Regions of Italy

Last updated
Regions
Regioni  (Italian)
Category Unitary state
Location Italian Republic
Number20
Populations125,666 (Aosta Valley) – 10,060,574 (Lombardy)
Areas3,261 km2 (1,259 sq mi) (Aosta Valley) –
25,832 km2 (9,974 sq mi) (Sicily)
GovernmentRegional Government, National Government
Subdivisions Province

The regions of Italy (Italian: Regioni) are the first-level constituent entities of the Italian Republic, constituting its second NUTS administrative level. [1] There are 20 regions, of which five have a broader amount of autonomy than the other 15 regions. Under the Italian Constitution, each region is an autonomous entity with defined powers. With the exception of the Aosta Valley, each region is divided into a number of provinces.

Contents

History

During the Kingdom of Italy, regions were administrative districts of the central state. Under the Republic, they were granted a measure of political autonomy by the 1948 Italian Constitution. The original draft list comprised the Salento region (which was eventually included in the Apulia). Friuli and Venezia Giulia were separate regions, and Basilicata was named Lucania. Abruzzo and Molise were identified as separate regions in the first draft. They were later merged into Abruzzo e Molise in the final constitution of 1948. They were separated in 1963.

Implementation of regional autonomy was postponed until the first Regional elections of 1970. The ruling Christian Democracy party did not want the opposition Italian Communist Party to gain power in the regions where it was historically rooted (the red belt of Emilia-Romagna, Tuscany, Umbria and the Marches).

Regions acquired a significant level of autonomy following a constitutional reform in 2001 (brought about by a centre-left government and confirmed by popular referendum), which granted them residual policy competence. A further federalist reform was proposed by the regionalist party Lega Nord and in 2005, the centre-right government led by Silvio Berlusconi proposed a new reform that would have greatly increased the power of regions. [2]

The proposals, which had been particularly associated with Lega Nord, and seen by some as leading the way to a federal state, were rejected in the 2006 Italian constitutional referendum by 61.7% to 38.3%. [2] The results varied considerably among the regions, ranging from 55.3% in favor in Veneto to 82% against in Calabria. [2]

Regional administration

Regions colored by the winning coalition (as of January 2020) Winning Coalitions in Italian Regions.svg
Regions colored by the winning coalition (as of January 2020)

Number of regions governed by each coalition since 1995:

