Bolzano

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Bolzano
Bozen (German)
Città di Bolzano
Stadt Bozen
Bolzano 11 17 36 176000.jpeg
Bolzano, monumento alla vittoria (13995) 01.jpg
Bozen Waltherplatz.jpg
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BozenLaubenGasse.jpg
Osterreichisch-ungarische Bank Bozen - Otzimuseum.JPG
Museion - Lato Talvera (2).jpg
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Clockwise from top: Panorama of Bolzano; Waltherplatz  [ de ]; Via dei Portici  [ it ], main road in the historic centre; Bolzano Cathedral; the Talvera Bridges and Museion; South Tyrol Archaeological Museum; Sigmundskron Castle; Bolzano Victory Monument
Flag of Bozen.svg
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Location of Bolzano
Bolzano
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Bolzano
Location of Bolzano in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol
Italy Trentino-South Tyrol location map.svg
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Bolzano
Bolzano (Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol)
Coordinates: 46°30′N11°21′E / 46.500°N 11.350°E / 46.500; 11.350
Country Italy
Region Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol
Province Bolzano (BZ)
Government
  Mayor Renzo Caramaschi (Independent)
Area
[1]
  Total52.3 km2 (20.2 sq mi)
Elevation
262 m (860 ft)
Population
 (March 2018) [2]
  Total107,436
  Density2,100/km2 (5,300/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Italian: bolzanini
German: Bozner/Boznerin or Bozener/Bozenerin
Ladin: bulsanins
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
39100
Dialing code 0471
Website Official website

Bolzano (Italian: [bolˈtsaːno] or [bolˈdzaːno] ; German : Bozen [ˈboːtsn̩] , formerly Botzen; Ladin : Balsan or Bulsan) is the capital city of the province of South Tyrol, in Northern Italy. With a population of 108,245, Bolzano is also by far the largest city in South Tyrol and the third largest in historical Tyrol. The greater metro area has about 250,000 inhabitants and is one of the urban centers within the Alps. [3]

Contents

Bolzano is the seat of the Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, where lectures and seminars are held in English, German, and Italian. The city is also home to the Italian Army's Alpini High Command (COMALP) and some of its combat and support units. [4] In the 2020 version of the annual ranking of quality of life in Italian cities, Bolzano was ranked joint first for quality of life alongside Bologna. [5]

Along with other Alpine towns in South Tyrol, Bolzano engages in the Alpine Town of the Year Association for the implementation of the Alpine Convention. The Convention aims to promote and achieve sustainable development in the Alpine Arc. Consequently, Bolzano was awarded the 2009 Alpine Town of the Year . Bolzano is considered a bridge between Northern Europe and Southern Europe due to the three spoken languages in South Tyrol (Italian, German, and Ladin) and the confluence of Italian and German-Austrian culture.

Geography

Aerial view of Bolzano Luftbild Bolzano.jpg
Aerial view of Bolzano
Bolzano and the Alps Bolzano alps.jpg
Bolzano and the Alps

Location

The area of the city of Bolzano is 52.3 km2 (20.2 sq mi), of which 28 km2 (11 sq mi) is used as a settlement area. The city is located in the basin where the Sarntal, Eisacktal, and the Adige Valley with their rivers, Talfer, Eisack, and Adige, meet. In the Middle Ages, the two main Alpine crossings, the Via Claudia Augusta over Reschenpass and the Brenner route over Brenner Pass, met in Bolzano. Thus, the city was very important for trading. The highest point is 1,616 metres (5,302 feet) above sea level and the lowest point is 232 metres (761 feet) above sea level. The center is located at an altitude of 262 metres (860 feet) above sea level. The nearest big cities are 58 km (36 mi) (Trento) and 118 km (73 mi) (Innsbruck) away.

City districts and neighbouring communities

City districts (most district names were originally in German and italianized at a later stage):

In 1911 Zwölfmalgreien and in 1925 the Gries municipality was incorporated in the city of Bolzano. Neighbouring communities are: Eppan, Karneid, Laives, Deutschnofen, Ritten, Jenesien, Terlan and Vadena.

