Regions of Italy

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Regions of Italy
Regioni d'Italia  (Italian)
Category Regionalised unitary state
Location Italian Republic
Number20
Populations123,337 (Aosta Valley) – 9,965,046 (Lombardy)
Areas3,261 km2 (1,259 sq mi) (Aosta Valley) –
25,832 km2 (9,974 sq mi) (Sicily)
Government
Subdivisions

The regions of Italy (Italian : regioni d'Italia) are the first-level administrative divisions of the Italian Republic, constituting its second NUTS administrative level. [1] There are twenty regions, five of which have higher autonomy than the rest. Under the Italian Constitution, each region is an autonomous entity with defined powers. With the exception of the Aosta Valley (since 1945) and Friuli Venezia Giulia (since 2018), each region is divided into a number of provinces ( province ).

Contents

History

During the Kingdom of Italy, regions were mere statistical districts of the central state. Under the Republic, they were granted a measure of political autonomy by the 1948 Italian Constitution. The original draft list comprised the Salento region (which was eventually included in Apulia); Friuli and Venezia Giulia were separate regions, and Basilicata was named Lucania. Abruzzo and Molise were identified as separate regions in the first draft, but were later merged into Abruzzi e Molise in the final constitution of 1948, before being separated in 1963.

Implementation of regional autonomy was postponed until the first Regional elections of 1970. The ruling Christian Democracy party did not want the opposition Italian Communist Party to gain power in the regions where it was historically rooted (the red belt of Emilia-Romagna, Tuscany, Umbria and the Marches).

Regions acquired a significant level of autonomy following a constitutional reform in 2001 (brought about by a centre-left government and confirmed by popular referendum), which granted them residual policy competence. A further federalist reform was proposed by the regionalist party Lega Nord and in 2005, the centre-right government led by Silvio Berlusconi proposed a new reform that would have greatly increased the power of regions. [2]

The proposals, which had been particularly associated with Lega Nord, and seen by some as leading the way to a federal state, were rejected in the 2006 Italian constitutional referendum by 61.7% to 38.3%. [2] The results varied considerably among the regions, ranging from 55.3% in favor in Veneto to 82% against in Calabria. [2]

Political control

Regions colored by the winning coalition (as of September 2020) Winning Coalitions in Italian Regions.svg
Regions colored by the winning coalition (as of September 2020)

Number of regions governed by each coalition since 1995:

  Others
Regions of Italy

Regions

Flag Region
Italian name (if different)
Status Population [3]
January 2022
Area Pop. density
(p/km²)
HDI [4] 2019 Capital PresidentNumber of comuni [5] Prov. or
metrop. cities
Number%km2%
Flag of Abruzzo.svg Abruzzo Ordinary1,273,6602.16%10,832 km2 (4,182 sq mi)3.59%1180.889 L'Aquila Marco Marsilio
Brothers of Italy
3054
Flag of Valle d'Aosta.svg Aosta Valley
Valle d'Aosta
Autonomous123,3370.21%3,261 km2 (1,259 sq mi)1.08%380.887 Aosta Erik Lavévaz
Valdostan Union
741
Flag of Apulia.svg Apulia
Puglia
Ordinary3,912,1666.63%19,541 km2 (7,545 sq mi)6.48%2000.854 Bari Michele Emiliano
Democratic Party
2576
Flag of Basilicata.svg Basilicata Ordinary539,9990.92%10,073 km2 (3,889 sq mi)3.34%540.862 Potenza Vito Bardi
Forza Italia
1312
Flag of Calabria.svg Calabria Ordinary1,844,5863.13%15,222 km2 (5,877 sq mi)5.04%1210.845 Catanzaro Roberto Occhiuto
Forza Italia
4045
Flag of Campania.svg Campania Ordinary5,590,6819.48%13,671 km2 (5,278 sq mi)4.53%4090.854 Naples Vincenzo De Luca
Democratic Party
5505
Fictional Emilia-Romagna Flag.svg Emilia-Romagna Ordinary4,431,8167.51%22,453 km2 (8,669 sq mi)7.44%1970.921 Bologna Stefano Bonaccini
Democratic Party
3309
Flag of Friuli-Venezia Giulia.svg Friuli Venezia Giulia Autonomous1,197,2952.03%7,924 km2 (3,059 sq mi)2.63%1510.903 Trieste Massimiliano Fedriga
League
2154
Lazio Flag.svg Lazio Ordinary5,715,1909.69%17,232 km2 (6,653 sq mi)5.71%3320.914 Rome Nicola Zingaretti
Democratic Party
3785
Flag of Liguria.svg Liguria Ordinary1,507,4382.56%5,416 km2 (2,091 sq mi)1.79%2780.898 Genoa Giovanni Toti
Cambiamo!
2344
Flag of Lombardy.svg Lombardy
Lombardia
Ordinary9,965,04616.89%23,864 km2 (9,214 sq mi)7.91%4180.912 Milan Attilio Fontana
League
1,50612
Flag of Marche.svg Marche Ordinary1,489,7892.53%9,401 km2 (3,630 sq mi)3.12%1580.901 Ancona Francesco Acquaroli
Brothers of Italy
2255
Flag of Molise.svg Molise Ordinary290,7690.49%4,461 km2 (1,722 sq mi)1.48%650.872 Campobasso Donato Toma
Forza Italia
1362
Flag of Piedmont.svg Piedmont
Piemonte
Ordinary4,252,2797.21%25,387 km2 (9,802 sq mi)8.41%1680.898 Turin Alberto Cirio
Forza Italia
1,1818
Flag of Sardinia, Italy.svg Sardinia
Sardegna
Autonomous1,579,1812.68%24,100 km2 (9,300 sq mi)7.99%660.868 Cagliari Christian Solinas
Sardinian Action Party
3775
Sicilian Flag.svg Sicily
Sicilia
Autonomous4,801,4688.14%25,832 km2 (9,974 sq mi)8.56%1860.845 Palermo Nello Musumeci
Diventerà Bellissima
3919
Flag of Trentino-South Tyrol.svg Trentino-South Tyrol
Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol
Autonomous1,077,9321.83%13,606 km2 (5,253 sq mi)4.51%79 Trentino: 0.920 Trento Maurizio Fugatti
League
2822
South Tyrol: 0.910
Flag of Tuscany.svg Tuscany
Toscana
Ordinary3,676,2856.23%22,987 km2 (8,875 sq mi)7.62%1600.907 Florence Eugenio Giani
Democratic Party
27310
Flag of Umbria.svg Umbria Ordinary859,5721.46%8,464 km2 (3,268 sq mi)2.81%1020.897 Perugia Donatella Tesei
League
922
Flag of Veneto.svg Veneto Ordinary4,854,6338.23%18,345 km2 (7,083 sq mi)5.97%2650.900 Venice Luca Zaia
League
5637
Flag of Italy.svg Italy
Italia
58,983,122100.00%302,068.26 km2 (116,629.21 sq mi)100.00%1950.892 Rome Sergio Mattarella
Independent
7,904107

Macroregions

Macroregions are the first-level NUTS of the European Union.(it) [6]

MapMacroregion
Italian name
RegionsMajor city Population
January 2022
Area (km2) Population
density

(km−2)
MEPs
Number%km2%
Italian NUTS1 Central.svg
Centre
Centro
Lazio
Marche
Tuscany
Umbria
Rome 11,740,83619.91%58,085 km2 (22,427 sq mi)19.23%202 15
Italian NUTS1 NorthWest.svg
North-West
Nord-Ovest
Aosta Valley
Liguria
Lombardy
Piedmont
Milan 15,848,10026.87%57,928 km2 (22,366 sq mi)19.18%274 20
Italian NUTS1 NorthEast.svg
North-East
Nord-Est
Emilia-Romagna
Friuli Venezia Giulia
Trentino-South Tyrol
Veneto
Bologna 11,561,67619.60%62,003 km2 (23,939 sq mi)20.63%186 15
Italian NUTS1 South.svg
South
Sud
Abruzzo
Apulia
Basilicata
Calabria
Campania
Molise
Naples 13,451,86122.81%73,800 km2 (28,500 sq mi)24.43%182 18
Italian NUTS1 Islands.svg
Islands
Isole or Insulare (adj)
Sardinia
Sicily
Palermo 6,380,64910.82%49,932 km2 (19,279 sq mi)16.53%128 8

Status

The 15 ordinary regions. Ordinary statute regions of Italy.svg
The 15 ordinary regions.
The 5 autonomous regions. Autonomous Regions of Italy.svg
The 5 autonomous regions.

