Tyrol (state)

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Tyrol
Tirol
Anthem: Andreas-Hofer-Lied
Tirol in Austria.svg
Coordinates: 47°16′N11°24′E / 47.27°N 11.4°E / 47.27; 11.4 Coordinates: 47°16′N11°24′E / 47.27°N 11.4°E / 47.27; 11.4
CountryFlag of Austria.svg  Austria
Capital Innsbruck
Government
   Governor Günther Platter (ÖVP)
  Deputy Governors
Area
  Total12,640.17 km2 (4,880.40 sq mi)
Population
 (2020)
  Total757,852
  Density60/km2 (160/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
ISO 3166 code AT-7
HDI (2019)0.933 [1]
very high · 3rd of 9
NUTS Region AT3
Votes in Bundesrat 5 (of 62)
Website www.tirol.gv.at

Tyrol ( /tɪˈrl,tˈrl,ˈtrl/ ; [2] German : Tirol [tiˈʁoːl] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); Italian : Tirolo) is a state (Land) in western Austria. It comprises the Austrian part of the historical Princely County of Tyrol. It is a constituent part of the present-day Euroregion Tyrol–South Tyrol–Trentino (together with South Tyrol and Trentino in Italy). The capital of Tyrol is Innsbruck. [3]

Contents

Geography

The state of Tyrol is separated into two parts, divided by a 7-kilometre wide (4.3 mi) strip. The larger territory is called North Tyrol (Nordtirol) and the smaller area is called East Tyrol (Osttirol). The neighbouring Austrian state of Salzburg stands to the east, while on the south Tyrol has a border with the Italian province of South Tyrol (Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol) which was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire before the First World War. With a land area of 12,683.85 km2 (4,897.26 sq mi), Tyrol is the third-largest state in Austria.

Tyrol shares its borders with the federal state of Salzburg in the east and Vorarlberg in the west. In the north, it adjoins to the German state of Bavaria; in the south, it shares borders with the Italian province of South Tyrol and the Swiss canton of Graubünden. East Tyrol also shares its borders with the federal state of Carinthia to the east and Italy's Province of Belluno (Veneto) to the south.

The state's territory is located entirely within the Eastern Alps at the Brenner Pass. The highest mountain in the state is the Großglockner, part of the Hohe Tauern range on the border with Carinthia. It has a height of 3,797 m (12,457.35 ft), making it the highest mountain in Austria.

History

Tiroler Wallfahrer (Tyrolean pilgrims) by Alois Schonn, 19th century Alois Schonn Tiroler Wallfahrer.jpg
Tiroler Wallfahrer (Tyrolean pilgrims) by Alois Schönn, 19th century
Golden Roof, Innsbruck Innsbruck Goldenes Dachl pc.jpg
Golden Roof, Innsbruck

In ancient times, the region was split between the Roman provinces of Raetia (west of the Inn River) and Noricum. From the mid-6th century, it was resettled by Germanic Bavarii tribes.[ citation needed ] In the Early Middle Ages it formed the southern part of the German stem duchy of Bavaria, until the Counts of Tyrol, former Vogt officials of the Trent and Brixen prince-bishops at Tyrol Castle, achieved imperial immediacy after the deposition of the Bavarian duke Henry the Proud in 1138, and their possessions formed a state of the Holy Roman Empire in its own right.

When the Counts of Tyrol died out in 1253, their estates were inherited by the Meinhardiner Counts of Görz. In 1271, the Tyrolean possessions were divided between Count Meinhard II of Görz and his younger brother Albert I, who took the lands of East Tyrol around Lienz and attached it (as "outer county") to his committal possessions around Gorizia ("inner county").

The last Tyrolean countess of the Meinhardiner Dynasty, Margaret, bequeathed her assets to the Habsburg duke Rudolph IV of Austria in 1363. In 1420, the committal residence was relocated from Merano to Innsbruck. The Tyrolean lands were reunited when the Habsburgs inherited the estates of the extinct Counts of Görz in 1500.