Climate

Being located at multiple climate borders, Bolzano features a humid subtropical climate (Cfa) with hot summers and very cold winters by Italian standards. According to the Trewartha classification, this climate could not be really considered a subtropical climate because fewer than 8 months are at least 10 °C (50 °F), and thus would be considered a semi-continental climate with hot summers. Some of its suburbs are designated an oceanic climate (Cfb) based on cooler summer temperatures, while mountains in the area may feature a continental climate (Dfb). The climate of Bolzano is influenced by its low altitude in a valley south of the main Alps. This causes very sheltered conditions from cool winds during daytime, ensuring much warmer temperatures year-round than in similar valley cities north of the range.

Climate data for Bolzano (1971–2000, extremes 1946–present)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)21.8
(71.2)
23.1
(73.6)
28.4
(83.1)
32.0
(89.6)
35.0
(95.0)
40.0
(104.0)
39.1
(102.4)
39.1
(102.4)
33.3
(91.9)
28.2
(82.8)
21.6
(70.9)
18.0
(64.4)
40.0
(104.0)
Mean daily maximum °C (°F)6.3
(43.3)
9.5
(49.1)
15.0
(59.0)
18.5
(65.3)
23.2
(73.8)
26.5
(79.7)
29.0
(84.2)
28.5
(83.3)
24.3
(75.7)
17.9
(64.2)
11.0
(51.8)
6.6
(43.9)
18.0
(64.4)
Daily mean °C (°F)0.9
(33.6)
3.7
(38.7)
8.5
(47.3)
12.0
(53.6)
16.5
(61.7)
19.8
(67.6)
22.3
(72.1)
21.8
(71.2)
17.9
(64.2)
12.1
(53.8)
5.4
(41.7)
1.4
(34.5)
11.9
(53.4)
Mean daily minimum °C (°F)−4.5
(23.9)
−2.1
(28.2)
2.1
(35.8)
5.4
(41.7)
9.8
(49.6)
13.2
(55.8)
15.5
(59.9)
15.1
(59.2)
11.6
(52.9)
6.2
(43.2)
−0.1
(31.8)
−3.7
(25.3)
5.7
(42.3)
Record low °C (°F)−18.5
(−1.3)
−15.6
(3.9)
−10.7
(12.7)
−4.4
(24.1)
−2.6
(27.3)
0.4
(32.7)
5.2
(41.4)
4.2
(39.6)
−0.5
(31.1)
−4.6
(23.7)
−10.7
(12.7)
−16.5
(2.3)
−18.5
(−1.3)
Average precipitation mm (inches)23.5
(0.93)
22.8
(0.90)
36.9
(1.45)
50.2
(1.98)
75.2
(2.96)
84.6
(3.33)
92.3
(3.63)
86.2
(3.39)
70.9
(2.79)
84.4
(3.32)
49.9
(1.96)
34.6
(1.36)
711.5
(28.01)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)3.63.15.16.69.38.58.98.26.86.84.94.376.1
Average relative humidity (%)72696266696666687175747369
Mean monthly sunshine hours 102.3121.5148.8159.0176.7201.0232.5213.9180.0151.9102.096.11,885.7
Source: Servizio Meteorologico (humidity and sun 1961–1990) [6] [7] [8]

Demographics

Largest groups of foreign residents
NationalityPopulation (2022) [9]
Flag of Albania.svg  Albania 2.550
Flag of Morocco.svg  Morocco 1.382
Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan 1.195
Flag of Romania.svg  Romania 1.136
Flag of Ukraine.svg  Ukraine 773
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg  China 715

Linguistic distribution

According to the 2011 census, 73.80% of the city's inhabitants spoke Italian, 25.52% German and 0.68% Ladin as their first language. [10]

Historical population
YearPop.±%
192132,679    
193137,351+14.3%
193645,505+21.8%
195170,898+55.8%
196188,799+25.2%
1971105,757+19.1%
1981105,180−0.5%
199198,158−6.7%
200194,989−3.2%
2011102,575+8.0%
2021106,601+3.9%
Source: ISTAT
Language2001 [11] 2011 [10]
Italian73.00%74.20%
German26.29%25.12%
Ladin0.71%0.68%

Through fascism and the Italianization policy under Benito Mussolini in the inter-war period, the Italian language group became the majority in Bolzano. Prior to the annexation of South Tyrol to Italy (Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, 1919) a small Italophone community of up to 10% of the population already lived in Bolzano. [12]

History

Bolzano in 1898 Bozen um 1898.jpg
Bolzano in 1898

Prehistory and Roman settlement

The modern-day Bolzano was in ancient times a marshy region inhabited by the Raetian Isarci people, traditionally believed to be descendants of Etruscan refugees fleeing Italy from the invading Gauls. [13] The Romans built a settlement after the area had been conquered in 15 BC by general Nero Claudius Drusus. The military settlement, Pons Drusi (Drusus Bridge), was named after this Roman general. During this time the area became part of the region Venetia et Histria (Regio X) of ancient Italy.

