Regions of Italy

Last updated

Regioni  (Italian)
Category Unitary state
Location Italian Republic
Populations125,666 (Aosta Valley) – 10,060,574 (Lombardy)
Areas3,261 km2 (1,259 sq mi) (Aosta Valley) –
25,832 km2 (9,974 sq mi) (Sicily)
GovernmentRegional Government, National Government
Subdivisions Province

The regions of Italy (Italian : regioni d'Italia) are the first-level constituent entities of the Italian Republic, constituting its second NUTS administrative level. [1] There are 20 regions, of which five have greater autonomy than the other fifteen. Under the Italian Constitution, each region is an autonomous entity with defined powers. With the exception of the Aosta Valley, each region is divided into a number of provinces.



During the Kingdom of Italy, regions were administrative districts of the central state. Under the Republic, they were granted a measure of political autonomy by the 1948 Italian Constitution. The original draft list comprised the Salento region (which was eventually included in the Apulia). Friuli and Venezia Giulia were separate regions, and Basilicata was named Lucania. Abruzzo and Molise were identified as separate regions in the first draft. They were later merged into Abruzzo e Molise in the final constitution of 1948. They were separated in 1963.

Implementation of regional autonomy was postponed until the first Regional elections of 1970. The ruling Christian Democracy party did not want the opposition Italian Communist Party to gain power in the regions where it was historically rooted (the red belt of Emilia-Romagna, Tuscany, Umbria and the Marches).

Regions acquired a significant level of autonomy following a constitutional reform in 2001 (brought about by a centre-left government and confirmed by popular referendum), which granted them residual policy competence. A further federalist reform was proposed by the regionalist party Lega Nord and in 2005, the centre-right government led by Silvio Berlusconi proposed a new reform that would have greatly increased the power of regions. [2]

The proposals, which had been particularly associated with Lega Nord, and seen by some as leading the way to a federal state, were rejected in the 2006 Italian constitutional referendum by 61.7% to 38.3%. [2] The results varied considerably among the regions, ranging from 55.3% in favor in Veneto to 82% against in Calabria. [2]

Political control

Regions colored by the winning coalition (as of September 2020) Winning Coalitions in Italian Regions.svg
Regions colored by the winning coalition (as of September 2020)

Number of regions governed by each coalition since 1995:

Regions of Italy


Flag Region
Italian name (if different)
Status Population [3]
January 2019
Area Pop. density HDI [4] Capital PresidentNumber of comuni [5] Prov. or
metrop. cities
Flag of Abruzzo.svg Abruzzo Ordinary1,311,5802.17%10,8323.59%1210.890 L'Aquila Marco Marsilio
Brothers of Italy
Flag of Valle d'Aosta.svg Aosta Valley
Valle d'Aosta
Autonomous125,6660.21%3,2611.08%390.878 Aosta Erik Lavévaz
Valdostan Union
Flag of Apulia.svg Apulia
Ordinary4,029,0536.68%19,5416.48%2060.852 Bari Michele Emiliano
Democratic Party
Flag of Basilicata.svg Basilicata Ordinary562,8690.93%10,0733.34%560.857 Potenza Vito Bardi
Forza Italia
Flag of Calabria.svg Calabria Ordinary1,947,1313.23%15,2225.04%1280.850 Catanzaro Antonino Spirlì (acting) [lower-alpha 1]
Flag of Campania.svg Campania Ordinary5,801,6929.61%13,6714.53%4240.847 Naples Vincenzo De Luca
Democratic Party
Fictional Emilia-Romagna Flag.svg Emilia-Romagna Ordinary4,459,4777.39%22,4537.44%1990.915 Bologna Stefano Bonaccini
Democratic Party
Flag of Friuli-Venezia Giulia.svg Friuli Venezia Giulia Autonomous1,215,2202.01%7,9242.63%1530.898 Trieste Massimiliano Fedriga
Lazio Flag.svg Lazio Ordinary5,879,0829.74%17,2325.71%3410.909 Rome Nicola Zingaretti
Democratic Party
Flag of Liguria.svg Liguria Ordinary1,550,6402.57%5,4161.79%2860.896 Genoa Giovanni Toti
Flag of Lombardy.svg Lombardy
Ordinary10,060,57416.67%23,8647.91%4220.907 Milan Attilio Fontana
Flag of Marche.svg Marche Ordinary1,525,2712.53%9,4013.12%1620.896 Ancona Francesco Acquaroli
Brothers of Italy
Flag of Molise.svg Molise Ordinary305,6170.51%4,4611.48%690.867 Campobasso Donato Toma
Forza Italia
Bandiera della regione Piemonte.svg Piedmont
Ordinary4,356,4067.22%25,3878.41%1720.892 Turin Alberto Cirio
Forza Italia
Flag of Sardinia, Italy.svg Sardinia
Autonomous1,639,5912.72%24,1007.99%680.863 Cagliari Christian Solinas
Sardinian Action Party
Sicilian Flag.svg Sicily
Autonomous4,999,8918.28%25,8328.56%1940.845 Palermo Nello Musumeci
Diventerà Bellissima
Flag of Trentino-South Tyrol.svg Trentino-South Tyrol
Trentino-Alto Adige
Autonomous1,072,2761.78%13,6064.51%790.919 Trento Arno Kompatscher
South Tyrolean People's Party
Flag of Tuscany.svg Tuscany
Ordinary3,729,6416.18%22,9877.62%1620.903 Florence Eugenio Giani
Democratic Party
Flag of Umbria.svg Umbria Ordinary882,0151.46%8,4642.81%1040.889 Perugia Donatella Tesei
Flag of Veneto.svg Veneto Ordinary4,905,8548.13%18,0205.97%2670.896 Venice Luca Zaia
Flag of Italy.svg Italy
60,359,546100.00%301,747100.00%2000.887 Rome Sergio Mattarella
  1. Antonino Spirlì is the acting President following the death of Jole Santelli on 15th October 2020.