In the course of the German mediatization in 1803, the prince-bishoprics of Trent and Brixen were secularized and merged into the County of Tyrol (which in the next year became a constituent land of the Austrian Empire), but Tyrol was ceded to the Kingdom of Bavaria in 1805. Andreas Hofer led the Tyrolean Rebellion against the French and Bavarian occupiers. Later, South Tyrol was ceded to the Kingdom of Italy, a client state of the First French Empire, by Bavaria in 1810. After Napoleon's defeat, the whole of Tyrol was returned to Austria in 1814.

Tyrol was a Cisleithanian Kronland (royal territory) of Austria-Hungary from 1867. The County of Tyrol then extended beyond the boundaries of today's state, including North Tyrol and East Tyrol; South Tyrol and Trentino (Welschtirol) as well as three municipalities, which today are part of the adjacent Province of Belluno. After World War I, these lands became part of the Kingdom of Italy according to the 1915 London Pact and the provisions of the Treaty of Saint Germain. From November 1918, it was occupied by 20,000–22,000 soldiers of the Italian Army. [4]

Heinrich Maier, Walter Caldonazzi and their group helped the allies to fight the V-2, which was produced by concentration camp prisoners. V-2 Rocket On Meillerwagen.jpg
Heinrich Maier, Walter Caldonazzi and their group helped the allies to fight the V-2, which was produced by concentration camp prisoners.

Tyrol was the center of an important resistance group against Nazi Germany around Walter Caldonazzi, which united with the group around the priest Heinrich Maier and the Tyrolean Franz Josef Messner. The Catholic resistance group very successfully passed on plans and production facilities for V-1 rockets, V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks, Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet and other aircraft to the Allies, with which they could target German production facilities. Maier and his group informed the American secret service OSS very early on about the mass murder of Jews in Auschwitz. For after the war they planned an Austria united with South Tyrol and Bavaria. [5]

After World War II, North Tyrol was governed by France and East Tyrol was part of the British Zone of occupation until Austria regained independence in 1955.

Towns

View of Innsbruck from Mt. Bergisel Olympiaringe Innsbruck 3.JPG
View of Innsbruck from Mt. Bergisel
A view from the tower of the old townhall to Innsbruck Cathedral Blick vom Stadtturm des Alten Rathauses zum Innsbrucker Dom 2.JPG
A view from the tower of the old townhall to Innsbruck Cathedral

The capital, Innsbruck, is known for its university, and especially for its medicine. Tyrol is popular for its famous ski resorts, which include Kitzbühel, Ischgl and St. Anton. The 15 largest towns in Tyrol are:

TownInhabitants
January 2017
1. Innsbruck 132,236
2. Kufstein 18,973
3. Telfs 15,582
4. Hall in Tirol 13,801
5. Schwaz 13,606
6. Wörgl 13,537
7. Lienz 11,945
8. Imst 10,371
9. St. Johann in Tirol 9,425
10. Rum 9,063
11. Kitzbühel 8,341
12. Zirl 8,134
13. Wattens 7,870
14. Landeck 7,764
15. Jenbach 7,088

Population

The historical population is given in the following chart:

Tyrol (state)

Economy

The Gross domestic product (GDP) of the state was 34.6 billion € in 2018, accounting for 9% of the Austria's economic output. GDP per capita adjusted for purchasing power was 40,900 € or 136% of the EU27 average in the same year. [6]

Transport

Tyrol has long been a central hub for European long-distance routes and thus a transit land for trans-European trade over the Alps. As early as the 1st century B.C. Tyrol had one of the most important north–south links of the Roman Empire, the Via Claudia Augusta. Roman roads crossed the Tyrol from the Po Plain in present-day Italy, following the course of the Etsch and Eisack in present South Tyrol over the Brenner and then following the northern Wipp valley to Hall. From there roads branched along the River Inn. The Via Raetia went westwards and up onto the Seefeld Plateau, where it crossed into Bavaria where Scharnitz is today. The Porta Claudia, built in the early 17th century is a fortification that underlines the importance of the road in the Early Modern Period.