In 1948, excavations of the current Cathedral led to the discovery of an ancient Christian basilica from the fourth century. Also discovered was a Roman cemetery, including the tomb of "Secundus Regontius" with Latin inscriptions dating to the third century, making him the oldest known inhabitant of Bolzano. [14]

Bavarian settlement

During the gradual decline of the Lombard influence in the seventh century, Bavarian immigration took place and the first mention of a Bavarian ruler in Bolzano dates from 679. [15] At that time, the Bavarians named the nearby villages around Bolzano Bauzanum or Bauzana. [16] In 769 Tassilo III, Duke of Bavaria issued in Bolzano the foundation charter of the Innichen Abbey. [17] German populations have been present in the region of Tyrol from that period onwards. At around the year 1000, the settlement is called "in Pauzana valle, quae lingua Teutisca Pozana nuncupatur". [18]

Bishopric of Trent

Lauben BozenLaubenGasse.jpg
Lauben

In 1027 the area of Bolzano and the rest of the diocese was conferred upon the bishops of Trent by the emperor Conrad II from the Salian dynasty. In the late-12th century, the bishop founded a market town, along the Lauben thoroughfare. The town therefore became an important trading post on the Transalpine Augsburg-Venice route over the Brenner Pass, elevation 1,371 metres (4,498 ft) above sea level, within the Holy Roman Empire. [19]

County of Tyrol

In 1277 Bolzano was conquered by Meinhard II, the Count of Tyrol, leading to a struggle between the counts of Tyrol and the bishops of Trent. In 1363, the County of Tyrol passed to the Austrian House of Habsburg. In 1381, Duke Leopold granted the citizens of Bolzano the privilege of a town council. This gradually eliminated the influence and power previously held by the bishops of Trent over the next few decades. In 1462, the bishops eventually resigned all their rights of jurisdiction over the town. [20]

Mercantile Building Bozen 1 (326).JPG
Mercantile Building
The town's coat of arms as depicted in 1471 by the mayor Konrad Lerhueber Amtsraitung Bozen 1471 Hs 173.jpg
The town's coat of arms as depicted in 1471 by the mayor Konrad Lerhueber

From the 14th and 15th centuries onwards, a large market fair was organised four times per year to greet tradesmen and merchants en-route the Brenner Pass. The Mercantile Magistrate was therefore founded in 1635 by the Austrian duchess Claudia de' Medici. During every market season, two Italian and two Germanic officers, who were appointed among the local tradesmen, worked in this magistrate office. The establishment of an official trade organisation strengthened Bolzano as a cultural crossroad in the Alps. [21]

After the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, Bolzano became briefly part of the Napoleonic Kingdom of Italy and was incorporated into the Department of Alto Adige . [22] After the Congress of Vienna (1814-15) Bolzano returned to the County of Tyrol, within the Austrian Empire and subsequently the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary in 1867. The County covered both modern-day South Tyrol, Trentino and the federal state of Tyrol (including East Tyrol) in Austria.

Bolzano in 1914, at the outbreak of World War I Geuter's city plan of Bozen-Bolzano in 1914.JPG
Bolzano in 1914, at the outbreak of World War I

In 1915, the Triple Entente powers promised Italy territorial gains if she would enter the First World War on the side of the Entente instead of siding with the German Empire and Austria-Hungary. When Italy abandoned the Triple Alliance (1882), the Entente offered her territorial promises in Tyrol and Istria. This secret arrangement was confirmed in the Treaty of London (1915).

After Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary on May 24, 1915, heavy fighting took place all along Tyrol's southern border for the entire duration of the conflict. For the next 3+12 years Tyrol's southern border became the front line between Austro-Hungarian and Italian troops. Tyrol's south frontier was - and still is - dotted with tens of defensive fortresses that had been built in view of a possible Italian attack.[ citation needed ] Losses on both sides amount to several thousands. During World War I, tens of thousands of civilians living along Tyrol's southern border were evacuated to either of the two countries, the majority to Bohemian and inner Austrian areas, and some to Italian internment camps, away from the front line.

