|Populations||125,666 (Aosta Valley) – 10,060,574 (Lombardy)|
|Areas||3,261 km2 (1,259 sq mi) (Aosta Valley) –|
25,832 km2 (9,974 sq mi) (Sicily)
|Government||Regional Government, National Government|
The regions of Italy (Italian: Regioni) are the first-level constituent entities of the Italian Republic, constituting its second NUTS administrative level.There are 20 regions, of which five have a broader amount of autonomy than the other 15 regions. Under the Italian Constitution, each region is an autonomous entity with defined powers. With the exception of the Aosta Valley, each region is divided into a number of provinces.
During the Kingdom of Italy, regions were administrative districts of the central state. Under the Republic, they were granted a measure of political autonomy by the 1948 Italian Constitution. The original draft list comprised the Salento region (which was eventually included in the Apulia). Friuli and Venezia Giulia were separate regions, and Basilicata was named Lucania. Abruzzo and Molise were identified as separate regions in the first draft. They were later merged into Abruzzo e Molise in the final constitution of 1948. They were separated in 1963.
Implementation of regional autonomy was postponed until the first Regional elections of 1970. The ruling Christian Democracy party did not want the opposition Italian Communist Party to gain power in the regions where it was historically rooted (the red belt of Emilia-Romagna, Tuscany, Umbria and the Marches).
Regions acquired a significant level of autonomy following a constitutional reform in 2001 (brought about by a centre-left government and confirmed by popular referendum), which granted them residual policy competence. A further federalist reform was proposed by the regionalist party Lega Nord and in 2005, the centre-right government led by Silvio Berlusconi proposed a new reform that would have greatly increased the power of regions.
The proposals, which had been particularly associated with Lega Nord, and seen by some as leading the way to a federal state, were rejected in the 2006 Italian constitutional referendum by 61.7% to 38.3%.The results varied considerably among the regions, ranging from 55.3% in favor in Veneto to 82% against in Calabria.
Number of regions governed by each coalition since 1995:
Italian name (if different)
|Status|| Population |
|Area||Pop. density||HDI||Capital||President||Number of comuni|| Prov. or|
|Abruzzo||Ordinary||1,311,580||2.17%||10,832||3.59%||121||0.890||L'Aquila|| Marco Marsilio |
Brothers of Italy
| Aosta Valley |
|Autonomous||125,666||0.21%||3,261||1.08%||39||0.878||Aosta|| Antonio Fosson |
For Our Valley
| Apulia |
|Ordinary||4,029,053||6.68%||19,541||6.48%||206||0.852||Bari|| Michele Emiliano |
|Basilicata||Ordinary||562,869||0.93%||10,073||3.34%||56||0.857||Potenza|| Vito Bardi |
|Calabria||Ordinary||1,947,131||3.23%||15,222||5.04%||128||0.850||Catanzaro|| Jole Santelli |
|Campania||Ordinary||5,801,692||9.61%||13,671||4.53%||424||0.847||Naples|| Vincenzo De Luca |
|Emilia-Romagna||Ordinary||4,459,477||7.39%||22,453||7.44%||199||0.915||Bologna|| Stefano Bonaccini |
|Friuli Venezia Giulia||Autonomous||1,215,220||2.01%||7,924||2.63%||153||0.898||Trieste|| Massimiliano Fedriga |
|Lazio||Ordinary||5,879,082||9.74%||17,232||5.71%||341||0.909||Rome|| Nicola Zingaretti |
|Liguria||Ordinary||1,550,640||2.57%||5,416||1.79%||286||0.896||Genoa|| Giovanni Toti |
| Lombardy |
|Ordinary||10,060,574||16.67%||23,864||7.91%||422||0.907||Milan|| Attilio Fontana |
|Marche||Ordinary||1,525,271||2.53%||9,401||3.12%||162||0.896||Ancona|| Luca Ceriscioli |
|Molise||Ordinary||305,617||0.51%||4,461||1.48%||69||0.867||Campobasso|| Donato Toma |
| Piedmont |
|Ordinary||4,356,406||7.22%||25,387||8.41%||172||0.892||Turin|| Alberto Cirio |
| Sardinia |
|Autonomous||1,639,591||2.72%||24,100||7.99%||68||0.863||Cagliari|| Christian Solinas |
Sardinian Action Party
| Sicily |
|Autonomous||4,999,891||8.28%||25,832||8.56%||194||0.845||Palermo|| Nello Musumeci |
| Trentino-South Tyrol |
|Autonomous||1,072,276||1.78%||13,606||4.51%||79||0.919||Trento|| Arno Kompatscher |
South Tyrolean People's Party
| Tuscany |
|Ordinary||3,729,641||6.18%||22,987||7.62%||162||0.903||Florence|| Enrico Rossi |
|Umbria||Ordinary||882,015||1.46%||8,464||2.81%||104||0.889||Perugia|| Donatella Tesei |
|Veneto||Ordinary||4,905,854||8.13%||18,020||5.97%||267||0.896||Venice|| Luca Zaia |
|—||60,359,546||100.00%||301,747||100.00%||200||0.887||Rome|| Sergio Mattarella |
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Macroregions are the first-level NUTS of the European Union.(it)
|Regions||Major city|| Population |
|Area (km²)|| Population|
| North-West |
