Tyrol (federal state)

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Tyrol
Tirol (German)
Land Tirol (German)
Flag of Tirol.svg
AUT Tirol COA.svg
LandTirol.svg
Anthem: Andreas-Hofer-Lied
Tirol in Austria.svg
Coordinates: 47°16′N11°24′E / 47.27°N 11.4°E / 47.27; 11.4
CountryFlag of Austria.svg  Austria
Capital Innsbruck
Government
  Body Tyrolean Landtag
   Governor Anton Mattle (ÖVP)
  Deputy GovernorsJosef Geisler (ÖVP), Georg Dornauer (SPÖ)
Area
  Total12,534 km2 (4,839 sq mi)
Population
 (1 January 2023)
  Total771,304
  Density62/km2 (160/sq mi)
GDP
[1]
  Total€45.400 billion (2021)
  Per capita€46,700 (2021)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
ISO 3166 code AT-7
HDI (2019)0.933 [2]
very high · 3rd of 9
NUTS Region AT3
Votes in Bundesrat 5 (of 62)
Website www.tirol.gv.at

Tyrol ( /tɪˈrl,tˈrl,ˈtrl/ tih-ROHL, ty-ROHL, TY-rohl; [3] German : Tirol [tiˈʁoːl] ; Italian : Tirolo) is an Austrian federal state. It comprises the Austrian part of the historical Princely County of Tyrol. It is a constituent part of the present-day Euroregion Tyrol–South Tyrol–Trentino (together with South Tyrol and Trentino in Italy). The capital of Tyrol is Innsbruck. [4]

Contents

Geography

Tyrol is separated into two parts, divided by a 7-kilometre wide (4.3 mi) strip of Salzburg State. The two constituent parts of Tyrol are the northern and larger North Tyrol (Nordtirol) and the southeastern and smaller East Tyrol (Osttirol). Salzburg State lies to the east of North Tyrol, while on the south Tyrol has a border to the Italian province of South Tyrol, which was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire before the First World War. With a land area of 12,683.85 km2 (4,897.26 sq mi), Tyrol is the third-largest federal state in Austria.

North Tyrol shares its borders with the federal states Salzburg in the east and Vorarlberg in the west. In the north, it adjoins the German federal state of Bavaria; in the south, it shares borders with the Italian province of South Tyrol and the Swiss canton of Graubünden. East Tyrol shares its borders with the federal state of Carinthia to the east and Italy's Province of Belluno (Veneto) to the south.

The federal state's territory is located entirely within the Eastern Alps at the Brenner Pass. The highest mountain in the federal state is the Großglockner, part of the Hohe Tauern range on the border with Carinthia. It has a height of 3,797 m (12,457.35 ft), making it the highest mountain in Austria.

Lakes

History

Tiroler Wallfahrer (Tyrolean pilgrims) by Alois Schonn, 19th century Alois Schonn Tiroler Wallfahrer.jpg
Tiroler Wallfahrer (Tyrolean pilgrims) by Alois Schönn, 19th century
Golden Roof, Innsbruck Innsbruck Goldenes Dachl pc.jpg
Golden Roof, Innsbruck

In ancient times, the region was split between the Roman provinces of Raetia (west of the Inn River) and Noricum. From the mid-6th century, it was resettled by Germanic Bavarii tribes.[ citation needed ] In the Early Middle Ages it formed the southern part of the German stem duchy of Bavaria, until the Counts of Tyrol, former Vogt officials of the Trent and Brixen prince-bishops at Tyrol Castle, achieved imperial immediacy after the deposition of the Bavarian duke Henry the Proud in 1138, and their possessions formed a state of the Holy Roman Empire in its own right.

When the Counts of Tyrol died out in 1253, their estates were inherited by the Meinhardiner Counts of Görz. In 1271, the Tyrolean possessions were divided between Count Meinhard II of Görz and his younger brother Albert I, who took the lands of East Tyrol around Lienz and attached it (as "outer county") to his committal possessions around Gorizia ("inner county").