Today Tyrol has international road, rail and air connections. Innsbruck Airport is Tyrol's international airport. In addition there are several smaller airports in various places such as St. Johann in Tirol, Höfen in the Außerfern or Langkampfen. Many public transit companies operate a common tariff scheme as part of the Tyrol Transport Association.

Administrative divisions

Districts of Tyrol Karte-tirol.png
Districts of Tyrol

The state is divided into nine districts ( Bezirke ); one of them, Innsbruck, is a statutory city. The districts and their administrative centres, from west to east and north to south, are:

North Tyrol:

East Tyrol:

Sister relationships

Culture

The traditional form of mural art known as Lüftlmalerei is typical of Tyrolean villages and towns.

Kletzenbrot is a sweet bread made with dried fruits and nuts for the Advent season. Because it is associated with Tyrol it is also known as "Tyrolean Dried Fruit Bread".

See also

Related Research Articles

History of Tyrol

The history of Tyrol, a historical region in the middle alpine area of Central Europe, dates back to early human settlements at the end of the last glacier period, around 12,000 BC. Sedentary settlements of farmers and herders can be traced back to 5000 BC. Many of the main and side valleys were settled during the early Bronze Age, from 1800 to 1300 BC. From these settlements, two prominent cultures emerged: the Laugen-Melaun culture in the Bronze Age, and the Fritzens-Sanzeno culture in the Iron Age.

Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol Region of Italy

Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol is an autonomous region of Italy, located in the northern part of the country. The region has a population of 1.1 million, of whom 62% speak Italian as their mother tongue, 30% speak South Tyrolean German and several foreign languages are spoken by immigrant communities. Since the 1970s, most legislative and administrative powers have been transferred to the two self-governing provinces that make up the region: the Province of Trento, commonly known as Trentino, and the Province of Bolzano, commonly known as South Tyrol.

Landeck Place in Tyrol, Austria

Landeck is a city in the Austrian state of Tyrol, the capital of the district of Landeck.

East Tyrol

East Tyrol, occasionally East Tirol, is an exclave of the Austrian state of Tyrol, separated from the main North Tyrol part by the short common border of Salzburg and Italian South Tyrol. It is congruent with the administrative district (Bezirk) of Lienz.

North Tyrol

North Tyrol, or North Tirol is the main part of the Austrian state of Tyrol, located in the western part of the country. The other part of the state is East Tyrol, which also belongs to Austria, but does not share a border with North Tyrol.

The Bezirk Imst is an administrative district (Bezirk) in Tyrol, Austria. It borders the district Reutte in the north, as well as sharing a small border with Bavaria (Germany). It borders the district Innsbruck-Land in the east, South Tyrol (Italy) in the south, and the district Landeck in the west.

Innsbruck-Land District District in Tyrol, Austria

The Bezirk Innsbruck-Land is an administrative district (Bezirk) in Tyrol, Austria. It encloses the Statutarstadt Innsbruck, and borders Bavaria (Germany) in the north, the district Schwaz in the east, South Tyrol in Italy to the south, and the district of Imst in the west.

Lienz Place in Tyrol, Austria

Lienz is a medieval town in the Austrian state of Tyrol. It is the administrative centre of the Lienz district, which covers all of East Tyrol. The municipality also includes the cadastral subdivision of Patriasdorf.

County of Tyrol Estate of the Holy Roman Empire (1140-1806); county of Austria (1806-1919)

The (Princely) County of Tyrol was an estate of the Holy Roman Empire established about 1140. After 1253, it was ruled by the House of Gorizia and from 1363 by the House of Habsburg. In 1804, the county of Tyrol, unified with the secularised prince-bishoprics of Trent and Brixen, became a crown land of the Austrian Empire. From 1867, it was a Cisleithanian crown land of Austria-Hungary.

County of Gorizia

The County of Gorizia, from 1365 Princely County of Gorizia, was a State of the Holy Roman Empire. Originally mediate Vogts of the Patriarchs of Aquileia, the Counts of Gorizia (Meinhardiner) ruled over several fiefs in the area of Lienz and in the Friuli region of northeastern Italy with their residence at Gorizia (Görz).