| Aosta Valley |
| North-East |
| Emilia-Romagna |
| Centre |
| Lazio |
| South |
| Abruzzo |
| Islands |
Isole or Insulare (adj)
| Sardinia |
Every region has a statute that serves as a regional constitution, determining the form of government and the fundamental principles of the organization and the functioning of the region, as prescribed by the Constitution of Italy (Article 123). Although all the regions except Tuscany define themselves in various ways as an "autonomous Region" in the first article of their Statutes,fifteen regions have ordinary statutes and five have special statutes, granting them extended autonomy.
These regions, whose statutes are approved by their regional councils, were created in 1970, even though the Italian Constitution dates back to 1948. Since the constitutional reform of 2001 they have had residual legislative powers. The regions have exclusive legislative power with respect to any matters not expressly reserved to state law (Article 117).Yet their financial autonomy is quite modest: they just keep 20% of all levied taxes, mostly used to finance the region-based healthcare system.
Article 116 of the Italian Constitution grants home rule to five regions, namely Sardinia, Sicily, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Aosta Valley and Friuli-Venezia Giulia, allowing them some legislative, administrative and financial power to a varying extent, depending on their specific statute. These regions became autonomous in order to take into account cultural differences and protect linguistic minorities. Moreover, the government wanted to prevent their secession from Italy after the Second World War.
Each region has an elected parliament, called Consiglio Regionale (regional council), or Assemblea Regionale (regional assembly) in Sicily, and a government called Giunta Regionale (regional committee), headed by a governor called Presidente della Giunta Regionale (president of the regional committee) or Presidente della Regione (regional president). The latter is directly elected by the citizens of each region, with the exceptions of Aosta Valley and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, where he is chosen by the regional council.
Under the 1995 electoral law, the winning coalition receives an absolute majority of seats on the council. The president chairs the giunta, and nominates or dismisses its members, called assessori . If the directly elected president resigns, new elections are called immediately.
In Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, the regional council is made up of the joint session of the two provincial councils of Trentino and of South Tyrol, and the regional governor is one of the two provincial commissioners.
Article 57 of the Constitution of Italy establishes that the Senate of the Italian Republic is elected on a regional basis (excluding 6 senators elected by Italians residing abroad and a small number of senators for life) by Italian citizens aged 25 or older.
The 309 senators are assigned to each region proportionally according to their population. However, Article 57 of the Constitution provides that no region can have fewer than seven senators representing it, except for the Aosta Valley (which has one) and Molise (which has two).
|GDP per capita 2011,|
|GDP per capita 2011,|
|GDP per capita 2011,|
|GDP per capita 2011,|
South Tyrol is an autonomous province in northern Italy, one of the two that make up the autonomous region of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol. Its official trilingual denomination is Autonome Provinz Bozen – Südtirol in German, Provincia autonoma di Bolzano – Alto Adige in Italian and Provinzia autonoma de Bulsan – Südtirol in Ladin, reflecting the three main language groups to which its population belongs. The province is the northernmost of Italy, the second largest, with an area of 7,400 square kilometres (2,857 sq mi) and has a total population of 530,009 inhabitants as of 2018. Its capital and largest city is Bolzano.
Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol is an autonomous region of Italy, located in the northern part of the country. Since the 1970s, most legislative and administrative powers have been transferred to the two self-governing provinces that make up the region: the Province of Trento, commonly known as Trentino, and the Province of Bolzano, commonly known as South Tyrol.
The provinces of Italy are administrative divisions of Italy of intermediate level between a municipality and a region. From 2015, the provinces were reorganized into "institutional bodies of second level", with the birth of 10 special Metropolitan cities. A further 4 such cities were added later.