Annexation by Italy

On November 3, 1918, the armistice of Villa Giusti, near Padova ended military operations between Italy and Austria-Hungary. Subsequently, Italian troops entered Tyrol and occupied the Austrian areas south of the Brenner Pass. Italian control of South Tyrol was internationally recognized in 1919. At the time of Bolzano's annexation by the Kingdom of Italy the town was settled primarily by a German-speaking population. As of 1910, 29,000 inhabitants identified themselves as German speakers and only 1,300 as Italian speakers, these latter ones mainly from the Italian speaking areas of Tyrol, namely Welschtirol, currently known as Trentino. [23]

Victory Monument Bolzano, monumento alla vittoria (13995) 01.jpg
Victory Monument

Along with the rest of South Tyrol, Bolzano was subjected to an intensive Italianisation programme enforced by Fascist leader Benito Mussolini from the 1920s onwards to September 8, 1943, when Italy left the military alliance with Nazi Germany and South Tyrol fell under direct German control. The goal of such programme was to outnumber the local German-speaking population by tripling Bolzano's population through Italian immigration from other regions of Italy. [23] In 1927 Bolzano became the capital of the province of Bolzano. Any reference to and use of the words Tyrol and Tyrolean were banned by law and were punishable offences. In 1933, Adolf Hitler came to power in the Weimar Republic. Mussolini and the Fascists worried that Hitler, in pursuing his ideology of all ethnic Germans under one Reich, would claim South Tyrol from Italy. To avoid such prospect, in 1939 Mussolini and Hitler signed the Option Agreement, by which Germany would renounce territorial claims over South Tyrol as Germany's Lebensraum (living space). Furthermore, ethnic South-Tyroleans who had opted to stay in South Tyrol and refused resettlement to the Third Reich were subjected to full-scale Italianisation, including loss of their German names and national identity, prohibition of schooling in German and use of German for their daily transactions. [24]

Second World War

During the Second World War, Bolzano was the site of the Nazis' Bolzano Transit Camp, a concentration camp for persecuted Jews and political prisoners. Members of the Jewish population of Bolzano were deported to the death camps in Nazi Germany and murdered there. [25] When Italy surrendered in September 1943, the whole of South Tyrol as well as Belluno were de facto administered by the Nazis as Operational Zone of the Alpine Foothills. After 1943, heavy fighting between Nazi Germany and the Allied Powers took place in the Dolomites. [26]

Capital of an autonomous province

After the War, the Gruber-De Gasperi Agreement of September 1946 was signed by the Italian and Austrian Foreign Ministers in Paris, guaranteeing "complete equality of rights" (including education and use of German as an official language) as well as "autonomous legislative and executive regional power" to the German-speaking population in South Tyrol and Trentino. [27]

Because the implementation of the post-war agreement was not seen as satisfactory by the Austrian government (the autonomous province of 1947 included Trentino and therefore had an Italian-speaking majority), it became a cause of significant friction with Italy and was brought to the General Assembly of the United Nations in 1960, which called for a resolution of the issue. [28] A fresh round of negotiations took place in 1961 but proved unsuccessful, partly because of the campaign of terrorism by South Tyrolean Liberation Committee – a secessionist movement – against Italian police and electric power structures (one notable incident being the Night of Fire on 12 June 1961).

The issue was resolved in 1971, when a new statute of autonomy for the smaller, majority German-speaking province Bozen – Südtirol/Bolzano – Alto Adige, which was supported by the German-speaking population of South Tyrol, was granted by Italy. It resulted in a considerable level of self-government, [29] also due to the large financial resources of South Tyrol, which retains almost 90% of all levied taxes. [30] The agreement was implemented and proved broadly satisfactory to the parties involved and the separatist tensions soon eased. In 1992, Austria and Italy officially ended their dispute over the autonomy issue on the basis of the statute of 1972. [31]

Economy

The city thrives on a mix of old and new high-quality intensive agriculture (including wine, fruit, and dairy products), tourism, traditional handicraft (wood, ceramics), and advanced services. Heavy industry (machinery, automotive, and steel) installed during the 1930s has now been mostly dismantled. [ citation needed ] The local economy is very dependent on the public sector and especially the provincial government.[ citation needed ]

