Battle of Guttstadt-Deppen

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Coordinates: 53°59′N20°24′E / 53.983°N 20.400°E / 53.983; 20.400

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Contents

Battle of Guttstadt-Deppen
Part of the War of the Fourth Coalition
Dobre-miasto(js).jpg
The Stork Tower (Baszta Bociania) in Dobre Miasto.
Date56 June 1807
Location Guttstadt, East Prussia (modern Dobre Miasto, Poland)
Result Russo–Prussian victory
Belligerents
Flag of France.svg First French Empire Flag of Russia.svg Russian Empire
Flag of the Kingdom of Prussia (1803-1892).svg Kingdom of Prussia
Commanders and leaders

Flag of France.svg Michel Ney
Flag of France.svg Nicolas Soult
Flag of France.svg J-B Bernadotte  (WIA)

Flag of France.svg Claude-Victor Perrin
Flag of Russia.svg Levin Bennigsen
Flag of Russia.svg Dmitry Dokhturov
Flag of the Kingdom of Prussia (1803-1892).svg Anton von L'Estocq
Strength
Guttstadt: 17,000
Lomitten: 6,000, 16 guns
Spanden: unknown
Guttstadt: 63,000
Lomitten: 12,000, 76 guns
Spanden: 6,000
Casualties and losses
Guttstadt: 2,042
Lomitten: 1,185
Spanden: unknown
Guttstadt: 2,0002,500
Lomitten: 2,800
Spanden: 500800

In the Battle of Guttstadt-Deppen on 5 and 6 June 1807, troops of the Russian Empire led by General Levin August, Count von Bennigsen attacked the First French Empire corps of Marshal Michel Ney. The Russians pressed back their opponents in an action that saw Ney fight a brilliant rearguard action with his heavily outnumbered forces. During the 6th, Ney successfully disengaged his troops and pulled back to the west side of the Pasłęka (Passarge) River. The action occurred during the War of the Fourth Coalition, part of the Napoleonic Wars. Dobre Miasto (Guttstadt) is on Route 51 about 20 kilometers (12 mi) southwest of Lidzbark Warmiński (Heilsberg) and 24 kilometers (15 mi) north of Olsztyn (Allenstein). The fighting occurred along Route 580 which runs southwest from Guttstadt to Kalisty (Deppen) on the Pasłęka.

Russian Empire Former country, 1721–1917

The Russian Empire, also known as Imperial Russia or simply Russia, was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

First French Empire Empire of Napoleon I of France between 1804–1815

The First French Empire, officially the French Empire, was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. Although France had already established an overseas colonial empire beginning in the 17th century, the French state had remained a kingdom under the Bourbons and a republic after the Revolution. Historians refer to Napoleon's regime as the First Empire to distinguish it from the restorationist Second Empire (1852–1870) ruled by his nephew as Napoleon III.

Michel Ney French soldier and military commander

Marshal of the Empire Michel Ney, 1st Duke of Elchingen, 1st Prince of the Moskva, popularly known as Marshal Ney, was a French soldier and military commander during the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. He was one of the original 18 Marshals of the Empire created by Napoleon. He was known as Le Rougeaud by his men and nicknamed le Brave des Braves by Napoleon.

At the beginning of June, Bennigsen launched an offensive against the forces of Emperor Napoleon I in East Prussia. The Russian commander planned to trap Ney's corps between several converging columns. To occupy the French troops on Ney's left, Bennigsen sent General-Leutnant Anton Wilhelm von L'Estocq's Prussians to attack Marshal Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte's troops at Spędy (Spanden) and ordered Lieutenant General Dmitry Dokhturov's Russians to assault Marshal Nicolas Soult's men at Bogatynskie (Lomitten). Although all three French marshals saw sharp fighting, the Russian plan failed to put significant numbers of French troops out of action. Afraid of being cut off in his turn, Bennigsen ordered a retreat on the night of the 7th as Napoleon instructed his forces to counterattack the Russians. The decisive Battle of Friedland was fought a week later on 14 June.