  Others
Regions of Italy

Regions

Flag Region
Italian name (if different)
Status Population [3]
January 2019
Area Pop. density HDI [4] Capital PresidentNumber of comuni [5] Prov. or
metrop. cities
Number%km²%
Flag of Abruzzo.svg Abruzzo Ordinary1,311,5802.17%10,8323.59%1210.890 L'Aquila Marco Marsilio
Brothers of Italy
3054
Flag of Valle d'Aosta.svg Aosta Valley
Valle d'Aosta
Autonomous125,6660.21%3,2611.08%390.878 Aosta Antonio Fosson
For Our Valley
741
Flag of Apulia.svg Apulia
Puglia
Ordinary4,029,0536.68%19,5416.48%2060.852 Bari Michele Emiliano
Democratic Party
2586
Flag of Basilicata.svg Basilicata Ordinary562,8690.93%10,0733.34%560.857 Potenza Vito Bardi
Forza Italia
1312
Flag of Calabria.svg Calabria Ordinary1,947,1313.23%15,2225.04%1280.850 Catanzaro Jole Santelli
Forza Italia
4045
Flag of Campania.svg Campania Ordinary5,801,6929.61%13,6714.53%4240.847 Naples Vincenzo De Luca
Democratic Party
5505
Fictional Emilia-Romagna Flag.svg Emilia-Romagna Ordinary4,459,4777.39%22,4537.44%1990.915 Bologna Stefano Bonaccini
Democratic Party
3289
Flag of Friuli-Venezia Giulia.svg Friuli Venezia Giulia Autonomous1,215,2202.01%7,9242.63%1530.898 Trieste Massimiliano Fedriga
League
2154
Lazio Flag.svg Lazio Ordinary5,879,0829.74%17,2325.71%3410.909 Rome Nicola Zingaretti
Democratic Party
3785
Flag of Liguria.svg Liguria Ordinary1,550,6402.57%5,4161.79%2860.896 Genoa Giovanni Toti
Forza Italia
2344
Flag of Lombardy.svg Lombardy
Lombardia
Ordinary10,060,57416.67%23,8647.91%4220.907 Milan Attilio Fontana
League
1,50912
Flag of Marche.svg Marche Ordinary1,525,2712.53%9,4013.12%1620.896 Ancona Luca Ceriscioli
Democratic Party
2285
Flag of Molise.svg Molise Ordinary305,6170.51%4,4611.48%690.867 Campobasso Donato Toma
Forza Italia
1362
Bandiera della regione Piemonte.svg Piedmont
Piemonte
Ordinary4,356,4067.22%25,3878.41%1720.892 Turin Alberto Cirio
Forza Italia
1,1828
Flag of Sardinia, Italy.svg Sardinia
Sardegna
Autonomous1,639,5912.72%24,1007.99%680.863 Cagliari Christian Solinas
Sardinian Action Party
3775
Sicilian Flag.svg Sicily
Sicilia
Autonomous4,999,8918.28%25,8328.56%1940.845 Palermo Nello Musumeci
Diventerà Bellissima
3909
Flag of Trentino-South Tyrol.svg Trentino-South Tyrol
Trentino-Alto Adige
Autonomous1,072,2761.78%13,6064.51%790.919 Trento Arno Kompatscher
South Tyrolean People's Party
2912
Flag of Tuscany.svg Tuscany
Toscana
Ordinary3,729,6416.18%22,9877.62%1620.903 Florence Enrico Rossi
Democratic Party
27310
Flag of Umbria.svg Umbria Ordinary882,0151.46%8,4642.81%1040.889 Perugia Donatella Tesei
League
922
Flag of Veneto.svg Veneto Ordinary4,905,8548.13%18,0205.97%2670.896 Venice Luca Zaia
League
5717
Flag of Italy.svg Italy
Italia
60,359,546100.00%301,747100.00%2000.887 Rome Sergio Mattarella
Independent
7,926107

Macroregions

Macroregions are the first-level NUTS of the European Union.(it)

MapMacroregion
Italian name
RegionsMajor city Population
January 2019
Area (km²) Population
density

(km-2)
Number%km²%
Italian NUTS1 NorthWest.svg
North-West
Nord-Ovest
Aosta Valley
Liguria
Lombardy
Piedmont
Milan 16,093,28626.66%57,92819.18%278
Italian NUTS1 NorthEast.svg
North-East
Nord-Est
Emilia-Romagna
Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Trentino-South Tyrol
Veneto
Bologna 11,652,82719.31%62,00320.63%187
Italian NUTS1 Central.svg
Centre
Centro
Lazio
Marche
Tuscany
Umbria
Rome 12,016,00919.91%58,08519.23%208
Italian NUTS1 South.svg
South
Sud
Abruzzo
Apulia
Basilicata
Calabria
Campania
Molise
Naples 13,957,94223.12%73,80024.43%191
Italian NUTS1 Islands.svg
Islands
Isole or Insulare (adj)
Sardinia
Sicily
Palermo 6,639,48211.00%49,93216.53%135

Status

Every region has a statute that serves as a regional constitution, determining the form of government and the fundamental principles of the organization and the functioning of the region, as prescribed by the Constitution of Italy (Article 123). Although all the regions except Tuscany define themselves in various ways as an "autonomous Region" in the first article of their Statutes, [6] fifteen regions have ordinary statutes and five have special statutes, granting them extended autonomy.

Regions with ordinary statute

These regions, whose statutes are approved by their regional councils, were created in 1970, even though the Italian Constitution dates back to 1948. Since the constitutional reform of 2001 they have had residual legislative powers. The regions have exclusive legislative power with respect to any matters not expressly reserved to state law (Article 117). [7] Yet their financial autonomy is quite modest: they just keep 20% of all levied taxes, mostly used to finance the region-based healthcare system. [8]

Autonomous regions with special statute

Autonomous regions Autonomous Regions of Italy.svg
Autonomous regions

Article 116 of the Italian Constitution grants home rule to five regions, namely Sardinia, Sicily, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Aosta Valley and Friuli-Venezia Giulia, allowing them some legislative, administrative and financial power to a varying extent, depending on their specific statute. These regions became autonomous in order to take into account cultural differences and protect linguistic minorities. Moreover, the government wanted to prevent their secession from Italy after the Second World War. [9]

Institutions

Each region has an elected parliament, called Consiglio Regionale (regional council), or Assemblea Regionale (regional assembly) in Sicily, and a government called Giunta Regionale (regional committee), headed by a governor called Presidente della Giunta Regionale (president of the regional committee) or Presidente della Regione (regional president). The latter is directly elected by the citizens of each region, with the exceptions of Aosta Valley and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, where he is chosen by the regional council.