Bolzano is the biggest city in South Tyrol, which is an autonomous province in Northern Italy with a special statute. This statute preserves the rights of the German-speaking minority in Italy. This unique system was admired by the Dalai Lama, who visited the city on several occasions to study a possible application in Tibet. [32] It has also been presented as role model for the successful and fair resolution of inter-ethnic conflict to other regions of the world. [33]

Exhibition Bolzano

Exhibition Centre Messe Bozen-Messegelande.jpg
Exhibition Centre

The tradeshows and conferences of Exhibition Bolzano are concentrated on topics relating to the economies of Alpine countries. There is thus a great focus on trade show subjects in the economic competence of South Tyrol and Trentino. The main focuses of dining and leisure time, sports, agriculture and specific Alpine industries attract an annual total of over 3,000 exhibitors and over 230,000 visitors from all over Europe. [34]

Italian German Business Forum Bozen-Bolzano

Since 2011, the city hosts the Italo-Germanic Business Forum, which brings together the leaders of the Italian and German economies – Confindustria and the Bundesverband der Deutschen Industrie – in the Mercantile Palace to address issues related to the international crisis.

Companies

Oberalp Headquarters Oberalp Headquarters in Bozen.jpg
Oberalp Headquarters

Large companies in Bolzano are:

Research centers

NOI Techpark

NOI Techpark NOI Techpark Sudtirol 5.jpg
NOI Techpark

NOI Techpark is on a 12-hectare (30-acre) site in the south of Bolzano, on premises formerly home to aluminium works. The "Nature of Innovation" concept contains innovation imitating nature. The concept that NOI Techpark is based on has research institutes, companies and start-ups from South Tyrol and all over the globe working together to prepare the ground for a sustainable development.

Working with representatives from South Tyrol's business and research communities, BLS and TIS innovation park have developed the park's "Nature of Innovation" positioning title, the initials of which give the park its name: NOI. The name reflects two meanings in South Tyrol: depending on how you want to pronounce it, NOI can either sound like the Italian word for "we" or the South Tyrolean dialect word for "new". A special focus lies on those fields:

  • Alpine Technology
  • Renewable Energies and Energy Efficiency
  • Food Technology
  • ICT & Automation

Free University of Bolzano-Bozen

The Free University of Bolzano-Bozen, founded in October 1997, is actively involved in basic and applied research projects through its five faculties, of which four are located in Bolzano. The university is engaged in a multitude of scientific and technological areas, in addition to different disciplines belonging to Humanities. [35]

Eurac Research

The Eurac Research is a private research centre headquartered in Bolzano. The research facility was founded in 1992 and initially had 12 employees. Meanwhile, the Center for Applied Research has more than 300 employees. The topics of this institution include, for example, "Liveable Regions", "Diversity as Added Value" and "Healthy Society". The research has focused more on the Alpine region. Since 2002, the site has been located on Drusus Street, in the former fascist "GIL" building, which was then extensively renovated and integrated with modern buildings. [36] In 2018, the research facility will lead the terraXcube in the NOI Techpark Bolzano. The terraXcube is a research infrastructure that can simulate the most extreme climatic conditions on earth. Air pressure, humidity and solar radiation can be simulated and changed simultaneously in one room. The aim is to investigate how humans react to extreme climatic conditions. Even machines can be tested in this simulator. [37]

Fraunhofer Italia

Fraunhofer Italia is a subsidiary of Fraunhofer Gesellschaft and is headquartered in Bolzano. The company was founded in 2009 and since then specializes in areas such as "Automation and Mechatronic Engineering" and "Process Engineering in Construction". The Organization for Applied Research seeks to help small and medium-sized enterprises in the region through charitable research. Since 2017, the research facility has been based in the Technology Park in Bolzano South. [38]

Politics

City Council

Bolzano town hall Piazza Municipio Bolzano.jpg
Bolzano town hall

The last municipal elections were held in the year 2020. Of the 45 seats, 9 different parties were elected to the city council. The Partito Democratico (PD), the Südtiroler Volkspartei (SVP) and the Lega Nord (LN) won 7 seats each.

Mayors

This table shows the mayors of the city of Bolzano after 1945. All mayors within this list belong to the Italian language group. So far, the last mayor of the German language group in Bolzano was Julius Perathoner from 1895 to 1922 and was replaced by the march on Bolzano by the fascists.

