce referendum, 1974 is the retention of the law allowing divorce.
197522 NovemberThe controversial Italian-French art film Salò, or the 120 Days of Sodom , is first released.
197816 MarchKidnapping of the former prime minister Aldo Moro by the Red Brigades.
9 MayAldo Moro is killed after the government refuses to negotiate with the Communist group. The "historic compromise" is stopped and Giulio Andreotti steps down from government. The Red Brigades begin falling apart.
15 JunePresident Giovanni Leone resigned.
JulySocialist Sandro Pertini is the new President of the Republic.
19797 AprilArrest of several academics accused of subversive and terrorist activities.
3–4 JuneIn the early parliamentary elections fall of PCI, advanced the Radical party and stability of DC.
10–11 JuneFirst election for the European Parliament.
AugustFirst government led by Francesco Cossiga.
DecemberFirst transmissions of the third RAI channel, Rai 3.
1980 Umberto Eco publishes The Name of the Rose , a medieval murder mystery.
27 June Ustica Massacre: a DC-9 operated by Itavia crashes into the Tyrrhenian Sea between Ponza and Ustica, killing all 81 people on board. The disaster led to numerous investigations, legal actions, and accusations, and continues to be a source of speculation, including claims of conspiracy by the Italian government and others.
2 August Bologna massacre: a terrorist bombing of the Central Station at Bologna kills 85 people and wounds more than 200. This was found to be a neo-fascist bombing, mainly organized by the Nuclei Armati Rivoluzionari: Francesca Mambro and Valerio Fioravanti were sentenced to life imprisonment. In April 2007 the Supreme Court confirmed the conviction of Luigi Ciavardini, a NAR member associated closely with close ties to Terza Posizione. Ciavardini received a 30-year prison sentence for his role in the attack. [21]
SeptemberBroadcaster Canale 5 starts to broadcast on a national scale. This is the first national private television.
23 November Irpinia earthquake, took place in Southern Italy with a moment magnitude of 6.9 and a maximum Mercalli intensity of X (Extreme). The shock was centered on the village of Conza and left at least 2,483 people dead, at least 7,700 injured, and left 250,000 homeless.
198117 MarchThe prosecutors of Milan and the police discovered the existence of the P2 lodge. Head of loggia is Licio Gelli.
June Giovanni Spadolini (PRI) is premier of a coalition (PRI-DC-PSI-PSDI-PLI) called Pentapartito. Spadolini is the first non-Christian Democrat minister since 1945. His government lasts one year.
198229 MayParliament approves law on "collaborators of justice". It was officially created the figure of Pentito .
18 June Roberto Calvi was found hanged in London.
11 JulyThe Italy national football team wins in Spain its third FIFA World Cup.
3 SeptemberGeneral Carlo Alberto Dalla Chiesa and his wife are killed by the mafia in Palermo.
1983August Bettino Craxi (PSI) is premier of a PSI-DC coalition until 1987. Under his government, a television reform allows Berlusconi to build up his media empire. The Concordat with the Vatican is revised, and salary indexation is abolished to curb inflation from 12% to 5%, but public debt raises up to 90% of GDP.
1984JuneAt the European Parliament elections, in the wake of the death of the leader Enrico Berlinguer, the PCI gains 33.3% of votes and overcomes the DC as first party in Italy.
23 December Sicilian Mafia bomb the 904 express train between Bologna and Florence, killing 16 people and wounding 267. Mafia boss Giuseppe Calò, also known as "Pippo", was convicted for ordering and organising the attack in November 1992.
1985 Franco Modigliani receives the Nobel Prize for Economics for his work on household savings and the dynamics of financial markets.
9 JuneA referendum on abolishing the wage escalator was defeated by margin of 54.3% to 45.7% on a voter turnout of 77.9% out of 45 million eligible Italian electors.
June Francesco Cossiga is elected President of the Republic.
27 December Rome airport is attacked by Palestinian terrorists; 16 people die.
1986The start of the Maxi Trial against the Sicilian Mafia that took place in Palermo, Sicily. It lasted until 1992 (the final day of the Supreme Court of Cassation). Sicilian prosecutors indicted 475 mafiosi for a multitude of crimes, of which 338 were convicted and sentenced to a total of 2,665 years, not including life sentences handed to 19 bosses. [22] It is considered to be the most significant trial ever against the Sicilian Mafia, as well as the biggest trial in world history. [23]
Italy-US relations are strained by the Libyan retaliation after the American bombing of Tripoli, and by the Sigonella crisis following the kidnapping of the Achille Lauro liner ship by the Palestinian Liberation Front.
The neurologist Rita Levi-Montalcini, together with Stanley Cohen, receives the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discovery of Nerve growth factor (NGF). Since 2001, she has also served in the Italian Senate as a Senator for Life.
1987July Giovanni Goria is the new prime minister. His Cabinet lasts up to April 1988.
NovemberIn the wake of the Chernobyl disaster, a referendum put off the use of nuclear plants. The three working plants are slowly decommissioned. The Green party establishes itself in Italy.
1988April Ciriaco De Mita replaces Goria as prime minister. His Cabinet lasts one year.
11 JuneFormer President Giuseppe Saragat dies.
21 June Achille Occhetto is the new leader of PCI.
198814 August Enzo Ferrari, founder of Ferrari and Scuderia Ferrari, died at the age of 90. Weeks after his death, both Ferrari drivers Gerhard Berger and Michele Alboreto dedicated the 1–2 finish for Enzo at Monza.