Every region has a statute that serves as a regional constitution, determining the form of government and the fundamental principles of the organization and the functioning of the region, as prescribed by the Constitution of Italy (Article 123). Although all the regions except Tuscany define themselves in various ways as an "autonomous Region" in the first article of their Statutes, [7] fifteen regions have ordinary statutes and five have special statutes, granting them extended autonomy.

Regions with ordinary statute

These regions, whose statutes are approved by their regional councils, were created in 1970, even though the Italian Constitution dates back to 1948. Since the constitutional reform of 2001 they have had residual legislative powers: the regions have exclusive legislative power with respect to any matters not expressly reserved to state law (Article 117). [8] Yet their financial autonomy is quite modest: they keep just 20% of all levied taxes, mostly used to finance the region-based healthcare system. [9]

Autonomous regions with special statute

Article 116 of the Italian Constitution grants home rule to five regions, namely Aosta Valley, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Sardinia, Sicily, and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, allowing them some legislative, administrative and financial power to a varying extent, depending on their specific statute. These regions became autonomous in order to take into account cultural differences and protect linguistic minorities. Moreover, the government wanted to prevent them from potentially seceding from Italy after the defeat in World War II. [10]

Institutions

Each region has an elected parliament, called Consiglio Regionale (regional council), or Assemblea Regionale (regional assembly) in Sicily, and a government called Giunta Regionale (regional committee), headed by a governor called Presidente della Giunta Regionale (president of the regional committee) or Presidente della Regione (regional president). The latter is directly elected by the citizens of each region, with the exceptions of Aosta Valley and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol regions where the president is chosen by the regional council.

Under the 1995 electoral law, the winning coalition receives an absolute majority of seats on the council. The president chairs the giunta, and nominates or dismisses its members, called assessori . If the directly elected president resigns, new elections are called immediately.

In the Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol region, the regional council is made up of the joint session of the two provincial councils of Trentino and of South Tyrol. The regional president is one of the two provincial commissioners.

Representation in the Senate

Number of senators assigned to each Region before 2020. Italian senators.png
Number of senators assigned to each Region before 2020.

Article 57 of the Constitution of Italy establishes that the Senate of the Italian Republic is elected on a regional basis by Italian citizens (originally) aged 25 or older; from 2006 to 2020, 6 out of 315 senators were elected by Italians residing abroad.

After two constitutional amendments were passed respectively in 2020 (by constitutional referendum) and 2021, the number of senators has been reduced from 315 to 200, and they are now elected by all citizens aged 18 or older, just like deputies (themselves being reduced from 630 to 400). 4 senators are elected by Italians residing abroad.

The remaining 196 senators are assigned to each region proportionally according to their population. However, Article 57 of the Constitution provides that no region can have fewer than three (or, before 2020, seven) senators representing it, except for the two smallest regions: Aosta Valley (which has one) and Molise (which has two).

RegionSeatsRegionSeatsRegionSeats
Flag of Abruzzo.svg  Abruzzo 4Flag of Friuli-Venezia Giulia.svg  Friuli Venezia Giulia 4Flag of Sardinia.svg  Sardinia 5
Flag of Valle d'Aosta.svg  Aosta Valley 1Flag of Lazio.svg  Lazio 18Flag of Sicily (revised).svg  Sicily 16
Flag of Apulia.svg  Apulia 13Flag of Liguria.svg  Liguria 5Flag of Trentino-South Tyrol.svg  Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol 6
Flag of Basilicata.svg  Basilicata 3Flag of Lombardy.svg  Lombardy 31Flag of Tuscany.svg  Tuscany 12
Flag of Calabria.svg  Calabria 6Flag of Marche.svg  Marche 5Flag of Umbria.svg  Umbria 3
Flag of Campania.svg  Campania 18Flag of Molise.svg  Molise 2Flag of Veneto.svg  Veneto 16
Flag of Emilia-Romagna (de facto).svg  Emilia-Romagna 14Flag of Piedmont.svg  Piedmont 14 Overseas constituencies 4