East Prussia province of Prussia

East Prussia was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1773 to 1829 and again from 1878 ; following World War I it formed part of the Weimar Republic's Free State of Prussia, until 1945. Its capital city was Königsberg. East Prussia was the main part of the region of Prussia along the southeastern Baltic Coast.

Anton Wilhelm von LEstocq German general

Anton Wilhelm von L'Estocq was a Prussian cavalry general best known for his command of the Prussian troops at the Battle of Eylau.

Spędy is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Wilczęta, within Braniewo County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, in northern Poland.

Background

After the bloody Battle of Eylau on 7 and 8 February 1807, Napoleon's forces lingered in the vicinity so that the emperor could claim a victory. [1] However, his soldiers clamored for an end to the fighting. Instead of the usual shouts of Vive l'Empereur (long live the emperor), cries of Vive la paix (long live peace) were heard in the bivouacs when the emperor passed by. [2] On 17 February the French began their withdrawal westward into winter quarters. [3] By the 23rd the French reached their cantonments, with Maréchal Bernadotte's I on the left, Maréchal Soult's IV Corps in the center, and Maréchal Davout's III Corps on the right. Maréchal Ney's VI Corps occupied an advanced position at Guttstadt, while the Imperial Guard and the Reserve Cavalry occupied the rear area around Ostróda (Osterode). Napoleon stationed Maréchal Lannes V Corps in a position to cover Warsaw. [4] Maréchal Augereau's decimated VII Corps was broken up and its survivors were allotted to the other corps. [5]

Battle of Eylau battle

The Battle of Eylau or Battle of Preussisch-Eylau, 7 and 8 February 1807, was a bloody battle between Napoleon's Grande Armée and the Imperial Russian Army under the command of Levin August von Bennigsen near the town of Preussisch Eylau in East Prussia. Late in the battle, the Russians received timely reinforcements from a Prussian division of von L'Estocq. After 1945 the town was renamed Bagrationovsk as a part of Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia. The engagement was fought during the War of the Fourth Coalition, part of the Napoleonic Wars. Of all Napoleonic battles, this is considered to be the most uncertain and mysterious for several reasons—mainly the strength of Murat's reserve cavalry.

Charles XIV John of Sweden King of Sweden and Norway between 1818-1844. Prince of Ponte Corvo 1806-1810 and French field marshal

Charles XIV and III John or Carl John, was King of Sweden and King of Norway from 1818 until his death, and served as de facto regent and head of state from 1810 to 1818. He was also the Sovereign Prince of Pontecorvo, in south-central Italy, from 1806 until 1810.

The I Corps of the Grande Armée was a military unit that existed during the Napoleonic Wars. The corps was composed of troops in Imperial French service.

L'Estocq's attempt to pursue the French came to grief at Braniewo (Braunsberg) on 26 February, when Bernadotte's corps drubbed his advance guard. In this action, the Russian-Prussian force lost 100 killed and wounded, with 700 soldiers and six guns captured. French losses were not reported but were probably light. [6] Meanwhile, to the northeast of Warsaw, General of Division Anne Jean Marie René Savary's V Corps defeated Lieutenant General Ivan Essen at the Battle of Ostroleka on 16 February. The French lost 1,171 casualties including one general killed. Russian losses were 2,500 soldiers, seven guns, and two colors. [7]

Braniewo Place in Warmian-Masurian, Poland

Braniewo, , is a town in northeastern Poland, in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, with a population of 18,068 (2004). It is the capital of Braniewo County.

Anne Jean Marie René Savary French general

Anne Jean Marie René Savary, 1st Duke of Rovigo was a French general and diplomat.