Macroregions are the first-level NUTS of the European Union.(it)

Italian name
RegionsMajor city Population
January 2019
Area (km2) Population

Italian NUTS1 NorthWest.svg
Aosta Valley
Milan 16,093,28626.66%57,92819.18%278
Italian NUTS1 NorthEast.svg
Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Trentino-South Tyrol
Bologna 11,652,82719.31%62,00320.63%187
Italian NUTS1 Central.svg
Rome 12,016,00919.91%58,08519.23%208
Italian NUTS1 South.svg
Naples 13,957,94223.12%73,80024.43%191
Italian NUTS1 Islands.svg
Isole or Insulare (adj)
Palermo 6,639,48211.00%49,93216.53%135


Every region has a statute that serves as a regional constitution, determining the form of government and the fundamental principles of the organization and the functioning of the region, as prescribed by the Constitution of Italy (Article 123). Although all the regions except Tuscany define themselves in various ways as an "autonomous Region" in the first article of their Statutes, [6] fifteen regions have ordinary statutes and five have special statutes, granting them extended autonomy.

Regions with ordinary statute

These regions, whose statutes are approved by their regional councils, were created in 1970, even though the Italian Constitution dates back to 1948. Since the constitutional reform of 2001 they have had residual legislative powers. The regions have exclusive legislative power with respect to any matters not expressly reserved to state law (Article 117). [7] Yet their financial autonomy is quite modest: they just keep 20% of all levied taxes, mostly used to finance the region-based healthcare system. [8]

Autonomous regions with special statute

Autonomous regions Autonomous Regions of Italy.svg
Autonomous regions

Article 116 of the Italian Constitution grants home rule to five regions, namely Sardinia, Sicily, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Aosta Valley and Friuli Venezia Giulia, allowing them some legislative, administrative and financial power to a varying extent, depending on their specific statute. These regions became autonomous in order to take into account cultural differences and protect linguistic minorities. Moreover, the government wanted to prevent their secession from Italy after the Second World War. [9]


Each region has an elected parliament, called Consiglio Regionale (regional council), or Assemblea Regionale (regional assembly) in Sicily, and a government called Giunta Regionale (regional committee), headed by a governor called Presidente della Giunta Regionale (president of the regional committee) or Presidente della Regione (regional president). The latter is directly elected by the citizens of each region, with the exceptions of Aosta Valley and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol regions where the president is chosen by the regional council.

Under the 1995 electoral law, the winning coalition receives an absolute majority of seats on the council. The president chairs the giunta, and nominates or dismisses its members, called assessori . If the directly elected president resigns, new elections are called immediately.

In the Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol region, the regional council is made up of the joint session of the two provincial councils of Trentino and of South Tyrol. The regional president is one of the two provincial commissioners.

Representation in the Senate

Number of senators currently assigned to each Region. Italian senators.png
Number of senators currently assigned to each Region.

Article 57 of the Constitution of Italy establishes that the Senate of the Italian Republic is elected on a regional basis (excluding 6 senators elected by Italians residing abroad and a small number of senators for life) by Italian citizens aged 25 or older.

The 309 senators are assigned to each region proportionally according to their population. However, Article 57 of the Constitution provides that no region can have fewer than seven senators representing it, except for the Aosta Valley (which has one) and Molise (which has two).