198930 AprilSergio Leone dies of a heart attack.
22 July Giulio Andreotti is premier of a coalition until 1992.
OctoberNew Code of Criminal Procedure shall enter into force.
199024 FebruaryFormer President Sandro Pertini dies.
May Italian regional elections. Umberto Bossi's Lega Nord obtained a stunning result in the main election of this round of vote, the choice of the Lombard Regional Council.
June–July Italy hosts the World Football Cup, but loses in the semi-final against Argentina at penalties.
OctoberPrime Minister Giulio Andreotti reveals the existence of Operation Gladio. Gladio was the codename for a clandestine North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) "stay-behind" operation in Italy during the Cold War. Its purpose was to prepare for, and implement, armed resistance in the event of a Warsaw Pact invasion and conquest. Although Gladio specifically refers to the Italian branch of the NATO stay-behind organizations, "Operation Gladio" is used as an informal name for all of them. [24]
1991JanuaryItaly takes part in the Operation Desert Storm, during the Gulf War, for the liberation of Kuwait.
3 FebruaryThe Italian Communist Party split into the Democratic Party of the Left (PDS), led by Achille Occhetto, and the Communist Refoundation Party (PRC), headed by Armando Cossutta.
9 JuneA referendum abolished the multiple preferences for the election of Chamber of Deputies's members, in favor of the single preference.
19 September A man found frozen high in the Alps is discovered, and is later found to be a Neolithic hunter who lived approximately 5,000 years ago.
1 October The Simpsons is aired on the italian TV for the first time.
1992 Mani pulite (clean hands), a nationwide judicial investigation into political corruption and influence-peddling, leads to the fall and dissolution of the Christian Democracy, and of the Socialist party, which had been the most influential political parties in Italy since 1948. Bettino Craxi flees to Tunisia to avoid prosecution.
5–6 AprilGeneral elections. Lega Nord's first electoral breakthrough was at the 1990 regional elections, but it was with the 1992 general election that the party emerged as a leading political actor. Having gained 8.7% of the vote, 56 deputies and 26 senators, [25] it became the fourth largest party of the country and within Parliament.
25 AprilPresident Francesco Cossiga resigned.
25 May Oscar Luigi Scalfaro is elected President of the Republic.
28 June Giuliano Amato (PSI) is premier of a PSI-DC-PLI-PSDI coalition.
May–July Giovanni Falcone and Paolo Borsellino, two Italian anti-Mafia magistrates, are assassinated by the mafia.
15 DecemberBettino Craxi is under investigation in Milan for corruption.
199327 March Giulio Andreotti is under investigation for collusion with the mafia.
18 AprilThe public overwhelmingly backed the abrogation of the existing proportional representation parliamentary electoral law in a referendum, for the benefit of a majority system.
21 AprilPrime Minister Giuliano Amato resigns.
26 April Carlo Azeglio Ciampi, former governor of the national bank, was appointed head of the government and appointed a technical government without political influences.
29 AprilItalian Parliament denied permission to proceed against Bettino Craxi, accused of corruption. Several members of the government, having been in office just three days, resigned in protest; among them were Francesco Rutelli, Minister of the Environment and Vincenzo Visco, Minister of Finance.
May–JulyThe Sicilian Mafia organizes some attacks in Rome, Florence and Milan.
4 AugustA mixed system was introduced by the Parliament.
AugustParliament grants authorization to proceed against Bettino Craxi.
199427 AprilMedia magnate Silvio Berlusconi becomes prime minister for a rightist coalition. However, the pact between northern autonomists and southern post-fascists collapsed late in the year, and Berlusconi is forced to resign as prime minister.
1 SeptemberThe Italian film Il Postino: The Postman premieres at the Venice Film Festival.
199617 May Romano Prodi becomes prime minister for the Olive Tree coalition, voted into power with the external support of the communists.
31 DecemberThe Tricolour Day is established.
1997 Valentino Rossi wins his first World Championship at the 1997 Grand Prix motorcycle racing season.
October Dario Fo, an Italian avant-garde playwright, manager-director, and actor-mime, is awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature. A theatrical caricaturist with a flair for social agitation, he has often faced government censure.
20 December Roberto Benigni's film Life Is Beautiful is released.
19983 February20 skiers (of which 3 Italians) die in the Cavalese cable car disaster, when a US EA-6B Prowler military jet severed the cables supporting the Cermis mountain cable car. Pilots will be later found not guilty by an American court.
19991 JanuaryItaly is accepted in the eurozone.
21 MarchThe film Life is Beautiful is nominated for seven Academy Awards. The film wins the awards for Best Actor (the first for a male performer in a non-English-speaking role, and only the third overall acting Oscar for non-English-speaking roles), the Best Original Dramatic Score and the Oscar for Best Foreign Language Film.
24 MarchItaly takes part in the Kosovo War, a NATO-led aerial operation against Milosevic's Yugoslavia to prevent genocide in Kosovo. The premier is Massimo D'Alema, of the post-communist Partito Democratico della Sinistra.
13 May Carlo Azeglio Ciampi is elected President of the Republic.
200020 JanuaryBettino Craxi dies at Hammamet, Tunisia.

