Battle of Casaglia

Last updated
Battle of Casaglia
Part of the Neapolitan War
Date12 April 1815
Location
Northwest of Ferrara, present-day Italy
Result Austrian victory
Belligerents
Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy.svg  Austrian Empire Flag of the Kingdom of Naples (1811).svg  Kingdom of Naples
Commanders and leaders
Johann Frimont
Johann Freiherr von Mohr
Joachim Murat
Strength
4,500 7,000+
Casualties and losses
230 killed or wounded ~1,000 killed or wounded

The Battle of Casaglia was a battle in the Neapolitan War between an Austrian force under the command of Johann Freiherr von Mohr and a Neapolitan force under their king, Joachim Murat. The battle took place around the village of Casaglia, seven miles northwest of Ferrara, and resulted in the Austrians recapturing the village from Murat.

Neapolitan War conflict

The Neapolitan War was a conflict between the Napoleonic Kingdom of Naples and the Austrian Empire. It started on 15 March 1815 when King Joachim Murat declared war on Austria and ended on 20 May 1815 with the signing of the Treaty of Casalanza. The war occurred during the Hundred Days between Napoleon's return from exile and before he left Paris to be decisively defeated at the Battle of Waterloo. The war was triggered by a pro-Napoleon uprising in Naples, and ended with a decisive Austrian victory at the Battle of Tolentino after which Bourbon monarch Ferdinand IV was reinstated as King of Naples and Sicily. However, the intervention by Austria caused resentment in Italy, which further spurred on the drive towards Italian unification.

Joachim Murat Grand Duke of Berg and King of Naples

Joachim-Napoléon Murat was a Marshal of France and Admiral of France under the reign of Napoleon. He was also the 1st Prince Murat, Grand Duke of Berg from 1806 to 1808, and King of Naples from 1808 to 1815. Murat received his titles in part by being Napoleon's brother-in-law through marriage to his younger sister, Caroline Bonaparte, as well as personal merit. He was noted as a daring, brave, and charismatic cavalry officer as well as a flamboyant dresser, for which he was known as "the Dandy King".

Ferrara Comune in Emilia-Romagna, Italy

Ferrara is a city and comune in Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy, capital of the Province of Ferrara. As of 2016 it had 132,009 inhabitants. It is situated 44 kilometres northeast of Bologna, on the Po di Volano, a branch channel of the main stream of the Po River, located 5 km north. The town has broad streets and numerous palaces dating from the Renaissance, when it hosted the court of the House of Este. For its beauty and cultural importance, it has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site.

Battle

After Murat was defeated at the Battle of Occhiobello, the Neapolitans stopped their advance and made a defensive line on the Po River. However, even from his new position, Murat was still able to threaten the key Austrian held city of Ferrara, which had been under attack since 7 April. The commander of the main Austrian force on the north bank of the Po, Johann Frimont, decided to break out from his bridgehead at Occhiobello and drive Murat from his position, forcing him to lift the Siege of Ferrara.

The Battle of Occhiobello was fought on 8 April – 9 April 1815 and was the turning point of the Neapolitan War. Joachim Murat, King of Naples was repulsed by an Austrian force under the command of Johann Frimont whilst trying to cross the bridge over the Po River at Occhiobello. Following the battle, the Austrians would not lose an engagement for the remainder of the war.

Johann Maria Philipp Frimont Austrian general

Johann Maria Philipp Frimont, Count of Palota, Prince of Antrodoco was an Austrian general.

Occhiobello Comune in Veneto, Italy

Occhiobello is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Rovigo in the Italian region Veneto, located about 80 kilometres (50 mi) southwest of Venice and about 25 kilometres (16 mi) southwest of Rovigo.

Murat had entrenched General Ambrosio's division on his right flank northwest of Ferrara, around the villages of Ravale and Casaglia. The Neapolitan garrison of Ravale was quickly routed on the morning of 12 April. On the same day, an Austrian column under the command of General Mohr, attacked a larger Neapolitan force entrenched in Casaglia. Following severe fighting in the village, the Austrians eventually broke the morale of the defenders and drove the Neapolitans from their positions by the evening. The Neapolitans suffered severe casualties as they retreated. The remainder of the force fell back on the road to Bologna with a large number deserting Murat's cause altogether. Mirandola fell the following day to the Austrians without major fighting and Murat was forced to retire from his defensive position, finally pulling his troops back from Ferrara.

Bologna Comune in Emilia-Romagna, Italy

Bologna is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna region in Northern Italy. It is the seventh most populous city in Italy, at the heart of a metropolitan area of about one million people.

Mirandola Comune in Emilia-Romagna, Italy

Mirandola is a city and comune of Emilia-Romagna, Italy, in the Province of Modena, 31 kilometres (19 mi) northeast of the provincial capital by railway.

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The Kingdom of Naples(Italian: Regno di Napoli) was a French client state in southern Italy created in 1806 when the Bourbon Ferdinand IV & VII of Naples and Sicily sided with the Third Coalition against Napoleon and was in return ousted from his kingdom by a French invasion. Joseph Bonaparte, elder brother of Napoleon I, was installed in his stead, he conferred the title "Prince of Naples" to be hereditary on his children and grandchildren. when Joseph became King of Spain in 1808, Napoleon appointed his brother-in-law Joachim Murat to take his place. Murat was later deposed by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 after striking at Austria in the Neapolitan War, in which he was decisively defeated at the Battle of Tolentino.

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