RegionSeats [10] RegionSeatsRegionSeats
Flag of Abruzzo.svg  Abruzzo 7Flag of Friuli-Venezia Giulia.svg  Friuli-Venezia Giulia 7Flag of Sardinia.svg  Sardinia 8
Flag of Valle d'Aosta.svg  Aosta Valley 1Flag of Lazio.svg  Lazio 28Flag of Sicily (revised).svg  Sicily 25
Flag of Apulia.svg  Apulia 20Flag of Liguria.svg  Liguria 8Flag of Trentino-South Tyrol.svg  Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol 7
Flag of Basilicata.svg  Basilicata 7Flag of Lombardy.svg  Lombardy 49Flag of Tuscany.svg  Tuscany 18
Flag of Calabria.svg  Calabria 10Flag of Marche.svg  Marche 8Flag of Umbria.svg  Umbria 7
Flag of Campania.svg  Campania 29Flag of Molise.svg  Molise 2Flag of Veneto.svg  Veneto 24
Fictional Emilia-Romagna Flag.svg  Emilia-Romagna 22Flag of Piedmont.svg  Piedmont 22 Overseas constituencies 6

Economy of regions and macroregions

FlagNameGDP 2018,
million EUR [11]
GDP per capita 2018,
EUR [11]
GDP 2011,
million PPS [11]
GDP per capita 2011,
PPS [11]
Flag of Abruzzo.svg Abruzzo 33,90025,80029,43821,900
Flag of Valle d'Aosta.svg Aosta Valley 4,90038,9004,23633,000
Flag of Apulia.svg Apulia 76,60019,00068,49616,700
Flag of Basilicata.svg Basilicata 12,60022,20010,51717,900
Flag of Calabria.svg Calabria 33,30017,00032,35716,100
Flag of Campania.svg Campania 108,00018,60091,65815,700
Fictional Emilia-Romagna Flag.svg Emilia-Romagna 161,00036,200139,59731,400
Flag of Friuli-Venezia Giulia.svg Friuli-Venezia Giulia 38,00031,20035,85529,000
Lazio Flag.svg Lazio 198,00033,600168,60929,300
Flag of Liguria.svg Liguria 49,90032,10043,06926,700
Flag of Lombardy.svg Lombardy 388,80038,600330,04233,200
Flag of Marche.svg Marche 43,20028,30040,01425,500
Flag of Molise.svg Molise 6,50020,9006,27819,700
Bandiera della regione Piemonte.svg Piedmont 137,00031,500123,33627,600
Flag of Sardinia, Italy.svg Sardinia 34,90021,20032,37719,300
Sicilian Flag.svg Sicily 89,20017,80082,18316,300
Flag of Trentino-South Tyrol.svg Trentino-Alto Adige 41,70039,20035,04133,700
Flag of Tuscany.svg Tuscany 118,00031,500103,77527,600
Flag of Umbria.svg Umbria 22,50025,40021,07823,200
Flag of Veneto.svg Veneto 163,00033,200146,36929,600
CodeNameGDP 2011,
million EUR [11]
GDP per capita 2011,
EUR [11]
GDP 2011,
million PPS [11]
GDP per capita 2011,
PPS [11]

See also

Other administrative divisions

Related Research Articles

South Tyrol Autonomous province of Italy

South Tyrol is an autonomous province in northern Italy, one of the two that make up the autonomous region of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol. Its official trilingual denomination is Autonome Provinz Bozen – Südtirol in German, Provincia autonoma di Bolzano – Alto Adige in Italian and Provinzia autonoma de Bulsan – Südtirol in Ladin, reflecting the three main language groups to which its population belongs. The province is the northernmost of Italy, the second largest, with an area of 7,400 square kilometres (2,857 sq mi) and has a total population of 531,178 inhabitants as of 2019. Its capital and largest city is Bolzano.

Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol Region of Italy

Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol is an autonomous region of Italy, located in the northern part of the country. Since the 1970s, most legislative and administrative powers have been transferred to the two self-governing provinces that make up the region: the Province of Trento, commonly known as Trentino, and the Province of Bolzano, commonly known as South Tyrol.

Provinces of Italy

The provinces of Italy are the constituent entities of the Italian Republic, on an intermediate level between a municipality and a region. Since 2015, provinces have been classified as ‘institutional bodies of second level’.