At the end of March 1807, Marshal Édouard Adolphe Casimir Joseph Mortier withdrew many of his troops from the Siege of Stralsund with the intention of using them for the Siege of Kolberg. His Swedish opponent, General-Leutnant Hans Henric von Essen immediately pushed back the outnumbered besiegers. Quickly returning with the bulk of his soldiers, Mortier drove the Swedes north of the Peene River and the two sides concluded an armistice on 29 April. This freed many of Mortier's troops for other duties and allowed Napoleon to concentrate on reducing Gdańsk (Danzig). [8]

Siege of Stralsund (1807) 1807 War of the Fourth Coalition incident

The Siege of Stralsund lasted from 30 January to 24 August 1807 and saw troops from the First French Empire twice attempt to capture the port city from Lieutenant General Hans Henric von Essen's 15,000-man Swedish garrison. On the first try, Marshal Édouard Adolphe Casimir Joseph Mortier blockaded the city for two months before he was called elsewhere. In his absence, the Swedes drove back the inferior blockading force. After Mortier returned and pushed Essen's troops back in turn, the two sides quickly concluded an armistice. The truce was later repudiated by King Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden, whereupon Marshal Guillaume Marie Anne Brune led 40,000 French, German, Spanish, Italian, and Dutch soldiers against the fortress. Fearfully outnumbered, the Swedes abandoned the Baltic Sea port of Stralsund to the Franco-Allies in this action during the War of the Fourth Coalition, part of the Napoleonic Wars. As a consequence, Sweden also lost the nearby island of Rügen.

Siege of Kolberg (1807) 1807 incident during the War of the Fourth Coalition

The Siege of Kolberg ( } took place from March to 2 July 1807 during the War of the Fourth Coalition, part of the Napoleonic Wars. An army of the First French Empire and several foreign auxiliaries of France besieged the Prussian fortified town of Kolberg, the only remaining Prussian-held fortress in the Prussian province of Pomerania. The siege was not successful and was lifted upon the announcement of the peace of Tilsit.

Peene river in Germany

The Peene is a river in Germany. The Westpeene, with Ostpeene as its longer tributary, and Kleine Peene/Teterower Peene flow into Kummerower See, and from there as Peene proper to Anklam and into the Oder Lagoon.

Marshal François Joseph Lefebvre invested the fortress of Danzig on 10 March 1807. After a prolonged defense in the Siege of Danzig, General of Infantry Friedrich Adolf, Count von Kalckreuth surrendered on 24 May. Of the 370 officers and 15,287 men of the garrison, 3,000 were killed, wounded, or died of disease. French losses numbered about 6,000 killed, wounded, or died of sickness. French officer casualties were 28 killed and 105 wounded. [9] On the 27th, the garrison marched out with the honors of war and were escorted to Baltiysk (Pillau). The paroled Prussians promised not to fight against France for one year. [10]

Battle

Plans

With Danzig secured in his rear, Napoleon planned to launch an offensive around 10 June. When he received intelligence that the Russians intended to attack him, the emperor thought the enemy move "ridiculous" since they had done little to trouble him while Danzig was under siege. [11] By this time, Napoleon massed 220,000 troops in Poland against only 115,000 Russians and Prussians. [12] Napoleon had 190,000 men under his direct command while Marshal André Masséna commanded the rest. [13] Masséna's instructions were to cover Warsaw, guard the right wing, and threaten the Russian strategic left flank. [14]

Levin August Bennigsen Bennigsen.jpg
Levin August Bennigsen

On 2 June Bennigsen concentrated his army at Heilsberg and advanced on Napoleon's lines. The Russian commander planned to destroy Ney's exposed corps in an overly complex operation involving six advancing columns. He sent the 1st Column with 24 battalions and 4 batteries through Orneta (Wormditt), then south, to drive the French troops from the east bank of the Pasłęka. The Russians would then move south and take position near Eldyty Wielkie (Elditten), thus preventing Soult from supporting Ney. Dokhturov commanded the 1st Column, which included his own 4,653-man 7th Division and Lieutenant General Peter Kirillovich Essen's 5,670-strong 8th Division. [13]

