Kingdom of Italy (Napoleonic)

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Kingdom of Italy

Regno d'Italia
Royaume d'Italie
1805–1814
Kingdom of Italy (Napoleonic).svg
StatusIn personal union with the French Empire
Capital Milan
Common languages Italian, French
Government Constitutional monarchy
King  
 1805–1814
Napoleon I
Viceroy  
 1805–1814
Eugène de Beauharnais
Legislature Consultant Senate
Historical era Napoleonic Wars
17 March 1805
19 March 1805
26 May 1805
26 December 1805
8 February 1814
11 April 1814
30 May 1814
Currency Italian Lira
ISO 3166 code IT
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Flag of France (1794-1815, 1830-1958).svg First French Empire
Flag of the Italian Republic (1802).svg Italian Republic (Napoleonic)
Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy.svg Venetian Province
Flag of the Papal States (pre 1808).svg Papal States
Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia Flag of Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia.svg
Kingdom of Sardinia Flag of the Kingdom of Sardinia.svg
Duchy of Modena Flag of the Duchy of Modena.svg
Papal States Flag of the Papal States (pre 1808).svg

The Kingdom of Italy (Italian : Regno d'Italia; French : Royaume d'Italie) was a kingdom in Northern Italy (formerly the Italian Republic) in personal union with France under Napoleon I. It was fully influenced by revolutionary France and ended with his defeat and fall. Its governance was conducted by Napoleon and his step-son and viceroy Eugène de Beauharnais.

Italian language Romance language

Italian is a Romance language of the Indo-European language family. Italian, together with Sardinian, is by most measures the closest language to Vulgar Latin of the Romance languages. Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino and Vatican City. It has an official minority status in western Istria. It formerly had official status in Albania, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro (Kotor) and Greece, and is generally understood in Corsica and Savoie. It also used to be an official language in the former Italian East Africa and Italian North Africa, where it plays a significant role in various sectors. Italian is also spoken by large expatriate communities in the Americas and Australia. In spite of not existing any Italian community in their respective national territories and of not being spoken at any level, Italian is included de jure, but not de facto, between the recognized minority languages of Bosnia-Herzegovina and Romania. Many speakers of Italian are native bilinguals of both standardized Italian and other regional languages.

French language Romance language

French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.

Northern Italy geographic region of Italy

Northern Italy is a geographical region in the northern part of Italy. Non-administrative, it consists of eight administrative Regions in northern Italy: Aosta Valley, Piedmont, Liguria, Lombardy, Emilia-Romagna, Veneto, Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol. As of 2014, its population was 27,801,460. Rhaeto-Romance and Gallo-Italic languages are spoken in the region, as opposed to the Italo-Dalmatian languages spoken in the rest of Italy.

Contents

Constitutional statutes

Iron Crown of Lombardy Iron Crown.JPG
Iron Crown of Lombardy

The Kingdom of Italy was born on March 17, 1805, when the Italian Republic, whose president was Napoleon Bonaparte, became the Kingdom of Italy, with the same man (now styled Napoleon I) as King of Italy, and the 24-year-old Eugène de Beauharnais his viceroy. Napoleon I was crowned at the Duomo di Milano, Milan on May 26, with the Iron Crown of Lombardy. His title was "Emperor of the French and King of Italy" (French : Empereur des Français et Roi d'Italie), showing the importance of this Italian Kingdom for him. [1]

Italian Republic (Napoleonic) republic on the Apennine Peninsula between 1802 and 1805

The Italian Republic was a short-lived (1802–1805) republic located in Northern Italy. Napoleon served as President and its capital was Milan.

King of Italy ruler who ruled part or all of the Italian Peninsula after the fall of the Western Roman Empire

King of Italy was the title given to the ruler of the Kingdom of Italy after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The first to take the title was Odoacer, a "barbarian" military leader, in the late 5th century, followed by the Ostrogothic kings up to the mid-6th century. With the Frankish conquest of Italy in the 8th century, the Carolingians assumed the title, which was maintained by subsequent Holy Roman Emperors throughout the Middle Ages. The last Emperor to claim the title was Charles V in the 16th century. During this period, the holders of the title were crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy.

Eugène de Beauharnais French general and adoptive son of Napoleon I

Eugène Rose de Beauharnais, Duke of Leuchtenberg was the first child and only son of Alexandre de Beauharnais and Joséphine Tascher de la Pagerie, first wife of Napoleon I.

Even though the republican Constitution was never formally abolished, a series of Constitutional Statutes completely altered it. The first one was proclaimed two days after the birth of the kingdom, on March 19, [2] when the Consulta declared Napoleon as king and established that one of his natural or adopted sons would succeed him once the Napoleonic Wars were over, and once separated the two thrones were to remain separate. The second one, dating from March 29, and regulated the regency, the Great Officials of the kingdom, and the oaths.