Euroregion Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino

In 1996, the European Union approved further cultural and economic integration between the Austrian province of Tyrol and the Italian autonomous provinces of South Tyrol and Trentino by recognizing the creation of the Euroregion Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino.

Main sights

Bolzano Cathedral Bozen Waltherplatz.JPG
Bolzano Cathedral
Castle Maretsch Maretsch - September 2014.jpg
Castle Maretsch
The former Casa del Fascio, now bearing a quotation from Hannah Arendt Fassade finanzamt bozen 2018.jpg
The former Casa del Fascio, now bearing a quotation from Hannah Arendt
St. Magdalena with the Rosengarten group St-magdalena st-justina-rosengarten.jpg
St. Magdalena with the Rosengarten group

Its medieval city center, Gothic and Romanesque churches and bilingual signage give it the flavor of a city at the crossroads of Italian and Austrian cultures. This and its natural and cultural attractions make it a popular tourist destination.

Among the major monuments and sights are:

For more historical and geographical information see South Tyrol.

Culture

Museums

South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology BozenArchMuseum.jpg
South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology
Runkelstein Castle Schloss Runkelstein ext.jpg
Runkelstein Castle
Museion MuseionBolzano.jpg
Museion

Libraries and archives

Cinema and theater

New theater Bolzano Teatro Comunale Bolzano.jpg
New theater Bolzano

Cultural events

Bolzano organizes the following events every year:

Education

Free University of Bozen-Bolzano

Logo of the university Unibz logo.jpg
Logo of the university

The Free University of Bozen-Bolzano was founded in 1997 and has its headquarters in the city of Bolzano. It offers trilingual courses in German, Italian and English. The unibz was the first trilingual university in Europe. Other university locations are in Brixen and Bruneck. Through the Euroregion Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino, the university also works closely together with the universities of Innsbruck and Trento. The University of Bolzano has the following five faculties:

State College of Health Professions "Claudiana"

The State College of Health Professions "Claudiana" was founded in 1993 and has since 2006 its headquarters next to the regional hospital of Bolzano outside the center. The college was named after the Regent of the Austrian County of Tyrol, Claudia de Medici. The college serves to train health professionals, such as nurses, midwives, technical medicine and rehabilitation specialists. Teaching is in Italian and German.

Conservatory "Claudio Monteverdi"

The conservatory "Claudio Monteverdi" is a college of music in Bolzano. The conservatory was founded in 1927 and has since been named after the former Italian composer Claudio Monteverdi. The rooms of the conservatory are located in the Dominican monastery. The Academy of Music gained international recognition through the biennial Ferruccio Busoni International Piano Competition.

Transport

Bolzano railway station Bahnstation - panoramio (1).jpg
Bolzano railway station

Bolzano is connected to the motorway network A22-E45 [45] to Trento and Verona and to Innsbruck (Austria) and Munich (Germany). In Bolzano South there is a transport hub that connects the dual carriageway MeBo with the A22 motorway. The dual carriageway MeBo (Merano - Bolzano) was completed in 1997 to quickly connect the two metropolitan areas of South Tyrol, Merano and Bolzano, and to relieve the surrounding communities in the district of Burggrafenamt and the old former two-lane State street SS38 (Strada statale 38).

The city is also connected to the Italian railway system. Bolzano railway station, opened in 1859, forms part of the Brenner railway (Verona–Innsbruck), which is part of the main railway route between Italy and Germany. The station is also a junction of two branch lines, to Merano and Mals. The station of Bolzano is served by Frecciarossa and Frecciargento trains of Trenitalia, Italo EVO of Nuovo Trasporto Viaggiatori (from August 2018) and EuroCity trains of ÖBB.

A two-line light rail network is planned to serve Bolzano, at a length of 7.2 km (4+12 miles) with 17 stops, with a projected cost of €192 million. [46]

There is a 50-kilometre (30 mi) network of cycle paths, and about 30% of journeys in Bolzano are made by bicycle. [47]

Until summer 2015 there was a regular connection between Bolzano Airport (IATA: BZO) and Rome. In summer charter flights are offered to Cagliari, Olbia, Lamezia Terme and Catania.