Aleksey Gorchakov Aleksey Ivanovich Gorchakov.jpg
Aleksey Gorchakov

Lieutenant General Fabian Gottlieb von Osten-Sacken led the 2nd Column, which consisted of 42 battalions, 140 squadrons, and nine batteries. Bennigsen desired the 2nd Column to strike Ney's left flank while supporting the adjacent 1st and 3rd Columns. Osten-Sacken commanded his own 6,432-man 3rd Division, Lieutenant General Alexander Ivanovich Ostermann-Tolstoy's 9,615-strong 2nd and 14th Divisions, the 3,836 troopers of Major General Fedor Petrovich Uvarov's right wing cavalry, and the 2,982 horsemen of Lieutenant General Dmitry Golitsyn's left wing cavalry. [13] Lieutenant General Pyotr Bagration directed the 3rd Column of 42 battalions, 10 squadrons, and six regiments of cossacks. This column, which was composed of the army Advance Guard, would attack north of Guttstadt with the aim of cutting off some of Ney's troops. Bagration's 3rd Column numbered 12,537 troops. [15]

Lieutenant General Aleksey Gorchakov exercised authority over the 4th Column, a body made up of the 6th Division with 12 battalions, 20 squadrons, and three regiments of cossacks. Gorchakov was ordered to cross the Łyna (Alle) River south of Guttstadt and attack Ney's right flank. The 6th Division was 10,873 strong. The 6,347-man 5th Column was entrusted to Major General Matvei Platov. Supported by Major General Bogdan von Knorring's 6th Division brigade, this column would cross the Łyna at Bergfried (Barkweda) and try to envelop Ney's right flank. Platov led three battalions, 10 squadrons, and nine regiments of cossacks. Grand Duke Constantine Pavlovich of Russia directed the 6th Column, consisting of the 1st Imperial Guard Division. Constantine's force, which constituted the army reserve, included 28 battalions, 28 squadrons, and three batteries, a total of 17,000 soldiers. [15]

Bennigsen instructed L'Estocq to move against the French I Corps, which deployed along the lower reaches of the Pasłęka. While guarding the road to Königsberg, the Prussian general would drive Bernadotte's men onto the west bank and pin them there. L'Estocq commanded about 20,000 men and 78 guns, of whom 15,000 were Prussians. The Russian contingent was led by Lieutenant General Nikolay Kamensky. Finally, Lieutenant General Pyotr Aleksandrovich Tolstoy with 15,800 soldiers kept Masséna's right wing under observation northeast of Warsaw. [15]

Because Ney's front was screened by forests, Bennigsen had a reasonable hope that he could fall on the Frenchman's troops before his opponent could take effective countermeasures. In the event, French scouts picked up enough information for Ney to order a concentration between Guttstadt and Deppen. He also sent a message to Soult asking him to hold Elditten on his left and another to Davout requesting him to defend Bergfried on his right. [16]

Spanden

Anton von L'Estocq Anton Wilhelm von L'Estocq - General.jpg
Anton von L'Estocq

Bennigsen's original orders called for the attack to begin on 4 June. Accordingly, L'Estocq assembled General-Major Michael Szabszinski von Rembow's division at Pieniężno (Mehlsack). On the morning of the 4th, Rembow moved to southwest to Spanden where he began to attack Bernadotte's bridgehead. Unknown to the Prussian general, Bennigsen had postponed the offensive by one day and the new orders had not been properly transmitted. Dokhturov at Wormditt heard cannon fire and sent Rembow a note asking the reason. Apprised of his error, the Prussian withdrew his division, but Bernadotte was thoroughly alerted by the day's events. [17]

Eugene-Casimir Villatte General Eugene Casimir Villatte.png
Eugene-Casimir Villatte

At 10:00 AM on 5 June, Rembow attacked General of Division Eugene-Casimir Villatte's division at Spanden. The Prussian general commanded as few as 3,000 infantry and 1,500 cavalry, [17] or as many as 6,000 troops. He had three battalions each of the Sievsk and Perm Russian Infantry Regiments, ten squadrons of the Ziethen Dragoon Regiment Nr. 6, five squadrons of the Baczko Dragoon Regiment Nr. 7, 29 cannons, and two howitzers. Villatte directed General of Brigade Bernard-Georges-François Frère's brigade, two battalions each of the 27th Light and the 63rd Line Infantry Regiments, plus three squadrons each of the 17th and 19th Dragoon Regiments. [18] The 63rd was one of the units transferred from the VII Corps. [19]

