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East Tyrol, occasionally East Tirol (German : Osttirol), is an exclave of the Austrian state of Tyrol, separated from the main North Tyrol part by the short common border of Salzburg and Italian South Tyrol (Südtirol, Italian : Alto Adige). It is congruent with the administrative district ( Bezirk ) of Lienz.
The area around the former Roman municipium of Aguntum was from the 12th century held by the Counts of Gorizia, who took their residence at Lienz and inherited the County of Tyrol in 1253. While Tyrol was lost to the Austrian House of Habsburg in 1363, the Gorizian counts retained Lienz until the extinction of the line in 1500. Emperor Maximilian I of Habsburg finally incorporated it into Austrian Tyrol.
East Tyrol's present-day situation arose from the defeat of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in World War I and its subsequent dissolution. By the 1915 Treaty of London, the Kingdom of Italy, which had joined the victorious Triple Entente, was to obtain the Tyrolean lands south of the Brenner Pass as claimed by the Italian irredentism movement. In November 1918 the Italian Army occupied all Tyrol with 20,000-22,000 soldiers.Thus under the 1919 Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye, the rump state of German Austria had to cede to Italy the southern part of the former crown land of the Princely County of Tyrol, i.e. the present-day provinces of Trentino and South Tyrol and parts of the Belluno province.
After the Austrian Anschluss in 1938 East Tyrol became part of the Reichsgau Kärnten (Carinthia). It was returned to the Tyrol in 1947. After World War II East Tyrol became part of the British occupied zone of Austria.
In Austria, East Tyrol borders the states of Carinthia in the east and Salzburg in the north, while it also shares borders with the Italian provinces of South Tyrol (Alto Adige, northern part of the region Trentino-Alto Adige) in the west and Belluno (the region Veneto) in the south. It is separated from the Tyrolean district of Schwaz in North Tyrol by a 9.5 km (5.9 mi) long common border of South Tyrol with the Salzburg Pinzgau region.
The High Tauern National Park is in East Tyrol, along with several mountains including the Großglockner (Austria's highest mountain, 3798 m), and Großvenediger.
Ladin is a Romance language of the Rhaeto-Romance subgroup, mainly spoken in the Dolomite Mountains in Northern Italy in the provinces of South Tyrol, Trentino, and Belluno, by the Ladin people. It exhibits similarities to Swiss Romansh and Friulian.
Tyrol is a state (Land) in western Austria. It comprises the Austrian part of the historical Princely County of Tyrol. It is a constituent part of the present-day Euroregion Tyrol–South Tyrol–Trentino. The capital of Tyrol is Innsbruck.
The history of Tyrol, a historical region in the middle alpine area of Central Europe, dates back to early human settlements at the end of the last glacier period, around 12,000 BC. Sedentary settlements of farmers and herders can be traced back to 5000 BC. Many of the main and side valleys were settled during the early Bronze Age, from 1800 to 1300 BC. From these settlements, two prominent cultures emerged: the Laugen-Melaun culture in the Bronze Age, and the Fritzens-Sanzeno culture in the Iron Age.
South Tyrol is an autonomous province in northern Italy, one of the two that make up the autonomous region of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol. Its official trilingual denomination is Autonome Provinz Bozen – Südtirol in German, Provincia autonoma di Bolzano – Alto Adige in Italian and Provinzia autonoma de Bulsan – Südtirol in Ladin, reflecting the three main language groups to which its population belongs. The province is the northernmost of Italy, the second largest, with an area of 7,400 square kilometres (2,857 sq mi) and has a total population of 531,178 inhabitants as of 2019. Its capital and largest city is Bolzano.
Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol is an autonomous region of Italy, located in the northern part of the country. Since the 1970s, most legislative and administrative powers have been transferred to the two self-governing provinces that make up the region: the Province of Trento, commonly known as Trentino, and the Province of Bolzano, commonly known as South Tyrol.
The Bezirk Lienz is an administrative district (Bezirk) in Tyrol, Austria. It is the only district in East Tyrol. The district borders the Pinzgau (Salzburg) in the north, the districts Spittal an der Drau and Hermagor in the east, Veneto (Italy) in the south, and South Tyrol (Italy) in the west.