Under the 1995 electoral law, the winning coalition receives an absolute majority of seats on the council. The president chairs the giunta, and nominates or dismisses its members, called assessori . If the directly elected president resigns, new elections are called immediately.

In Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, the regional council is made up of the joint session of the two provincial councils of Trentino and of South Tyrol, and the regional governor is one of the two provincial commissioners.

Representation in the Senate

Number of senators currently assigned to each Region. Italian senators.png
Number of senators currently assigned to each Region.

Article 57 of the Constitution of Italy establishes that the Senate of the Italian Republic is elected on a regional basis (excluding 6 senators elected by Italians residing abroad and a small number of senators for life) by Italian citizens aged 25 or older.

The 309 senators are assigned to each region proportionally according to their population. However, Article 57 of the Constitution provides that no region can have fewer than seven senators representing it, except for the Aosta Valley (which has one) and Molise (which has two).

RegionSeats [10] RegionSeatsRegionSeats
Flag of Abruzzo.svg  Abruzzo 7Flag of Friuli-Venezia Giulia.svg  Friuli-Venezia Giulia 7Flag of Sardinia.svg  Sardinia 8
Flag of Valle d'Aosta.svg  Aosta Valley 1Flag of Lazio.svg  Lazio 28Flag of Sicily (revised).svg  Sicily 25
Flag of Apulia.svg  Apulia 20Flag of Liguria.svg  Liguria 8Flag of Trentino-South Tyrol.svg  Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol 7
Flag of Basilicata.svg  Basilicata 7Flag of Lombardy.svg  Lombardy 49Flag of Tuscany.svg  Tuscany 18
Flag of Calabria.svg  Calabria 10Flag of Marche.svg  Marche 8Flag of Umbria.svg  Umbria 7
Flag of Campania.svg  Campania 29Flag of Molise.svg  Molise 2Flag of Veneto.svg  Veneto 24
Fictional Emilia-Romagna Flag.svg  Emilia-Romagna 22Flag of Piedmont.svg  Piedmont 22 Overseas constituencies 6

Economy of regions and macroregions

FlagNameGDP 2011,
million EUR [11]
GDP per capita 2011,
EUR [11]
GDP 2011,
million PPS [11]
GDP per capita 2011,
PPS [11]
Flag of Abruzzo.svg Abruzzo 30,07322,40029,43821,900
Flag of Valle d'Aosta.svg Aosta Valley 4,32833,7004,23633,000
Flag of Apulia.svg Apulia 69,97417,10068,49616,700
Flag of Basilicata.svg Basilicata 10,74418,30010,51717,900
Flag of Calabria.svg Calabria 33,05516,40032,35716,100
Flag of Campania.svg Campania 93,63516,00091,65815,700
Emilia-Romagna 142,60932,100139,59731,400
Flag of Friuli-Venezia Giulia.svg Friuli-Venezia Giulia 36,62829,60035,85529,000
Lazio Flag.svg Lazio 172,24629,900168,60929,300
Flag of Liguria.svg Liguria 43,99827,20043,06926,700
Flag of Lombardy.svg Lombardy 337,16133,900330,04233,200
Flag of Marche.svg Marche 40,87726,10040,01425,500
Flag of Molise.svg Molise 6,41420,1006,27819,700
Bandiera della regione Piemonte.svg Piedmont 125,99728,200123,33627,600
Flag of Sardinia, Italy.svg Sardinia 33,07519,70032,37719,300
Sicilian Flag.svg Sicily 83,95616,60082,18316,300
Flag of Trentino-South Tyrol.svg Trentino-Alto Adige 35,79734,45035,04133,700
Flag of Tuscany.svg Tuscany 106,01328,200103,77527,600
Flag of Umbria.svg Umbria 21,53323,70021,07823,200
Flag of Veneto.svg Veneto 149,52730,200146,36929,600
CodeNameGDP 2011,
million EUR [11]
GDP per capita 2011,
EUR [11]
GDP 2011,
million PPS [11]
GDP per capita 2011,
PPS [11]
ITECentre340,66928,400333,47527,800
ITDNorth-East364,56031,200356,86230,600
ITCNorth-West511,48431,700500,68331,000
ITGIslands117,03117,400114,56017,000
ITFSouth243,89517,200238,74416,800
-Extra-regio2,7712,712