The last Tyrolean countess of the Meinhardiner Dynasty, Margaret, bequeathed her assets to the Habsburg duke Rudolph IV of Austria in 1363. In 1420, the committal residence was relocated from Merano to Innsbruck. The Tyrolean lands were reunited when the Habsburgs inherited the estates of the extinct Counts of Görz in 1500.

In the course of the German mediatization in 1803, the prince-bishoprics of Trent and Brixen were secularized and merged into the County of Tyrol (which in the next year became a constituent land of the Austrian Empire), but Tyrol was ceded to the Kingdom of Bavaria in 1805. Andreas Hofer led the Tyrolean Rebellion against the French and Bavarian occupiers. Later, South Tyrol was ceded to the Kingdom of Italy, a client state of the First French Empire, by Bavaria in 1810. After Napoleon's defeat, the whole of Tyrol was returned to Austria in 1814.

Tyrol was a Cisleithanian Kronland (royal territory) of Austria-Hungary from 1867. The County of Tyrol then extended beyond the boundaries of today's federal state, including North Tyrol and East Tyrol; South Tyrol and Trentino (Welschtirol) as well as three municipalities, which today are part of the adjacent province of Belluno. After World War I, these lands became part of the Kingdom of Italy according to the 1915 London Pact and the provisions of the Treaty of Saint Germain. From November 1918, it was occupied by 20,000–22,000 soldiers of the Italian Army. [5]

Heinrich Maier, Walter Caldonazzi and their group helped the allies to fight the V-2, which was produced by concentration camp prisoners. V-2 Rocket On Meillerwagen.jpg
Heinrich Maier, Walter Caldonazzi and their group helped the allies to fight the V-2, which was produced by concentration camp prisoners.

Tyrol was the center of an important resistance group against Nazi Germany around Walter Caldonazzi, which united with the group around the priest Heinrich Maier and the Tyrolean Franz Josef Messner. The Catholic resistance group very successfully passed on plans and production facilities for V-1 rockets, V-2 rockets, Tiger tanks, Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet and other aircraft to the Allies, with which they could target German production facilities. Maier and his group informed the American secret service OSS very early on about the mass murder of Jews in Auschwitz. For after the war they planned an Austria united with South Tyrol and Bavaria. [6]

After World War II, North Tyrol was governed by France and East Tyrol was part of the British Zone of occupation until Austria regained independence in 1955.

Towns

View of Innsbruck from Mt. Bergisel Olympiaringe Innsbruck 3.JPG
View of Innsbruck from Mt. Bergisel
A view from the tower of the old townhall to Innsbruck Cathedral Blick vom Stadtturm des Alten Rathauses zum Innsbrucker Dom 2.JPG
A view from the tower of the old townhall to Innsbruck Cathedral
Hall in Tirol Alt Hall in Tirol, A.jpg
Hall in Tirol

The capital, Innsbruck, is known for its university, and especially for its medicine. Tyrol is popular for its famous ski resorts, which include Kitzbühel, Ischgl and St. Anton. The 15 largest towns in Tyrol are:

TownInhabitants
January 2017
1. Innsbruck 132,236
2. Kufstein 18,973
3. Telfs 15,582
4. Hall in Tirol 13,801
5. Schwaz 13,606
6. Wörgl 13,537
7. Lienz 11,945
8. Imst 10,371
9. St. Johann in Tirol 9,425
10. Rum 9,063
11. Kitzbühel 8,341
12. Zirl 8,134
13. Wattens 7,870
14. Landeck 7,764
15. Jenbach 7,088

Demographics

The historical population is given in the following chart:

Tyrol (federal state)

Economy

The federal state's gross domestic product (GDP) was 34.6 billion euro in 2018, accounting for 9% of Austria's economic output. GDP per capita adjusted for purchasing power was 40,900 euro or 136% of the EU27 average in the same year. [7]

Transport

Tyrol has long been a central hub for European long-distance routes and thus a transit land for trans-European trade over the Alps. As early as the 1st century B.C. Tyrol had one of the most important north–south links of the Roman Empire, the Via Claudia Augusta. Roman roads crossed the Tyrol from the Po Plain in present-day Italy, following the course of the Etsch and Eisack in present South Tyrol over the Brenner and then following the northern Wipp valley to Hall. From there roads branched along the River Inn. The Via Raetia went westwards and up onto the Seefeld Plateau, where it crossed into Bavaria where Scharnitz is today. The Porta Claudia, built in the early 17th century is a fortification that underlines the importance of the road in the Early Modern Period.