Since 1966 a cable car connects the centre of Bolzano with Oberbozen-Soprabolzano and the community of Ritten. In 2009 the Italian manufacturer Leitner replaced the old cable car with a new modern 3S system. Although the so-called "Rittner Seilbahn" primarily serves the tourist market, it also provides an important transit link for the residents of Renon. [48] The cable car system, which can carry up to 726 persons per hour, is the first tricable gondola lift in Italy. [49]

Sport

The town is host to an annual road running competition – the BOclassic – which features an elite men's 10K and women's 5K races. The event, first held in 1975, takes place on New Year's Eve and is broadcast live on television by Rai Sport Più. [50] [51]

Bolzano is also the host city to the Giro delle Dolomiti annual road bike event.

Local teams

Football
Handball
Ice hockey
The Sparkasse Arena HC Bolzano-Sheffield Steelers.jpg
The Sparkasse Arena
Rugby
American football
Softball and baseball
Fistball

People

Rainer Joseph of Austria Erzherzog Rainer.jpg
Rainer Joseph of Austria
Annette of Menz Annette von Menz - unbekannter Kunstler (1812-1815).jpg
Annette of Menz
Alois Riehl Riehl Alois.jpg
Alois Riehl
Dorian Gray in 1956 Dorian Gray in Toto, Peppino e... la malafemmina.jpg
Dorian Gray in 1956

Notable people born in or associated with Bolzano include:

14th century
18th century
19th century
20th century
Sport
Tania Cagnotto, 2009 Tania Cagnotto.jpg
Tania Cagnotto, 2009

International relations

Twin towns – sister cities

Bolzano is twinned with:

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of Tyrol</span>

The history of Tyrol, a historical region in the middle alpine area of Central Europe, dates back to early human settlements at the end of the last glacier period, around 12,000 BC. Sedentary settlements of farmers and herders can be traced back to 5000 BC. Many of the main and side valleys were settled during the early Bronze Age, from 1800 to 1300 BC. From these settlements, two prominent cultures emerged: the Laugen-Melaun culture in the Bronze Age, and the Fritzens-Sanzeno culture in the Iron Age.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">South Tyrol</span> Autonomous province of Italy

South Tyrol is an autonomous province in northern Italy. An English translation of the official German and Italian names could be the autonomous province Bolzano – South Tyrol, reflecting the multilingualism and different naming conventions in the area. Together with the autonomous province of Trento, South Tyrol forms the autonomous region of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol. The province is the northernmost of Italy, the second largest with an area of 7,400 square kilometres (2,857 sq mi), and has a total population of about 534,000 inhabitants as of 2021. Its capital and largest city is Bolzano.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol</span> Region of Italy

Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol is an autonomous region of Italy, located in the northern part of the country. The region has a population of 1.1 million, of whom 62% speak Italian as their mother tongue, 30% speak South Tyrolean German and several foreign languages are spoken by immigrant communities. Since the 1970s, most legislative and administrative powers have been transferred to the two self-governing provinces that make up the region: the province of Trento, commonly known as Trentino, and the province of Bolzano, commonly known as South Tyrol. In South Tyrol, German remains the sizeable majority language.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Brixen</span> Comune in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Italy

Brixen is a town and commune in South Tyrol, northern Italy, located about 40 kilometres (25 mi) north of Bolzano.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bolzano Victory Monument</span> Monument in Bolzano, northernmost Italy

The Victory Monument is a monument in Bolzano, northernmost Italy, erected on the personal orders of Benito Mussolini in South Tyrol, which had been annexed from Austria after World War I. The 19 metre wide Victory Gate was designed by architect Marcello Piacentini and substituted the former Austrian Kaiserjäger monument, torn down in 1926–27. Its construction in Fascist style, displaying lictorial pillars, was dedicated to the "Martyrs of World War I".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Neumarkt, South Tyrol</span> Italian comune in the South Tyrol province

Neumarkt is a comune (municipality) and a village in South Tyrol in northern Italy, located about 25 kilometres (16 mi) south of the city of Bolzano. It is one of I Borghi più belli d'Italia.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">South Tyrol Option Agreement</span> 1939 German-Italian agreement

The South Tyrol Option Agreement was an agreement in effect between 1939 and 1943, when the native German and Ladin-speaking people in South Tyrol and several other municipalities of northern Italy, which had belonged to Austria before WWI, were given the option of either emigrating to neighboring Nazi Germany or remaining in Fascist Italy, where the German minority was subjected to repressive Italianization efforts.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of South Tyrol</span>