Economy of regions and macroregions

GDP per capita 2018, EUR Italy, provinces by GDP.svg
GDP per capita 2018, EUR
FlagNameGDP 2018,
million EUR [11]
GDP per capita 2018,
EUR [11]
GDP 2011,
million PPS [11]
GDP per capita 2011,
PPS [11]
Flag of Abruzzo.svg Abruzzo 33,90025,80029,43821,900
Flag of Valle d'Aosta.svg Aosta Valley 4,90038,9004,23633,000
Flag of Apulia.svg Apulia 76,60019,00068,49616,700
Flag of Basilicata.svg Basilicata 12,60022,20010,51717,900
Flag of Calabria.svg Calabria 33,30017,00032,35716,100
Flag of Campania.svg Campania 108,00018,60091,65815,700
Fictional Emilia-Romagna Flag.svg Emilia-Romagna 161,00036,200139,59731,400
Flag of Friuli-Venezia Giulia.svg Friuli Venezia Giulia 38,00031,20035,85529,000
Lazio Flag.svg Lazio 198,00033,600168,60929,300
Flag of Liguria.svg Liguria 49,90032,10043,06926,700
Flag of Lombardy.svg Lombardy 388,80038,600330,04233,200
Flag of Marche.svg Marche 43,20028,30040,01425,500
Flag of Molise.svg Molise 6,50020,9006,27819,700
Flag of Piedmont.svg Piedmont 137,00031,500123,33627,600
Flag of Sardinia, Italy.svg Sardinia 34,90021,20032,37719,300
Sicilian Flag.svg Sicily 89,20017,80082,18316,300
Flag of Trentino-South Tyrol.svg Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol 41,70039,20035,04133,700
Flag of Tuscany.svg Tuscany 118,00031,500103,77527,600
Flag of Umbria.svg Umbria 22,50025,40021,07823,200
Flag of Veneto.svg Veneto 163,00033,200146,36929,600
CodeNameGDP 2011,
million EUR [11]
GDP per capita 2011,
EUR [11]
GDP 2011,
million PPS [11]
GDP per capita 2011,
PPS [11]
ITECentre340,66928,400333,47527,800
ITDNorth-East364,56031,200356,86230,600
ITCNorth-West511,48431,700500,68331,000
ITGIslands117,03117,400114,56017,000
ITFSouth243,89517,200238,74416,800
-Extra-regio2,7712,712

See also

Other administrative divisions

Related Research Articles

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References

  1. "National structures". Eurostat. Archived from the original on 13 July 2014. Retrieved 6 December 2011.
  2. 1 2 3 "Speciale Referendum 2006". la Repubblica. 26 June 2006. Retrieved 6 December 2011.
  3. "Population Italian Regions". tuttitalia.it.
  4. "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  5. "Italian Comuni". tuttitalia.it.
  6. "ISTAT geo-demo".
  7. Pinto, Luciano Torrente-Paolo Strazzullo-Roberto. "Statuti Regionali - Casa Editrice: Edizioni Simone". www.simone.it.
  8. LL.M., Prof. Dr. Axel Tschentscher. "ICL - Italy - Constitution". servat.unibe.ch.
  9. Report RAI - Le regioni a statuto speciale (Italian), retrieved 21 January 2009 Archived 22 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine ,
  10. Hiroko Kudo, “Autonomy and Managerial Innovation in Italian Regions after Constitutional Reform”, Chuo University, Faculty of Law and Graduate School of Public Policy (2008): p. 1. Retrieved on 6 April 2012 from http://www.med-eu.org/proceedings/MED1/Kudo.pdf Archived 17 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine .
  11. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 "GDP per capita in the EU in 2011" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 March 2014.