Today Tyrol has international road, rail and air connections. Innsbruck Airport is Tyrol's international airport. In addition there are several smaller airports in various places such as St. Johann in Tirol, Höfen in the Außerfern or Langkampfen. Many public transit companies operate a common tariff scheme as part of the Tyrol Transport Association.

Administrative divisions

Districts of Tyrol Karte A Tirol ohne.svg
Districts of Tyrol

The federal state is divided into nine districts ( Bezirke ); one of them, Innsbruck, is a statutory city. There are 277 municipalities. The districts and their administrative centres, from west to east and north to south, are:

North Tyrol
East Tyrol

Sister relationships

Culture

The traditional form of mural art known as Lüftlmalerei is typical of Tyrolean villages and towns.

Kletzenbrot is a sweet bread made with dried fruits and nuts for the Advent season. Because it is associated with Tyrol it is also known as "Tyrolean Dried Fruit Bread".

Identity

The question of which regional unit was the bearer of primary identification was raised in the 1987 Austrian Consciousness Survey. The possible answers were: the hometown (local patriotism), one's own province (regional patriotism), (Central) Europe (European consciousness), the world (cosmopolitanism). [8]

Emotional connectedness according to territorial units (1987)
in:ViennaLower AustriaBurgenlandTyrolCarinthiaVorarlbergStyriaUpper AustriaSalzburg
Homeplace383031162321253524
Bundesland81624585344392333
Austrian465544192428323735
German10-1--212
(Middle-)European41-1-4214
World Citizen4-12-312-
other20--1-003

A research project led by Peter Diem [9] offers a thoroughly comparable picture: In Vienna and Lower Austria, Austria patriotism dominated (1988) over territorial consciousness.[ clarification needed ] In Upper Austria, Salzburg and Styria, national patriotism slightly outweighed federal state patriotism.[ clarification needed ] In Carinthia, Tyrol and Vorarlberg, national patriotism clearly dominated. When asked to rate their own national patriotism on a ten-point scale, 83% of Carinthians, 69% of Tyroleans, 63% of Vorarlbergers, Burgenlanders and Styrians, 59% of Upper Austrians, 55% of Lower Austrians, 47% of Viennese and 43% of Salzburgers gave it the highest value.

The results of this study underline the assumption of a highly developed sense of national identity in most Austrian provinces. Peculiarly, the federal provinces are also largely "endogamous" in relation to other provinces, i.e. they correspond to what ethnologists would call a gentile association, a "tribe".

It is therefore also permissible to identify the inhabitants of the Austrian provinces as the "tribes" that a book published in London would like to portray. (The Times Guide to the Peoples of Europe, London 1994The Times guide to the peoples of Europe)

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of Tyrol</span>

The history of Tyrol, a historical region in the middle alpine area of Central Europe, dates back to early human settlements at the end of the last glacier period, around 12,000 BC. Sedentary settlements of farmers and herders can be traced back to 5000 BC. Many of the main and side valleys were settled during the early Bronze Age, from 1800 to 1300 BC. From these settlements, two prominent cultures emerged: the Laugen-Melaun culture in the Bronze Age, and the Fritzens-Sanzeno culture in the Iron Age.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol</span> Region of Italy

Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol is an autonomous region of Italy, located in the northern part of the country. The region has a population of 1.1 million, of whom 62% speak Italian as their mother tongue, 30% speak South Tyrolean German and several foreign languages are spoken by immigrant communities. Since the 1970s, most legislative and administrative powers have been transferred to the two self-governing provinces that make up the region: the province of Trento, commonly known as Trentino, and the province of Bolzano, commonly known as South Tyrol. In South Tyrol, German remains the sizeable majority language.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kitzbühel</span> Town in Tyrol, Austria