The most important was the third, proclaimed on June 5, being the real constitution of the kingdom: Napoleon was the head of State, and had the full powers of government; in his absence, he was represented by the Viceroy, Eugène de Beauharnais. The Consulta, Legislative Council, and Speakers, were all merged in a Council of State, whose opinions became only optional and not binding for the king.

The Legislative Body, the old parliament, remained in theory, but it never summoned after 1805; the Napoleonic Code was introduced.

Napoleonic Code code

The Napoleonic Code (French: Code Napoléon; officially Code civil des Français, referred to as Code civil) is the French civil code established under Napoleon I in 1804.

The fourth Statute, decided on February 16, 1806, indicated Beauharnais as the heir to the throne.

The fifth and the sixth Statutes, on March 21, 1808, separated the Consulta from the Council of State, and renamed it the Senate, with the duty of informing the king about the wishes of the most important subjects.

The seventh Statute, on September 21, created a new nobility of dukes, counts and barons; the eighth and the ninth, on March 15, 1810, established the annuity for the members of the royal family. In 1812, a Court of Accounts was added.

The government had seven ministers:

Marie-François Auguste de Caffarelli du Falga was a French général de division of Italian descent. Two of his brothers were also generals. His name is inscribed on the south side of the Arc de Triomphe.

Achille Fontanelli Italian general

Achille Fontanelli was an Italian nationalist and Napoleonic general. Born into a low-ranking noble family, he took service with a pro-French Italian military unit in 1797. He was captured in 1799 but was repatriated in time to serve in the Marengo Campaign in 1800. He was promoted to general officer in 1804 and in the 1809 war he led an Italian division in several major battles. After serving as Minister of War to Eugène de Beauharnais, he was tapped to command a division in the 1813 campaign. After the collapse of Napoleon's empire in 1814, he took service with the Austrian Empire.

Ferdinando Marescalchi Italian politician

Ferdinando, comte Marescalchi was an Italian diplomat and politician.

Territory

Kingdom of Italy in 1807, with Istria and Dalmatia, shown in yellow 1807KingdomItaly.jpg
Kingdom of Italy in 1807, with Istria and Dalmatia, shown in yellow
Kingdom of Italy in 1811, shown in pink 1french-empire1811.jpg
Kingdom of Italy in 1811, shown in pink

Originally, the Kingdom consisted of the territories of the Italian Republic: former Duchy of Milan, Duchy of Mantua, Duchy of Modena, the western part of the Republic of Venice, part of the Papal States in Romagna, and the Department of Agogna with Novara as its capital.

After the defeat of the Third Coalition and the consequent Treaty of Pressburg, on May 1, 1806, the Kingdom was given by Austria the eastern and remaining part of the Venetian territories, including Istria and Dalmatia down to Kotor (then called Cattaro), even if it had to give Massa and Carrara to Elisa Bonaparte's Principality of Lucca and Piombino. The Duchy of Guastalla was annexed on May 24.

With the Convention of Fontainebleau with Austria of October 10, 1807, Italy ceded Monfalcone to Austria and gained Gradisca, putting the new border on the Isonzo River.

The conquered Republic of Ragusa was annexed in spring 1808 by General Auguste de Marmont. On April 2, 1808, following the dissolution of the Papal States, the Kingdom annexed the present-day Marches. At its maximum extent, the Kingdom had 6,700,000 inhabitants and was composed by 2,155 communes.

The final arrangement arrived after the new defeat of Austria: Emperor Napoleon and King Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria signed the Treaty of Paris on February 28, 1810, deciding an exchange of territories involving Italy too.

On rewards in Germany, Bavaria ceded southern Tirol to the Kingdom of Italy, which in its turn ceded Istria and Dalmatia (with Ragusa) to France, incorporating the Adriatic territories into newly created the French Illyrian Provinces. Small changes to the borders between Italy and France in Garfagnana and Friuli came in act on August 5, 1811.

In practice, the Kingdom was a dependency of the French Empire. [3]

The Kingdom served as a theater in Napoleon's operations against Austria during the wars of the various coalitions. Trading with the United Kingdom was forbidden.

