Peace of Pressburg (1805)

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Contemporary print advertising the Peace of Pressburg Pressburg print 1805.jpg
Contemporary print advertising the Peace of Pressburg

The fourth Peace of Pressburg (also known as the Treaty of Pressburg; German : Preßburger Frieden; French : Traité de Presbourg) was signed on 27 December 1805 between Napoleon and Holy Roman Emperor Francis II as a consequence of the French victories over the Austrians at Ulm (25 September – 20 October) and Austerlitz (2 December). A truce was agreed on 4 December, and negotiations for the treaty began. The treaty was signed in Pressburg (Pozsony, today's Bratislava), Hungary, by Johann I Josef, Prince of Liechtenstein, and the Hungarian Count Ignác Gyulay for the Austrian Empire and Charles Maurice de Talleyrand for France.

Beyond the clauses establishing "peace and amity" and the Austrian withdrawal from the Third Coalition, the treaty also mandated substantial territorial concessions by the Austrian Empire. The gains of the previous treaties of Campo Formio and Lunéville were reiterated and Austrian holdings in Italy and Bavaria were ceded to France. Certain Austrian holdings in Germany were passed to French allies: the King of Bavaria, the King of Württemberg, and the Elector of Baden. Austrian claims on those German states were renounced without exception. The most notable territorial exchanges concerned the Tyrol and Vorarlberg, which went to Bavaria, and Venetia, Istria, and Dalmatia, which were incorporated into the Kingdom of Italy, of which Napoleon had become king earlier that year. Augsburg, previously an independent Free Imperial City, was ceded to Bavaria. As a minor compensation, the Austrian Empire received the Electorate of Salzburg.

The Primate's Palace, where the Peace of Pressburg was signed Primate's Palace Bratislava.jpg
The Primate's Palace, where the Peace of Pressburg was signed

Emperor Francis II also recognized the kingly titles assumed by the Electors of Bavaria and Württemberg, which foreshadowed the end of the Holy Roman Empire. Within months of the signing of the treaty and after a new entity, the Confederation of the Rhine, had been created by Napoleon, Francis II renounced his title as Holy Roman Emperor and became Emperor of the Austrian Empire with the title of Francis I of Austria. An indemnity of 40 million francs to France was also provided for in the treaty. [1]

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References

  1. Phillipson, Coleman (2008). Termination of War and Treaties of Peace. p. 273.