Kitzbühel is a medieval town situated in the Kitzbühel Alps along the river Kitzbüheler Ache in Tyrol, Austria, about 100 km (62 mi) east of the state capital Innsbruck and is the administrative centre of the Kitzbühel district. Kitzbühel is one of the most famous and exclusive ski resorts in the world. It is frequented primarily by the international high society and has the most expensive real estate in Austria. The proximity to Munich has made it a preferred location for vacation homes among the German elite.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kufstein</span> Municipality in Tyrol, Austria

Kufstein is a town in the Austrian state of Tyrol, the administrative seat of Kufstein District. With a population of about 20,000 it is the second largest Tyrolean town after the state capital Innsbruck. The greatest landmark is Kufstein Fortress, first mentioned in the 13th century. The town was the place of origin of the Austrian noble family Kuefstein.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kitzbühel Alps</span> Mountain range in Austria

The Kitzbühel Alps are a mountain range of the Central Eastern Alps surrounding the town of Kitzbühel in Tyrol, Austria. Geologically they are part of the western slate zone.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">East Tyrol</span>

East Tyrol, occasionally East Tirol, is an exclave of the Austrian federal state of Tyrol, separated from North Tyrol by parts of Salzburg State and parts of Italian South Tyrol. It is coterminous with the administrative district (Bezirk) of Lienz.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">North Tyrol</span> Part of the Austrian federal state Tyrol

North Tyrol, rarely North Tirol, is the main part of the Austrian federal state Tyrol, located in the western part of the country. The other part of the federal state is East Tyrol, which also belongs to Austria, but doesn't share a border with North Tyrol.

The Bezirk Lienz is an administrative district (Bezirk) in Tyrol, Austria. It is the only district in East Tyrol. The district borders the Pinzgau (Salzburg) in the north, the districts Spittal an der Drau and Hermagor in the east, Veneto (Italy) in the south, and South Tyrol (Italy) in the west.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lienz</span> Place in Tyrol, Austria

Lienz is a medieval town in the Austrian state of Tyrol. It is the administrative centre of the Lienz district, which covers all of East Tyrol. The municipality also includes the cadastral subdivision of Patriasdorf.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">County of Tyrol</span> Estate of the Holy Roman Empire (1140–1806); county of Austria (1806–1919)

The (Princely) County of Tyrol was an estate of the Holy Roman Empire established about 1140. After 1253, it was ruled by the House of Gorizia and from 1363 by the House of Habsburg. In 1804, the County of Tyrol, unified with the secularised prince-bishoprics of Trent and Brixen, became a crown land of the Austrian Empire. From 1867, it was a Cisleithanian crown land of Austria-Hungary.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">County of Gorizia</span> State of the Holy Roman Empire (c.1117–1500)

The County of Gorizia, from 1365 Princely County of Gorizia, was a State of the Holy Roman Empire. Originally mediate Vogts of the Patriarchs of Aquileia, the Counts of Gorizia (Meinhardiner) ruled over several fiefs in the area of Lienz and in the Friuli region of northeastern Italy with their residence at Gorizia (Görz).

<span class="mw-page-title-main">House of Gorizia</span> Noble family in the Holy Roman Empire

The Counts of Gorizia, also known as the Meinhardiner, House of Meinhardin, were a comital, princely and ducal dynasty in the Holy Roman Empire. Named after Gorizia Castle in Gorizia, they were originally "advocates" (Vogts) in the Patriarchate of Aquileia who ruled the County of Gorizia (Görz) from the early 12th century until the year 1500. Staunch supporters of the Emperors against the papacy, they reached the height of their power in the aftermath of the battle of Marchfeld between the 1280s and 1310s, when they controlled most of contemporary Slovenia, western and south-western Austria and part of northeast Italy mostly as (princely) Counts of Gorizia and Tyrol, Landgraves of Savinja and Dukes of Carinthia and Carniola. After 1335, they began a steady decline until their territories shrunk back to the original County of Gorizia by the mid 1370s. Their remaining lands were inherited by the Habsburg ruler Maximilian I.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Matrei in Osttirol</span> Place in Tyrol, Austria