Currency

40 lire coin of the
Regno d'Italia (1808) 40 lire 1808.jpg
40 lire coin of the
Regno d'Italia (1808)
5 lire coin of the
Regno d'Italia (1812) Napoleone 5 lire 76001838.jpg
5 lire coin of the
Regno d'Italia (1812)

The kingdom was given a new national currency, replacing the local coins circulating in the country: the Italian lira, of the same size, weight, and metal of the French franc. [4] Mintage being decided by Napoleon with an imperial decree on March 21, 1806, the production of the new coins began in 1807. The monetary unit was the silver lira, which was 5 grams heavy. There were multiples of £2 (10 grams of silver) and £5 (25 grams of silver), and precious coins of £20 (6.45 grams of gold) and £40 (12.9 grams of gold). The lira was basically divided in 100 cents, and there were coins of 1 cent (2.1 grams of copper), 3 cents (6.3 grams of copper), and 10 cents (2 grams of poor silver), but following the tradition, there was a division in 20 soldi, with coins of 1 soldo (10.5 grams of copper, in practice 5 cents), 5 soldi (1.25 grams of silver), 10 soldi (2.5 grams of silver), and 15 soldi (3.75 grams of silver).

Army

The army of the kingdom, inserted into the Grande Armée , took part in all of Napoleon's campaigns. In the course of its existence from 1805 to 1814 the Kingdom of Italy provided Napoleon I with roughly around 200,000 soldiers. [5] [6]

In 1805 Italian troops served on garrison duty along the English Channel, during 1806-1807 they took part in the sieges of Kolberg and Danzig and fought in Dalmatia. [7] From 1808 to 1813 whole Italian divisions served in Spain, especially distinguishing themselves under Suchet at Tarragona and Saguntum. [8] [9]

In 1809, Eugène's Army of Italy formed the right wing of Napoleon I's invasion of the Austrian Empire, winning a considerable victory at Raab and having a respectable share in the victory at Wagram. [7] [10]

In 1812, Eugène de Beauharnais marched 27,000 troops of the Kingdom of Italy into Russia. [11] The Italian contingent distinguished themselves at Borodino and Maloyaroslavets, [12] [13] receiving the recognition: [14]

"The Italian army had displayed qualities which entitled it evermore to take rank amongst the bravest troops of Europe."

Only 1,000-2,000 Italians survived the Russian campaign, but they returned with most of their banners secured. [11] [15] In 1813, Eugène de Beauharnais held out as long as possible against the onslaught of the Austrians [12] (Battle of the Mincio) and was later forced to sign an armistice in February 1814. [16]

Infantry:

Cavalry:

Local administration

3428 - Milano - Ex palazzo del Senato - Foto Giovanni Dall'Orto - 23-June-2007.jpg
Palace of the Senate, Milan
MonsiauConsultaRepubliqueCsalpine1808.jpg
Palace of the Senate in 1802 - Cisalpine Republic

The administrative system of the Kingdom was firstly drawn by a law on June 8, 1805. The state was divided, following the French system, in 14 départements , the twelve ones inherited from the republican era plus Adda (Sondrio) and Adige (Verona). The chief of the department, the prefect, was the State's representative in each province, improved the administrative decisions of the central government, controlled the local authorities, led of the police and, differently from the republican era, had all the executive powers in its territory. The local legislative body was the General Council, composed by the representatives of the communes.

The departments were divided in districts, equivalent to the French arrondissements . The chief of the district was the vice-prefect, which had similar powers to the prefect, but over a smaller area. The local legislative body was the District Council, composed by eleven members. The districts were divided, as in France, in cantons , seats of Tax collectors and Justices of the peace.

The cantons were divided in communes . The communes had a City Council (Consiglio Comunale) of fifteen, thirty or forty members, chosen by the king or the prefect depending by the commune size. The Council elected two, four or six Elders for the ordinary administration, helped by a City Secretary. The chief of biggest communes was the royal Podestà , when in smaller communes there was a prefectoral Mayor. All the city offices were held only by owners and traders, and the leadership of the owners was assured.

During the kingdom's life, the administrative system of the State changed for domestic and international reasons. Following the defeat of Austria and the Treaty of Pressburg, Napoleon annexed to Italy the territory of former Republic of Venice, as announced on March 30, 1806, and ratified on May 1. Seven new departments were created, six in the Venetian mainland, and one in Istria (Capodistria), whereas Dalmatia received special institutions led by the General Provider Mr. Dandolo, and maintained its own laws. On July 14, 1807, the government passed a decree that reduced the number of the communes. Following the dissolution of the Papal States, the kingdom was extended along the Adriatic coast, and on April 20, 1808, three new departments were established. The final territorial change came in action on June 10, 1810, when, as announced by Napoleon on previous May 28, Italy lost Istria and the never fully incorporated Dalmatia, gaining as reward all the southern Tirol up to the city of Bolzano, creating the 24th and last department: Haut Adige. [18]

Language and education

The language used officially in the Kingdom of Italy was Italian. The French language was used for ceremonies and in all relationships with France.