Lienz is a medieval town in the Austrian state of Tyrol. It is the administrative centre of the Lienz district, which covers all of East Tyrol. The municipality also includes the cadastral subdivision of Patriasdorf.
Modern-day South Tyrol, an autonomous Italian province created in 1948, was part of the Austro-Hungarian County of Tyrol until 1918. It was annexed by Italy following the defeat of the Central Powers in World War I. It has been part of a cross-border joint entity, the Euroregion Tyrol-South Tyrol-Trentino, since 2001.
The Prince-Bishopric of Trent, was an ecclesiastical principality roughly corresponding to the present-day Northern Italian autonomous province of Trentino. It was created in 1027 and existed until 1802, when it was secularised and absorbed into the County of Tyrol held by the House of Habsburg. Trent was a Hochstift, an Imperial State under the authority of a prince-bishop at Trento.
The Triveneto, or Tre Venezie, is a historical region of Italy. The area included what would become the three Italian regions of Venezia Euganea, Venezia Giulia and Venezia Tridentina. This territory was named after the Roman region of Venetia et Histria.
The (Princely) County of Tyrol was an estate of the Holy Roman Empire established about 1140. Originally a jurisdiction under the sovereignty of the Counts of Tyrol, it was inherited by the Counts of Gorizia in 1253 and finally fell to the Austrian House of Habsburg in 1363. In 1804 the Princely County of Tyrol, unified with the secularised prince-bishoprics of Trent and Brixen, became a crown land of the Austrian Empire in 1804 and from 1867 a Cisleithanian crown land of Austria-Hungary.
The County of Gorizia, from 1365 Princely County of Gorizia, was a State of the Holy Roman Empire. Originally mediate Vogts of the Patriarchs of Aquileia, the Counts of Gorizia (Meinhardiner) ruled over several fiefs in the area of Lienz and in the Friuli region of northeastern Italy with their residence at Gorizia (Görz).
Ettore Tolomei was an Italian nationalist and fascist. He was designated a Member of the Italian Senate in 1923, and ennobled as Conte della Vetta in 1937.
The History of Trentino begins in the mid-Stone Age and continues to the present day when Trentino is part of the Italian Republic.
Matrei in Osttirol is a market town in the Lienz District in the Austrian state of Tyrol. It is situated about 29 km (18 mi) north of Lienz within the Hohe Tauern mountain range of the Central Eastern Alps. Its municipal area comprises parts of the Granatspitze Group and the Venediger Group, with the Großvenediger peak as its highest point. The population largely depends on tourism, seasonal agriculture and forestry.
The Tyrol–South Tyrol–Trentino Euroregion is a Euroregion formed by three different regional authorities in Austria and Italy: the Austrian state of Tyrol and the Italian autonomous provinces of South Tyrol and Trentino.
The Tyrolean Rebellion of 1809 was a rebellion of peasants in the County of Tyrol led by Andreas Hofer against the occupation of their homeland by the French and Bavarian troops within the context of the War of the Fifth Coalition against Napoleon I.
Tyrol is a historical region in the Alps—in Northern Italy and western Austria. The area was historically the core of the County of Tyrol, part of the Holy Roman Empire, Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary, from its formation in the 12th century until 1919. In 1919, following World War I and dissolution of Austria-Hungary, it was divided into two modern administrative parts through the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye:
The South Tyrolean Unterland or Bozen Unterland is a section of the Etschtal valley stretching from the regional capital Bolzano (Bozen) down the Adige (Etsch) river to Tramin and Salorno (Salurn). The area is known for its history, particularly regarding Rhaetic, Roman, and Germanic archaeological sites; its trilingualism, and its viticulture; the Gewürztraminer grape originated here.
The Austrian–Italian border is a 404 km (251 mi) land border along the Alps between the Republic of Italy and the Republic of Austria. A border has existed since 1861, but the current one only since 1919. It has been an EU internal border since 1 January 1995. The border was last changed in 1947. A large older change was in 1919 when South Tyrol was made part of Italy instead of Austria.