Constitution of Italy supreme law of Italy

The Constitution of the Italian Republic was enacted by the Constituent Assembly on 22 December 1947, with 453 votes in favour and 62 against. The text, which has since been amended sixteen times, was promulgated in an extraordinary edition of Gazzetta Ufficiale on 27 December 1947. The Constituent Assembly was elected by universal suffrage on 2 June 1946, on the same day as the referendum on the abolition of the monarchy was held. The election was held in all Italian provinces. The Constitution was drafted in 1946 and came into force on 1 January 1948, one century after the Constitution of the Kingdom of Italy, the Statuto Albertino, had been enacted.

Trentino Autonomous province of Italy

Trentino officially the Autonomous Province of Trento, is an autonomous province of Italy, in the country's far north. The Trentino and South Tyrol constitute the region of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, an autonomous region under the constitution. The province is composed of 177 comuni (municipalities). Its capital is the city of Trento. The province covers an area of more than 6,000 km2 (2,300 sq mi), with a total population of 541,098 in 2019. Trentino is renowned for its mountains, such as the Dolomites, which are part of the Alps.

Valdostan Union

The Valdostan Union, also Valdostian Union or Valdotanian Union is a regionalist and centrist political party in Aosta Valley, Italy. It represents mainly the French-speaking minority in the region, and its leader is Erik Lavévaz, party president and President of Aosta Valley since 2020.

Asymmetric federalism or asymmetrical federalism is found in a federation in which different constituent states possess different powers: one or more of the substates has considerably more autonomy than the other substates, although they have the same constitutional status. This is in contrast to symmetric federalism, where no distinction is made between constituent states. As a result, it is frequently proposed as a solution to the dissatisfactions that arise when one or two constituent units feel significantly different needs from the others, as the result of an ethnic, linguistic or cultural difference.

A regional council in Italy is the elected legislative assembly of a region of Italy. In Emilia-Romagna and Sicily, the legislative bodies are called the Legislative Assembly of Emilia-Romagna and the Sicilian Regional Assembly respectively.

Politics of Aosta Valley

The Politics of Aosta Valley, Italy since 1946 has taken place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democracy, whereby the President of Aosta Valley has been the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. The Regional Government has exercised legislative power, vested in both the government and the Regional Council of Aosta Valley.

Politics of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol Wikipedia list article

The Politics of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Italy takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democracy, whereby the President of Regional Government is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the Regional Government and Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Regional Council. However, since a constitutional reform in 1972, almost all the executive and legislative powers are devolved to the two provinces of which the region is composed: Trentino and the South Tyrol.

Politics of Molise

The Politics of Molise, Italy takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democracy, whereby the president of regional government is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the regional government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Regional Council.

Oskar Peterlini

Oskar Peterlini, Lecturer at the Free University of Bozen Bolzano, is a Representative of the German-speaking South Tyrolean Minority in South Tyrol, Italy. He was a member of the Italian Senate in the Italian Parliament from 2001 to 2013, Member of the Regional Parliament of Trentino South Tyrol from 1978 to 1998 and its president from 1988–1998. He was also President of the district of the South Tyrolean Unterland of the South Tyrolean People's Party (SVP) from 2001 to 2010.

Government of South Tyrol

The Government of South Tyrol is the chief executive body of the autonomous province of South Tyrol in northern Italy enforcing the provincial laws as written by the Landtag legislature. The government has its seat in the capital city of Bolzano/Bozen.

Politics of South Tyrol

The politics of South Tyrol is conducted through a parliamentary, democratic autonomous province with a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised collectively by the Landesregierung, which is led by the Governor, referred to as "Landeshauptmann" in German. Legislative power is vested in the Landtag primarily, and secondarily on the provincial government. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislative branches. South Tyrol has been an autonomous province within the Italian Republic since 1948, when the Gruber – De Gasperi Agreement was agreed upon between Austria and Italy.

A round of regional elections in Italy took place during 2013 in seven regions out of twenty including Lazio, Lombardy and Molise, and 3 autonomous regions: Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Aosta Valley, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol and Basilicata.

For the Autonomies is a heterogeneous centre-left and originally regionalist parliamentary group, which has been active, with slightly different names and different composition, in the Italian Senate since 2001.

2018 Italian regional elections

Regional elections in Italy took place during 2018 in six regions out of twenty including Lazio and Lombardy, Molise, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Aosta Valley and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol.

The Italian Regional councils are composed as follows:

Regional Council of Trentino-Alto Adige

The Regional Council of Trentino-Alto Adige is the legislative assembly of the autonomous region of Trentino-Alto Adige.


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  10. " - XVII Legislatura - Senatori eletti nella regione Piemonte".
  11. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 "GDP per capita in the EU in 2011" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 March 2014.