The French fortified a loop in the Pasłęka that formed a re-entrant toward the west bank of the stream. By closing off the east end of the loop with a central redoubt connected by earthworks to the river banks on each side, the French held a well-protected east bank bridgehead. A second redoubt near the bridge provided a back up position. [17] Villatte deployed the 27th Light in the bridgehead, with the 63rd Line and 17th Dragoons in direct support on the west bank. His second brigade under General of Brigade Jean-Baptiste Girard held the line of the Pasłęka farther north with the 94th and 95th Line Infantry Regiments. The 18th, 19th, and 20th Dragoon Regiments were with Girard. [20]

L'Estocq's instructions called for him to mount a demonstration against Bernadotte's position. However, his adjutant Major Saint-Paul convinced him to order a full-scale assault. [18] After the Spanden bridgehead was pounded by artillery for two hours, Rembow's Russian infantry advanced to the attack. The 27th Light Infantry, supported by four cannons and one howitzer, waited until the Russians were within close range before blasting them with a series of volleys. Shattered by the deadly fire, the Russians ran away, chased by the 17th Dragoons. L'Estocq admitted losing 500 killed and wounded, while the French claimed to have inflicted 700 to 800 casualties. The only French loss of consequence was Bernadotte, who was wounded in the head by a bullet and had to hand over command of the I Corps to General of Division Claude Perrin Victor. Also on the 5th, General of Division Pierre Dupont de l'Étang repelled a Prussian probe near Braunsberg. [20]

Lomitten

Dmitry Dokhturov Dmitry Sergeyevich Dokhturov.jpg
Dmitry Dokhturov

At 6:00 AM on the 5th, Dokhturov began driving in Soult's outposts after marching southwest from Wormditt via Wojciechowo (Albrechtsdorf). General of Division Claude Carra Saint-Cyr's division of the IV Corps defended the Lomitten bridgehead. Two redoubts which stood on the east bank of the Pasłęka were connected by a line of breastworks. These fieldworks were defended by the 1st Battalion of the 57th Line Infantry Regiment and four cannons. Off to the left, the 2nd Battalion of the 57th defended a wooded area surrounded by abatis. One battalion of the 24th Light Infantry Regiment held the west bank in direct support, while a second battalion of the 24th Light watched the river farther north at Podągi (Sporthenen) and Olkowo (Alken). Carra Saint-Cyr posted the rest of his division to the rear near Miłakowo (Liebstadt) [21]

Claude Carra Saint-Cyr Claudecarra.JPG
Claude Carra Saint-Cyr

Dokhturov launched three attack columns at the French works at 8:00 AM on 5 June. At about the same time, a detachment of Russian cavalry crossed the Pasłęka near Sporthenen and a force of infantry and artillery probed at Alken. The battalion of the 24th Light charged the Russians at Sporthenen and drove them back to the east bank. Meanwhile, at Lomitten, Dokhturov's troops fought their way through the abatis in their initial rush only to be thrown back. They charged again and nearly captured the wood when Carra Saint-Cyr's reinforcements arrived and restored the line. The 2nd/57th reoccupied the wood and held it for four hours. [21]

By this time, single battalions of the 46th Line and 24th Light were committed to defend the Lomitten bridgehead. The action lasted eight hours, at the end of which, the Russians attempted to storm the position in one massive column. This assault came to naught when two French battalions counterattacked. Orders arrived from Soult permitting Carra Saint-Cyr to evacuate the bridgehead. Since the Russian artillery had nearly leveled the earthworks and set the village of Lomitten on fire, the division commander exercised his discretion and pulled back. Even so, the French still blocked the bridge and the Russians fell back toward Wormditt at 8:00 PM. [22]

The French reported losing 106 killed and 1,079 wounded, and claimed that they inflicted 800 killed and 2,000 wounded on the Russians. Historian Digby Smith called the action a Russian victory. [18] While part of his command battered at Lomitten, Dokhturov took the rest south to the bridge near Elditten. The local French commander, General of Division Louis-Vincent-Joseph Le Blond de Saint-Hilaire defended the crossing in strength and the Russian leader did not try to attack. [22]