Matrei in Osttirol is a market town in the Lienz District in the Austrian state of Tyrol. It is situated about 29 km (18 mi) north of Lienz within the Hohe Tauern mountain range of the Central Eastern Alps. Its municipal area comprises parts of the Granatspitze Group and the Venediger Group, with the Großvenediger peak as its highest point. The population largely depends on tourism, seasonal agriculture and forestry.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">NUTS statistical regions of Austria</span>

The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) is a geocode standard for referencing the subdivisions of Austria for statistical purposes. The standard is developed and regulated by the European Union. The NUTS standard is instrumental in delivering the European Union's Structural Funds. The NUTS code for Austria is AT and a hierarchy of three levels is established by Eurostat. Below these is a further levels of geographic organisation - the local administrative unit (LAU). In Austria, the LAU 2 is municipalities.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Innsbruck Hauptbahnhof</span> Railway station in Tyrol, Austria

Innsbruck Hauptbahnhof is the main railway station in Innsbruck, the capital city of the Austrian federal state of Tyrol. Opened in 1853, the station is a major hub for western and central Austria. In 2019, it was the 8th-busiest station in the country, and the 2nd-busiest outside of Vienna after only Linz Hauptbahnhof, with 315 train movements and 38,500 passengers daily.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tyrolean Rebellion</span> 1809 resistance of Tyrolean civilians against Napoleon

The Tyrolean Rebellion is a name given to the resistance of militiamen, peasants, craftsmen and other civilians of the County of Tyrol led by Andreas Hofer supported by his wife Anna and a strategic council consisting of Josef Speckbacher, Peter Mayr, Capuchin Father Joachim Haspinger, Major Martin Teimer and Kajetan Sveth, against new legislation and a compulsory vaccination programme concerning smallpox ordered by King Maximilian I of Bavaria, followed by the military occupation of their homeland by troops organised and financed by Napoleon I of the First French Empire and Maximilian I. The broader military context is called the War of the Fifth Coalition.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tyrolean Unterland</span>

The Tyrolean Unterland is that part of the Austrian state of Tyrol east of its capital city, Innsbruck, excluding East Tyrol.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Salzburg-Tyrol Railway</span>

The Salzburg-Tyrol Railway is a main line railway in Austria. It runs through the states of Salzburg and Tyrol from the city of Salzburg to Wörgl and belongs to the core network (Kernnetz) of the Austrian Federal Railways (ÖBB). The section between Salzburg and Schwarzach-Sankt Veit is part of the Salzburg S-Bahn urban railway network.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tyrol</span> Region across the Alps

Tyrol is a historical region in the Alps of Northern Italy and western Austria. The area was historically the core of the County of Tyrol, part of the Holy Roman Empire, Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary, from its formation in the 12th century until 1919. In 1919, following World War I and the dissolution of Austria-Hungary, it was divided into two modern administrative parts through the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye:

The Regionalliga Tirol is a third-tier division of Austrian football introduced in the 2019–20 season as one of the successor of the Austrian Regionalliga West. It covers the Austrian state of Tyrol and is one of five leagues at this level.

References

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  2. "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
  3. "Tyrol". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary .
  4. "Tyrol, Austria". Lonely Planet. Retrieved 1 November 2016.
  5. "Accademia degli Agiati" (PDF).
  6. Elisabeth Boeckl-Klamper, Thomas Mang, Wolfgang Neugebauer: Gestapo-Leitstelle Wien 1938–1945. Vienna 2018, ISBN   978-3902494832, pp. 299–305; Hans Schafranek: Widerstand und Verrat: Gestapospitzel im antifaschistischen Untergrund. Vienna 2017, ISBN   978-3707606225, pp. 161–248; Christoph Thurner "The CASSIA Spy Ring in World War II Austria: A History of the OSS's Maier-Messner Group" (2017), p. 35.
  7. "Regional GDP per capita ranged from 30% to 263% of the EU average in 2018". Eurostat.
  8. Österreichbewußtsein im Wandel, Ernst Bruckmüller, 1994
  9. Integrative Phänomene, Diem Peter, 1988