21st century

2001 11 JuneBerlusconi's second term as prime minister begins.
20 JulyViolence erupts at the G8 demonstrations in Genoa. The police are accused of severe abuses; one demonstrator is shot dead.
OctoberItaly takes part in the Afghanistan War.
NovemberFormer President Giovanni Leone dies. [26]
20021 JanuaryThe euro begins circulating as new official currency of Italy.
2003MarchItaly takes part in the Iraq War, although populations show disapproval through peace flags.
200430 MarchIt is established the National Memorial Day of the Exiles and Foibe.
20054 March Nicola Calipari, Italian secret agent, is shot dead by friendly fire from a US patrol during the rescue of journalist Giuliana Sgrena from kidnappers in Baghdad. US later refused the extradition of the identified shooter, Mario Lozano.
200610 FebruaryThe 2006 Winter Olympics are held in Turin (to 26 February). [27]
17 MayProdi's second term as prime minister begins.
9 JulyThe Italy national football team wins its fourth FIFA World Cup in Germany.
SeptemberItaly's engagement is pivotal in the deployment of the UNIFIL peace force after the 2006 Lebanon War.
DecemberItalian government withdraws its troops from Iraq, ending the Operation Ancient Babylon.
2008Berlusconi's third term as prime minister begins.
20096 April An earthquake strikes L'Aquila, causing the death of 307 people and making about 65,000 homeless.
2010AugustFormer President Francesco Cossiga dies. [28]
2012JanuaryFormer president Oscar Luigi Scalfaro dies.
20136 MayFormer prime minister Giulio Andreotti dies at 94 years old in Rome.
2015JanuaryPresident Giorgio Napolitano resigns.
31 January Sergio Mattarella is the new President of the Italian Republic.
2016SeptemberFormer President Carlo Azeglio Ciampi died in Rome. [29] [30]
20184 March Italian general election, 2018 [31]
2020February COVID-19 pandemic hits Italy among the first countries in Europe. COVID-19 virus originated in China, spreads in Italy without being clearly detected in the winter of 2019.
2020MarchIn March 2020, the government imposed a national quarantine as a measure to limit the spread of the coronavirus pandemic in the country. [32] [33] Later that month, Italy became the country with the highest total number of deaths in the worldwide coronavirus pandemic. [34]
2020DecemberOn 27 December 2020, the COVID-19 vaccination campaign in Italy starts. The first Pfizer - BioNTech COVID-19 vaccines are sent to Italy.
2021February Mario Draghi appointed Prime Minister.
2022July 2022 Italian government crisis.
25 September Italian general election, 2022
22 October Giorgia Meloni appointed Prime Minister, the first woman to hold this position.