Education was made universal for all children, which was also conducted in Italian. By decree of the governor Vincenzo Dandolo, this was so even in Istria and Dalmatia, where local populations were more heterogeneous. [19]

List of departments and districts

The Kingdom of Italy in 1812, when it was extended from Bolzano to central Adriatic Italy (Marche), losing at the same time Istria and Dalmatia France L-2 (1812)-fr.svg
The Kingdom of Italy in 1812, when it was extended from Bolzano to central Adriatic Italy (Marche), losing at the same time Istria and Dalmatia

During its last maximum extension (from 1809 to 1814), the Kingdom lost Istria/Dalmatia but got added Bolzano/Alto Adige and consisted of 24 departments. [20]

Decline and fall

The murder of finance minister Prina in Milan marked the effective end of the kingdom Prina lynched.jpg
The murder of finance minister Prina in Milan marked the effective end of the kingdom

When Napoleon abdicated to both the thrones of France and Italy on April 11, 1814, Eugène de Beauharnais was lined up the Mincio River with his army against the German invasion, and he attempted to be crowned king. The Senate of the Kingdom was summoned on April 17, but the senators showed themselves undecided in that chaotic situation. When a second session of the assembly took place on April 20, the Milan insurrection foiled the Viceroy's plan. In the riots, finance minister Count Giuseppe Prina was massacred by the crowd, and the Great Electors disbanded the Senate and called the Austrian forces to protect the city, while a Provisional Regency Government under the presidency of Carlo Verri was appointed.

Eugène surrendered on April 23, and was exiled to Bavaria by the Austrians, who occupied Milan on April 28. On April 26, the Empire appointed Annibale Sommariva as Imperial Commissioner of Lombardy, while many taxes were abolished or reduced by the Provisional Regency. Finally, on May 25, the Supreme Imperial Commissioner Count Heinrich von Bellegarde took all the powers in Lombardy, and former monarchies in Modena, Romagna and Piedmont were gradually re-established; on May 30, the Treaty of Paris was signed, and the remains of the kingdom were annexed by the Austrian Empire, as announced by Count Bellegarde on June 12.

See also

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References

  1. Desmond Gregory, Napoleon's Italy (2001)
  2. Text of the Constitution (in Italian)
  3. Napoleon Bonaparte, "The Economy of the Empire in Italy: Instructions from Napoleon to Eugène, Viceroy of Italy," Exploring the European Past: Texts & Images, Second Edition, ed. Timothy E. Gregory (Mason: Thomson, 2007), 65-66.
  4. Equal to franc, the new Napoleonic lira had a different value face to the old, ancient Milanese lira. Distinguishing the two different coins, people began to refer to the new coin as franc. So, through the years, people in north-western Italy continued to call franc the lira in their local dialects until the changeover with euro in 2002.
  5. Sarti, Roland (2004). Italy: a reference guide from the Renaissance to the Present. New York.
  6. Gregory, Desmond (2001). Napoleon's Italy: Desmond Gregory. AUP Cranbury.
  7. 1 2 Elting, John R. (1988). Swords around a throne. New York.
  8. Scott, Sir Walter (1843). Life of Napoleon Buonaparte: Vol.4. Edinburgh.
  9. Thiers, Adolphe (1856). History of the consulate and the empire of France under Napoleon: Vol.13. London.
  10. Arnold, James R. (1995). Napoleon conquers Austria: the 1809 campaign for Vienna. Westport.
  11. 1 2 John A. Davis, Paul Ginsborg (1991). Society and Politics in the Age of the Risorgimento. Cambridge.
  12. 1 2 Encyclopædia Britannica (1972). Encyclopædia Britannica: Vol.1. Chicago.
  13. Fremont-Barnes, Gregory (2006). The encyclopedia of the French revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars: Vol.1. Santa Barbara.
  14. Wilson, Sir Robert Thomas (1860). Narrative of events during the invasion of Russia by Napoleon Bonaparte. London.
  15. Montagu, Violette M. (1913). Eugène de Beauharnais: the adopted son of Napoleon. London.
  16. Jaques, Tony (2007). Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: A-E. Westport.
  17. Antonio Virgili, La Tradizione napoleonica, CSI, Napoli, 2005
  18. Historical name changes can create confusion: the present-day Italian province of South Tyrol (called in Italian Alto Adige) does not cover the same area as the Napoleonic Alto Adige, which mainly correspondeds to the province of Trentino including the city of Bolzano with its Southern surroundings.
  19. Sumrada, Janez. Napoleon na Jadranu / Napoleon dans l'Adriatique.pag.37
  20. Map of the Kingdom of Italy in 1808, when Ragusa in Dalmatia was part of the "Albania" department

Further reading