The Constitution of the Italian Republic was enacted by the Constituent Assembly on 22 December 1947, with 453 votes in favour and 62 against. The text, which has since been amended fifteen times, was promulgated in an extraordinary edition of Gazzetta Ufficiale on 27 December 1947. The Constituent Assembly was elected by universal suffrage on 2 June 1946, on the same day as the referendum on the abolition of the monarchy was held. The election was held in all Italian provinces. The Constitution was drafted in 1946 and came into force on 1 January 1948, one century after the Constitution of the Kingdom of Italy, the Statuto Albertino, had been enacted.
Trentino, officially the Autonomous Province of Trento, is an autonomous province of Italy, in the country's far north. The Trentino and South Tyrol constitute the region of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, an autonomous region under the constitution. The province is divided into 177 comuni (municipalities). Its capital is the city of Trento. The province covers an area of more than 6,000 km2 (2,300 sq mi), with a total population of about 540,000. Trentino is renowned for its mountains, such as the Dolomites, which are part of the Alps.
The Valdostan Union, also Valdostian Union or Valdotanian Union is a regionalist and centrist political party in Aosta Valley, Italy. It represents mainly the French-speaking minority in the region, and its leaders are Erik Lavévaz, party president, and Augusto Rollandin, former President of Aosta Valley.
Asymmetric federalism or asymmetrical federalism is found in a federation or confederation in which different constituent states possess different powers: one or more of the substates has considerably more autonomy than the other substates, although they have the same constitutional status. The division of powers between substates is not symmetric. This is in contrast to symmetric federalism, where no distinction is made between constituent states. As a result, it is frequently proposed as a solution to the dissatisfactions that arise when one or two constituent units feel significantly different needs from the others, as the result of an ethnic, linguistic or cultural difference.
A regional council in Italy is the elected legislative assembly of a region of Italy. In Emilia-Romagna and Sicily, the legislative bodies are called Sicilian Regional Assembly and Legislative Assembly of Emilia-Romagna respectively.
The Politics of Aosta Valley, Italy since 1946 has taken place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democracy, whereby the President of Aosta Valley has been the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. The Regional Government has exercised legislative power, vested in both the government and the Regional Council of Aosta Valley.
The Politics of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Italy takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democracy, whereby the President of Regional Government is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the Regional Government and Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Regional Council. However, since a constitutional reform in 1972, almost all the executive and legislative powers are devolved to the two provinces of which the region is composed: Trentino and the South Tyrol.
Oskar Peterlini, Lecturer at the Free University of Bozen Bolzano, is a Representative of the German-speaking South Tyrolean Minority in South Tyrol, Italy. He was a member of the Italian Senate in the Italian Parliament from 2001 to 2013, Member of the Regional Parliament of Trentino South Tyrol from 1978 to 1998 and its President from 1988-1998. He was also President of the district of the South Tyrolean Unterland of the South Tyrolean People's Party (SVP) from 2001 to 2010.
The Government of South Tyrol is the chief executive body of the autonomous province of South Tyrol in northern Italy enforcing the provincial laws as written by the Landtag legislature. The government has its seat in the capital city of Bolzano/Bozen.
The politics of South Tyrol is conducted through a parliamentary, democratic autonomous province with a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised collectively by the Landesregierung, which is led by the Governor, referred to as "Landeshauptmann" in German. Legislative power is vested in the Landtag primarily, and secondarily on the provincial government. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislative branches. South Tyrol has been an autonomous province within the Italian Republic since 1948, when the Gruber – De Gasperi Agreement was agreed upon between Austria and Italy.
A round of regional elections in Italy took place during 2013 in seven regions out of twenty including Lazio, Lombardy and Molise, and 3 autonomous regions: Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Aosta Valley, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol and Basilicata.
For the Autonomies is a heterogeneous centre-left and originally regionalist parliamentary group, which has been active, with slightly different names and different composition, in the Italian Senate since 2001.
A constitutional referendum was held in Italy on Sunday 4 December 2016. Voters were asked whether they approve a constitutional law that amends the Italian Constitution to reform the composition and powers of the Parliament of Italy, as well as the division of powers between the State, the regions, and administrative entities.
Regional elections in Italy took place during 2018 in six regions out of twenty including Lazio and Lombardy, Molise, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Aosta Valley and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol.
The Italian Regional councils are composed as follows:
The Regional Council of Trentino-Alto Adige is the legislative assembly of the autonomous region of Trentino-Alto Adige.
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