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Timeline of Chinese history</span> Timeline

This is a timeline of Chinese history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in China and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of China. See also the list of Chinese monarchs, Chinese emperors family tree, dynasties in Chinese history and years in China.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Carlo Azeglio Ciampi</span> President of Italy from 1999 to 2006

Carlo Azeglio Ciampi was an Italian politician and banker who was the prime minister of Italy from 1993 to 1994 and the president of Italy from 1999 to 2006.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Timeline of Russian history</span> Timeline of notable events in the history of Russia and its predecessor states

This is a timeline of Russian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Russia and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Russia. See also the list of leaders of Russia.

This is a timeline of Armenian history, comprising important legal and territorial changes and political events in Armenia and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Armenia. See also the list of Armenian kings.

This is a timeline of Japanese history, comprising important legal, territorial and cultural changes and political events in Japan and its predecessor states. To read about the background to these events, see History of Japan.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Milan, Italy.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Timeline of Naples</span>

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Naples. The Naples area has been inhabited since the Neolithic period. The earliest historical sources in the area were left by the Myceneans in the 2nd millennium BC. During its long history, Naples has been captured, destroyed and attacked many times. The city has seen earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, foreign invasions and revolutions.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Florence, Tuscany, Italy.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Palermo, Sicily, Italy.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Padua in the Veneto region of Italy.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Ferrara in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Messina, Sicily, Italy.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Brescia in the Lombardy region of Italy.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Livorno in the Tuscany region of Italy.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Modena in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Syracuse, Sicily, Italy. Syracuse was the main city of Sicily from 5th century BCE to 878 CE.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Taranto in the Apulia region of Italy.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Reggio Calabria, Italy.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Pavia in the Lombardy region of Italy.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Trento in the Trentino-South Tyrol region of Italy.