Guttstadt-Deppen

Pyotr Bagration George Dawe - Portrait of General Pyotr Bagration (1765-1812) - Google Art Project.jpg
Pyotr Bagration

Ney deployed General of Division Jean Gabriel Marchand's division at Guttstadt and Praslity (Altkirch) to the north, with one infantry and one cavalry regiment in the woods near Smolajny (Schmolainen). The French marshal posted General of Division Baptiste Pierre Bisson's division to the south and west in the villages of Głotowo (Glottau), Knopin (Knopen), Łęgno (Lingnau), and Kwiecewo (Queetz). [23] Marchand commanded the 6th Light, 39th Line, 69th Line, and 76th Line Infantry Regiments. Bisson led the 25th Light, 27th Line, 50th Line, and 59th Line Infantry Regiments. All regiments were made up of two battalions. A powerful cavalry contingent supported VI Corps, including the 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 8th Hussar Regiments, the 14th and 24th Chasseurs a Cheval Regiments, and the 12th Dragoon Regiment. All cavalry regiments had three squadrons except the dragoons, which had four. Bennigsen's 63,000 troops massively outnumbered Ney, who counted only 17,000 men. [18]

Michel Ney Marechal Ney.jpg
Michel Ney

At 6:00 AM on 5 June, Bagration advanced on Altkirch and quickly captured it. At Altkirch, the Advance Guard commander hesitated because the 2nd and 4th Columns were lagging behind schedule. Ney used the chance to pull back the troops at Schmolainen, while launching a powerful riposte on Bagration. The Russians lost 500 casualties in the encounter, while French losses are not stated. As Osten-Sacken's strong 2nd Column began to make itself felt on his left, Ney made a fighting withdrawal, making maximum use of skirmishers. [23]

Gorchakov seized Guttstadt after the French evacuated it. Platov got across the Łyna at Barkweda and joined the Russian left wing. By 3:00 PM, Ney took up a position facing northeast near Jankowo (Ankendorf) and Świątki (Heiligenthal). The right flank was protected by the Queetz Lake, the center by a small watercourse, and the left flank by a small forest north of Deppen. The day's action ended along this line. [24]

The morning of 6 June found Ney still defiantly in position. The Russian attacks began at 5:00 AM with Golitsyn attacking the French left, hoping to seize the bridge at Deppen and cut off Ney's retreat. Osten-Sacken assaulted the French center while Gorchakov struck his opponents' right flank. Bennigsen held Bagration's Advanced Guard and Constantine's Guard in reserve. Ney's defense completely baffled Gorchakov, but his left and center were relentlessly pressed back. Hoping to flank Ney out of position, Gorchakov moved south of Queetz Lake [24] which is about 1.6 kilometers (1.0 mi) south of Queetz. [note 1] and took his soldiers out of the battle for a few hours. This blunder relieved the pressure on the French right and the marshal used the respite to shift troops to shore up his left and center. Neatly withdrawing his corps across the bridge at Deppen, Ney escaped with little further loss. [25]

Result

Digby Smith credited the Russians with a victory at Guttstadt and Deppen. [18] However, Bennigsen became so enraged at his failure to crush Ney that he vented his anger on Osten-Sacken, [26] who he claimed, had ignored repeated orders to attack. [27] Smarting from his ill-treatment, Osten-Sacken left the army for a short time. [26] According to their official bulletins, [28] the French lost 400 killed or wounded and 250 captured, along with two guns and the VI Corps baggage train. The Russians captured 73 officers and 1,568 men, including General of Brigade François Roguet; [18] 2,000 French were claimed to have been killed. [29] Bennigsen lost some 2,000 men killed or wounded, [24] [30] including Ostermann-Tolstoy and Lieutenant General Andrei Andreievich Somov among the wounded. [27] [30]