House of Gorizia Noble family in the Holy Roman Empire

The Counts of Gorizia, also known as the Meinhardiner, were a comital, princely and ducal dynasty in the Holy Roman Empire. Named after Gorizia Castle in Gorizia, they were originally "advocates" (Vogts) in the Patriarchate of Aquileia who ruled the County of Gorizia (Görz) from the early 12th century until the year 1500. Staunch supporters of the Emperors against the papacy, they reached the height of their power in the aftermath of the battle of Marchfeld between the 1280s and 1310s, when they controlled most of contemporary Slovenia, western and south-western Austria and north-eastern Italy mostly as (princely) Counts of Gorizia and Tyrol, Landgraves of Savinja and Dukes of Carinthia and Carniola. After 1335, they began a steady decline until their territories shrunk back to the original County of Gorizia by the mid 1370s. Their remaining lands were inherited by the Habsburg ruler Maximilian I.

Sillian Place in Tyrol, Austria

Sillian is a market town in the district of Lienz, in the Austrian state of Tyrol.

NUTS statistical regions of Austria

The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) is a geocode standard for referencing the subdivisions of Austria for statistical purposes. The standard is developed and regulated by the European Union. The NUTS standard is instrumental in delivering the European Union's Structural Funds. The NUTS code for Austria is AT and a hierarchy of three levels is established by Eurostat. Below these is a further levels of geographic organisation - the local administrative unit (LAU). In Austria, the LAU 2 is municipalities.

Innsbruck Hauptbahnhof Railway station in Austria

Innsbruck Hauptbahnhof is the main railway station in Innsbruck, the capital city of the Austrian federal state of Tyrol. Opened in 1853, the station is a major hub for western and central Austria. In 2019, it was the 8th-busiest station in the country, and the 2nd-busiest outside of Vienna after only Linz Hauptbahnhof, with 315 train movements and 38,500 passengers daily.

Burg Bruck

Burg Bruck is a medieval castle in Lienz in Tyrol, Austria. Burg Bruck is 711 metres (2,333 ft) above sea level.

Tyrolean Rebellion

The Tyrolean Rebellion of 1809 was a rebellion of peasants in the County of Tyrol led by Andreas Hofer against the occupation of their homeland by the French and Bavarian troops within the context of the War of the Fifth Coalition against Napoleon I.

Tyrolean Oberland Part of the Austrian state of Tyrol west of Innsbruck

The Tyrolean Oberland is that part of the Austrian state of Tyrol west of Innsbruck or, more precisely, west of the Melach river, but excluding the Außerfern region.

Tyrolean Unterland

The Tyrolean Unterland is that part of the Austrian state of Tyrol east of its capital city, Innsbruck, excluding East Tyrol.

Museum of Tyrolean Farms

The Museum of Tyrolean Farms is an open-air museum in Kramsach, Austria. As at 2009 the museum had around 30 historic farmsteads and other historic rural buildings as well as their associated barns, sheds, alms and storehouses.

Tyrol Region across the Alps

Tyrol is a historical region in the Alps—in Northern Italy and western Austria. The area was historically the core of the County of Tyrol, part of the Holy Roman Empire, Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary, from its formation in the 12th century until 1919. In 1919, following World War I and the dissolution of Austria-Hungary, it was divided into two modern administrative parts through the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye:

References

  1. "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  2. "Tyrol". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary .
  3. "Tyrol, Austria". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 1 November 2016.
  4. "Accademia degli Agiati" (PDF).
  5. Elisabeth Boeckl-Klamper, Thomas Mang, Wolfgang Neugebauer: Gestapo-Leitstelle Wien 1938–1945. Vienna 2018, ISBN   978-3902494832, pp. 299–305; Hans Schafranek: Widerstand und Verrat: Gestapospitzel im antifaschistischen Untergrund. Vienna 2017, ISBN   978-3707606225, pp. 161–248; Christoph Thurner "The CASSIA Spy Ring in World War II Austria: A History of the OSS's Maier-Messner Group" (2017), pp 35.
  6. "Regional GDP per capita ranged from 30% to 263% of the EU average in 2018". Eurostat.