  1. "Cuma, la prima città greca in Italia" (in Italian). 29 June 2016. Retrieved 12 July 2023.
  2. Forsythe, Gary (2015). A Companion to Livy. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 313–329.
  3. Forsythe, Gary (2015). A Companion to Livy. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 313–329.
  4. Grant, Michael (1993). The History of Rome. Faber & Faber. p. 42.
  5. "Le arti di Efesto. Capolavori in metallo" (in Italian). p. 11. Retrieved 12 July 2023.
  6. Frontinus, Stratagems, Book I, 5:20–22 and Book VII:6.
  7. Eck, Werner; translated by Deborah Lucas Schneider; new material by Sarolta A. Takács. (2003) The Age of Augustus. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing (hardcover, ISBN   0-631-22957-4; paperback, ISBN   0-631-22958-2).
  8. 1 2 "Fratelli d'Italia" (in Italian). Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
  9. James Harvey Robinson and Charles A. Beard, The Development of Modern Europe: An Introduction to the Study of Current History, vol. 1 (Boston: Ginn & Company, 1907), 290, [ ISBN missing ].
  10. Hunt, Lynn, Thomas R. Martin, and Barbara H. Rosenwein. The Making of the West, Volume C Since 1740: Peoples and Cultures. Boston: Bedford/Saint Martin's, 2008.
  11. "History of Italy: Blueprints for Italy (1831–1848)". HistoryWorld. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 19 August 2015.
  12. ""Un nizzardo su quattro prese la via dell'esilio" in seguito all'unità d'Italia, dice lo scrittore Casalino Pierluigi" (in Italian). 28 August 2017. Archived from the original on 19 February 2020. Retrieved 14 May 2021.
  13. "26 febbraio 1896 – Papa Leone XIII filmato Fratelli Lumière" (in Italian). Retrieved 1 January 2022.
  14. Levi, Primo. Note to the Theatre version of If This Is a Man Archived 22 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine , pp. 23–25.
  15. Tobagi, Benedetta. "La Repubblica italiana | Treccani, il portale del sapere". Treccani.it. Retrieved 28 January 2015.
  16. "The Bicycle Thief (1949)". Box Office Mojo. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 1 October 2014.
  17. Guidoboni, E.; Ferrari G.; Mariotti D.; Comastri A.; Tarabusi G.; Valensise G. "Catalogue of Strong Earthquakes in Italy (461 BC – 1997) and Mediterranean Area (760 B.C. – 1500)". INGV-SGA. Archived from the original on 7 February 2015. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
  18. Lavecchia, G.; Ferrarini F.; de Nardis R.; Visini F.; Barbano M.S. (2007). "Active thrusting as a possible seismogenic source in Sicily (Southern Italy): Some insights from integrated structural–kinematic and seismological data". Tectonophysics. Elsevier. 445 (3–4): 145–167. Bibcode:2007Tectp.445..145L. doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2007.07.007.
  19. "1969 Annarumma Antonio". Archived from the original on 25 February 2012. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  20. Montanelli, Indro; Mario Cervi (1991). L'Italia degli anni di piombo. Milan, Lombardy, Italy: Rizzoli Editore.
  21. "Bologna bomber's 30-year jail term confirmed". Associated Press. 11 April 2007.
  22. Giovanni Falcone, Paolo Borsellino and the Procura of Palermo Archived 21 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine , Peter Schneider & Jane Schneider, May 2002, essay is based on excerpts from Chapter Six of Jane Schneider and Peter Schneider, Reversible Destiny: Mafia, Antimafia and the Struggle for Palermo, Berkeley: U. of California Press
  23. Alfonso Giordano, Il maxiprocesso venticinque anni dopo – Memoriale del presidente, p. 68, Bonanno Editore, 2011. ISBN   978-88-7796-845-6
  24. Haberman, Clyde; Times, Special to The New York (16 November 1990). "EVOLUTION IN EUROPE; Italy Discloses Its Web Of Cold War Guerrillas". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 14 March 2017. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  25. Parenzo, David; Romano, Davide (2009). Romanzo padano. Da Bossi a Bossi. Storia della Lega. Milan: Sperling & Kupfer. pp. 263–266.
  26. Honan, William H. (10 November 2001). "Giovanni Leone, Italy's Ex-President, Dies at 93". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 19 August 2018. Retrieved 19 August 2018.
  27. "Olympic Bid Election History—Voting Records and Results". GamesBids. Archived from the original on 10 May 2008. Retrieved 19 April 2007.
  28. "Addio al Picconatore, è morto Cossiga - Corriere della Sera". www.corriere.it (in Italian). Archived from the original on 15 June 2017. Retrieved 19 August 2018.
  29. "Italy's Former President Carlo Azeglio Ciampi Dies Aged 95". Wall Street Journal. 16 September 2016. Archived from the original on 13 July 2018. Retrieved 19 August 2018.
  30. Rome, Agence France-Presse in (16 September 2016). "Former Italian president Carlo Azeglio Ciampi dies at 95". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 13 July 2018. Retrieved 19 August 2018.
  31. Verderami, Francesco. "Si vota il 4 marzo: l'annuncio il 27 dicembre". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). Archived from the original on 13 March 2018. Retrieved 19 August 2018.
  32. "Italy extends emergency measures nationwide". BBC. 10 March 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2021.
  33. Beaumont, Peter; Sample, Ian (10 March 2020). "From confidence to quarantine: how coronavirus swept Italy". The Guardian. ISSN   0261-3077 . Retrieved 12 March 2020.
  34. Ellyatt, Holly (19 March 2020). "Italy's lockdown will be extended, prime minister says as death toll spikes and hospitals struggle". CNBC. Retrieved 19 March 2020.