That evening, Bennigsen set up his headquarters at Heilingenthal with the bulk of his army nearby. Gorchakov took position at Guttstadt, while L'Estocq and Kamensky hovered in the vicinity of Mehlsack. According to historian Francis Loraine Petre, the Russian "offensive had expended its force and come to a standstill". Napoleon immediately began assembling his forces for a counteroffensive. [26] Bennigsen ordered his army to retreat on the evening of 7 June. [31] The Russian commander repulsed Napoleon at the Battle of Heilsberg on 10 June. [27] But at Friedland the French emperor won the decisive battle of the war on 14 June 1807, which led to the Peace of Tilsit. [32]

Notes

Footnotes
  1. The lake, which appears to have dried up, can be seen on Google Earth.
Citations
  1. Petre, 219-220
  2. Chandler Campaigns, 550
  3. Petre, 222
  4. Chandler Campaigns, 551
  5. Petre, 227
  6. Smith, 244
  7. Smith, 243
  8. Petre, 265
  9. Smith, 245
  10. Petre, 260
  11. Petre, 273
  12. Chandler Campaigns, 564-565
  13. 1 2 3 Petre, 275-276
  14. Petre, 269
  15. 1 2 3 Petre, 275 & 277
  16. Petre, 277
  17. 1 2 3 Petre, 278
  18. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Smith, 246
  19. Chandler Jena, 37
  20. 1 2 Petre, 279
  21. 1 2 Petre, 280
  22. 1 2 Petre, 281
  23. 1 2 Petre, 282
  24. 1 2 3 Petre, 283
  25. Petre, 283-284
  26. 1 2 3 Petre, 284
  27. 1 2 3 Smith, 247
  28. Davis J. Eighteen Original Journals of the Eighteen Campaigns of the Emperor Napoleon: Being Those in which He Personally Commanded in Chief. 1817. V. II. P. 179
  29. Wilson R. Brief Remarks on the Character and Composition of the Russian Army and a Sketch of the Campaigns in Poland in the Years 1806 and 1807. Egerton, 1810. P. 249
  30. 1 2 Summerville Ch. J. Napoleon's Polish Gamble: Eylau and Friedland 1807. Pen & Sword Military, 2005. P. 117
  31. Petre, 286
  32. Chandler Campaigns, 582

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Jean Gabriel Marchand, 1st Count Marchand went from being an attorney to a company commander in the army of the First French Republic in 1791. He fought almost exclusively in Italy throughout the French Revolutionary Wars and served on the staffs of a number of generals. He participated in Napoleon Bonaparte's celebrated 1796-1797 Italian campaign. In 1799, he was with army commander Barthélemy Catherine Joubert when that general was killed at Novi. Promoted to general officer soon after, he transferred to the Rhine theater in 1800.

Battle of Schleiz battle

The Battle of Schleiz took place on October 9, 1806 in Schleiz, Germany between a Prussian-Saxon division under Bogislav Friedrich Emanuel von Tauentzien and a part of Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte's I Corps under the command of Jean-Baptiste Drouet, Comte d'Erlon. It was the first clash of the War of the Fourth Coalition, part of the Napoleonic Wars. As Emperor Napoleon I of France's Grande Armée advanced north through the Frankenwald it struck the left wing of the armies belonging to the Kingdom of Prussia and the Electorate of Saxony, which were deployed on a long front. Schleiz is located 30 kilometers north of Hof and 145 kilometers southwest of Dresden at the intersection of Routes 2 and 94.

Battle of Lübeck battle

The Battle of Lübeck took place on 6 November 1806 in Lübeck, Germany between soldiers of the Kingdom of Prussia led by Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, who were retreating from defeat at the Battle of Jena–Auerstedt, and troops of the First French Empire under Marshals Murat, Bernadotte, and Soult, who were pursuing them. In this War of the Fourth Coalition action, the French inflicted a severe defeat on the Prussians, driving them from the neutral city. Lübeck is an old Baltic Sea port approximately 50 kilometres (31 mi) northeast of Hamburg.

Eugène-Casimir Villatte French general

Eugène-Casimir Villatte, Comte d'Oultremont fought in the French army during the Wars of the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars. He rose to command a division at many of the important battles in the Peninsular War. His is one of the names inscribed under the Arc de Triomphe.