Modern-day South Tyrol, an autonomous Italian province created in 1948, was part of the Austro-Hungarian County of Tyrol until 1918. It was annexed by Italy following the defeat of the Central Powers in World War I. It has been part of a cross-border joint entity, the Euroregion Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino, since 2001.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Salorno</span> Comune in Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Italy

Salorno sulla Strada del Vino is the southernmost comune (municipality) and a village in South Tyrol in northern Italy, located about 30 kilometres (19 mi) southwest of the city of Bolzano. It is one of only five mainly Italian-speaking municipalities in South Tyrol.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Italianization of South Tyrol</span> 1920s–1940s Italian government policy

In 1919, at the time of its annexation, the middle part of the County of Tyrol which is today called South Tyrol was inhabited by almost 90% German speakers. Under the 1939 South Tyrol Option Agreement, Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini determined the status of the German and Ladin (Rhaeto-Romanic) ethnic groups living in the region. They could emigrate to Germany, or stay in Italy and accept their complete Italianization. As a consequence of this, the society of South Tyrol was deeply riven. Those who wanted to stay, the so-called Dableiber, were condemned as traitors while those who left (Optanten) were defamed as Nazis. Because of the outbreak of World War II, this agreement was never fully implemented. Illegal Katakombenschulen were set up to teach children the German language.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Oskar Peterlini</span> Italian political scientist and politician

Oskar Peterlini is an Italian political writer and Lecturer at the Free University of Bozen Bolzano.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bolzano/Bozen railway station</span>

Bolzano/Bozen railway station is the main station of Bolzano/Bozen, capital of the autonomous province of Alto Adige/Südtirol, in northeastern Italy.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tyrol</span> Region across the Alps

Tyrol is a historical region in the Alps of Northern Italy and western Austria. The area was historically the core of the County of Tyrol, part of the Holy Roman Empire, Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary, from its formation in the 12th century until 1919. In 1919, following World War I and the dissolution of Austria-Hungary, it was divided into two modern administrative parts through the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye:

The South Tyrolean Unterland or Bozen Unterland is a section of the Etschtal valley stretching from the regional capital Bolzano (Bozen) down the Adige (Etsch) river to Tramin and Salorno (Salurn). The area is known for its history, particularly regarding Rhaetic, Roman, and Germanic archaeological sites; its bilingualism, and its viticulture; the Gewürztraminer grape originated here.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Julius Perathoner</span>

Julius Perathoner was an Austro-Hungarian politician who became an Italian citizen after the Treaty of Saint-Germain. He was one of the most important exponents of the Liberal Party in Tyrol and the last mayor of German ethnicity of the City of Bolzano from 1895 to 1922. On October 3, 1922 the democratically elected Perathoner was forcibly deposed as mayor during the March on Bozen from Italian fascists and replaced by a fascist functionary.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Eurac Research</span> Research center in Bolzano, Italy

Eurac Research is a private research center headquartered in Bolzano, South Tyrol. The center has eleven institutes and five centers. Eurac Research has more than 800 partners spread across 56 countries. Eurac Research collaborates with international organizations such as the Alpine and Carpathian Conventions, UNEP and UNIDO in the context of sustainable development and energy technology, and also hosts the headquarters of the Permanent Secretariat of the Alpine Convention at its headquarters in Bolzano. Core funding is provided by the autonomous province of South Tyrol, with additional financing coming from membership fees and European project funds.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Bolzano/Bozen in the Trentino-South Tyrol region of Italy.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Civic Archives in Bozen-Bolzano</span> Historic site in South Tyrol, Italy

The Civic Archives in Bozen-Bolzano are the municipal archive of the city of Bolzano in South Tyrol, Italy. They are located in the old town hall and store documents from over 700 years of civic and regional history.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Maria Himmelfahrt (Bolzano)</span> Church building in Bolzano, Italy

The cathedral Maria Himmelfahrt is the parish church of the South Tyrolean capital Bolzano and cathedral of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Bozen-Brixen. While the Bishop has resided in Bozen since 1964, the cathedra and the cathedral chapter remain in Brixen. Maria Himmelfahrt is therefore with Brixen Cathedral co-cathedral of the diocese.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bloody Sunday (Bolzano)</span>

Bozner Blutsonntag refers to the events of 24 April 1921 in Bozen. It was the first climax of fascist violence in South Tyrol, a German-speaking province that was annexed by Italy after World War I.

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Bibliography