See also

Other administrative divisions

Related Research Articles

South Tyrol Autonomous province of Italy

South Tyrol is an autonomous province in northern Italy, one of the two that make up the autonomous region of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol. Its official trilingual denomination is Autonome Provinz Bozen – Südtirol in German, Provincia autonoma di Bolzano – Alto Adige in Italian and Provinzia autonoma de Bulsan – Südtirol in Ladin, reflecting the three main language groups to which its population belongs. The province is the northernmost of Italy, the second largest, with an area of 7,400 square kilometres (2,857 sq mi) and has a total population of 530,009 inhabitants as of 2018. Its capital and largest city is Bolzano.

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Politics of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol Wikipedia list article

The Politics of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, Italy takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democracy, whereby the President of Regional Government is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the Regional Government and Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Regional Council. However, since a constitutional reform in 1972, almost all the executive and legislative powers are devolved to the two provinces of which the region is composed: Trentino and the South Tyrol.

Oskar Peterlini, Lecturer at the Free University of Bozen Bolzano, is a Representative of the German-speaking South Tyrolean Minority in South Tyrol, Italy. He was a member of the Italian Senate in the Italian Parliament from 2001 to 2013, Member of the Regional Parliament of Trentino South Tyrol from 1978 to 1998 and its President from 1988-1998. He was also President of the district of the South Tyrolean Unterland of the South Tyrolean People's Party (SVP) from 2001 to 2010.

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Politics of South Tyrol

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A round of regional elections in Italy took place during 2013 in seven regions out of twenty including Lazio, Lombardy and Molise, and 3 autonomous regions: Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Aosta Valley, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol and Basilicata.

For the Autonomies is a heterogeneous centre-left and originally regionalist parliamentary group, which has been active, with slightly different names and different composition, in the Italian Senate since 2001.

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A constitutional referendum was held in Italy on Sunday 4 December 2016. Voters were asked whether they approve a constitutional law that amends the Italian Constitution to reform the composition and powers of the Parliament of Italy, as well as the division of powers between the State, the regions, and administrative entities.

2018 Italian regional elections

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The Italian Regional councils are composed as follows:

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The Regional Council of Trentino-Alto Adige is the legislative assembly of the autonomous region of Trentino-Alto Adige.

References

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  2. 1 2 3 "Speciale Referendum 2006". la Repubblica. 26 June 2006. Retrieved 6 December 2011.
  3. "Population Italian Regions". tuttitalia.it.
  4. "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org.
  5. "Italian Comuni". tuttitalia.it.
  6. Pinto, Luciano Torrente-Paolo Strazzullo-Roberto. "Statuti Regionali - Casa Editrice: Edizioni Simone". www.simone.it.
  7. LL.M., Prof. Dr. Axel Tschentscher. "ICL - Italy - Constitution". servat.unibe.ch.
  8. Report RAI - Le regioni a statuto speciale (Italian), retrieved 21st Jan 2009 Archived 2009-03-22 at the Wayback Machine ,
  9. Hiroko Kudo, “Autonomy and Managerial Innovation in Italian Regions after Constitutional Reform”, Chuo University, Faculty of Law and Graduate School of Public Policy (2008): p. 1. Retrieved on April 6, 2012 from http://www.med-eu.org/proceedings/MED1/Kudo.pdf Archived 2015-11-17 at the Wayback Machine .
  10. "senato.it - XVII Legislatura - Senatori eletti nella regione Piemonte". www.senato.it.
  11. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 "GDP per capita in the EU in 2011" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-03-07.