Battle of Halle battle

In the Battle of Halle on 17 October 1806 a French corps led by Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte fought the Prussian Reserve under Eugene Frederick Henry, Duke of Württemberg. The French defeated their opponents, forcing the Prussians to retreat northeast toward Dessau after suffering heavy losses. The clash occurred in the War of the Fourth Coalition, part of the Napoleonic Wars. The city of Halle is located about 30 kilometers northwest of Leipzig on the Saale River.

Capitulation of Erfurt

In the Capitulation of Erfurt on 16 October 1806 a large body of troops from the Kingdom of Prussia under Lieutenant General the Prince of Orange surrendered to Marshal Joachim Murat of France, at the city of Erfurt. The Prussian soldiers were demoralized by their shattering defeat at the Battle of Jena–Auerstedt on 14 October and unwilling to put up much resistance. The event occurred during the War of the Fourth Coalition, part of the Napoleonic Wars. Erfurt is located on the Gera River about 40 kilometers west of Jena.

Capitulation of Pasewalk

The Capitulation of Pasewalk on 29 October 1806 resulted in the surrender of Oberst (Colonel) von Hagen's 4,200 Prussian soldiers to an inferior force of two French light cavalry brigades led by Generals of Brigade Édouard Jean Baptiste Milhaud and Antoine Lasalle. The Prussians were completely demoralized after a two-week-long retreat following their decisive defeat at the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt. Pasewalk is 110 kilometers north of Berlin and about 40 kilometers west of Szczecin (Stettin), Poland.

Capitulation of Stettin

In the Capitulation of Stettin on 29–30 October 1806, Lieutenant General Friedrich Gisbert Wilhelm von Romberg surrendered the garrison and fortress to a much smaller French light cavalry brigade led by General of Brigade Antoine Lasalle. This event was one of a number of surrenders by demoralized Prussian soldiers to equal or inferior French forces after their disastrous defeat at the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt on 14 October. Stettin, now Szczecin, Poland, is a port city on the Oder River near the Baltic Sea, about 120 kilometres (75 mi) northeast of Berlin.

Battle of Waren-Nossentin

The Battle of Waren-Nossentin on 1 November 1806 saw soldiers of the Kingdom of Prussia led by August Wilhelm von Pletz and Ludwig Yorck von Wartenburg fight a rear guard action against troops of the First French Empire commanded by Marshal Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte. Though forced to give ground, the Prussians successfully kept the French from inflicting serious loss or cutting off any units in this War of the Fourth Coalition action. Waren lies on the northern end of Lake Müritz, about 70 kilometres (43 mi) southeast of Rostock. Nossentin is a small village on the Fleesen See about 15 kilometres (9 mi) due west of Waren.

Battle of Mohrungen

In the Battle of Mohrungen on 25 January 1807, most of a First French Empire corps under the leadership of Marshal Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte fought a strong Russian Empire advance guard led by Major General Yevgeni Ivanovich Markov. The French pushed back the main Russian force, but a cavalry raid on the French supply train caused Bernadotte to call off his attacks. After driving off the cavalry, Bernadotte withdrew and the town was occupied by the army of General Levin August, Count von Bennigsen. The fighting took place in and around Morąg in northern Poland, which in 1807 was the East Prussian town of Mohrungen. The action was part of the War of the Fourth Coalition in the Napoleonic Wars.

Battle of Czarnowo

The Battle of Czarnowo on the night of 23–24 December 1806 saw troops of the First French Empire under the eye of Emperor Napoleon I launch an evening assault crossing of the Wkra River against Lieutenant General Alexander Ivanovich Ostermann-Tolstoy's defending Russian Empire forces. The attackers, part of Marshal Louis-Nicolas Davout's III Corps, succeeded in crossing the Wkra at its mouth and pressed eastward to the village of Czarnowo. After an all-night struggle, the Russian commander withdrew his troops to the east, ending this War of the Fourth Coalition action. Czarnowo is located on the north bank of the Narew River 33 kilometres (21 mi) north-northwest of Warsaw, Poland.

References

The following websites are good sources for the full names of French, Russian, and Prussian generals.