Battle of the Panaro

Last updated
Battle of the Panaro
Part of the Neapolitan War
Date3 April 1815
Location
Castelfranco Emilia, present-day Italy
Result Neapolitan victory
Belligerents
Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy.svg  Austrian Empire Flag of the Kingdom of Naples (1811).svg  Kingdom of Naples
Commanders and leaders
Frederick Bianchi Joachim Murat
Michele Carrascosa
Pietro Colletta
Strength
6,600 (all engaged) 40,000 (7,000 engaged)
Casualties and losses
461 409

The Battle of the Panaro (or Modena or Castelfranco) was a victory for King Joachim Murat's Neapolitan forces over a smaller Austrian force under Frederick Bianchi on 3 April 1815 early in the Neapolitan War. This defeat on the banks on the Panaro River, just south of Modena forced the Austrians to retreat behind the Po River.

Joachim Murat Grand Duke of Berg and King of Naples

Joachim-Napoléon Murat was a Marshal of France and Admiral of France under the reign of Napoleon. He was also the 1st Prince Murat, Grand Duke of Berg from 1806 to 1808, and King of Naples from 1808 to 1815. Murat received his titles in part by being Napoleon's brother-in-law through marriage to his younger sister, Caroline Bonaparte, as well as personal merit. He was noted as a daring, brave, and charismatic cavalry officer as well as a flamboyant dresser, for which he was known as "the Dandy King".

Austria Federal republic in Central Europe

Austria, formal name: the Republic of Austria, is a country in Central Europe comprising nine federated states. Its capital, largest city and one of nine states is Vienna. Austria has an area of 83,879 km2 (32,386 sq mi), a population of nearly nine million people and a nominal GDP of $477 billion. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Hungary and Slovakia to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The terrain is landlocked and highly mountainous, lying within the Alps; only 32% of the country is below 500 m (1,640 ft), and its highest point is 3,798 m (12,461 ft). The majority of the population speaks local Bavarian dialects as their native language, and German in its standard form is the country's official language. Other regional languages are Hungarian, Burgenland Croatian, and Slovene.

Frederick Bianchi, Duke of Casalanza Austrian general

Frederick Bianchi, Duke of Casalanza, was an Austrian general and later field marshal.

Contents

Background

When Naples declared war on Austria, Austrian troops were still gathering in Lombardy. Only a small force of about 6,600 men commanded by General Bianchi, who was stationed in the Duchy of Modena, were in position to check the Neapolitan advance. Murat with his main army of around 40,000 men had already established a main headquarters in Ancona and were marching north. Following a minor skirmish on 30 March near Cesena, the Austrians under Bianchi fell back to a new defensive line behind the Panaro River. This allowed the Neapolitans to capture Bologna on 2 April, from where they prepared another assault on the Austrians.

Ancona Comune in Marche, Italy

Ancona is a city and a seaport in the Marche region in central Italy, with a population of around 101,997 as of 2015. Ancona is the capital of the province of Ancona and of the region. The city is located 280 km (170 mi) northeast of Rome, on the Adriatic Sea, between the slopes of the two extremities of the promontory of Monte Conero, Monte Astagno and Monte Guasco.

Cesena Comune in Emilia-Romagna, Italy

Cesena (Italian pronunciation: [tʃeˈzɛːna]; Romagnol: Cisêna, is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region, served by Autostrada A14, and located near the Apennine Mountains, about 15 kilometres from the Adriatic Sea. The total population is 97,137.

Bologna Comune in Emilia-Romagna, Italy

Bologna is the capital and largest city of the Emilia-Romagna region in Northern Italy. It is the seventh most populous city in Italy, at the heart of a metropolitan area of about one million people.

Battle

On 3 April, one day after capturing Bologna, a Neapolitan division under the command of Michele Carrascosa attempted to cross the Panaro. After being driven back from two other bridges, the Neapolitans finally crossed the Panaro at Castelfranco Emilia and made a sweeping charge on Bianchi's position. As heavy fighting continued in the center of the Austrian position, Murat ordered a column under General Colletta to sweep left and push on the Austrian fight flank. Outnumbered, the Austrian right flank was turned and Bianchi was compelled to sound the retreat. With more Neapolitan troops arriving from Bologna, the Austrian retreated back to their lands behind the Po River. Following the battle, Carascosa and his troops immediately occupied the major towns of the Duchy of Modena: Modena, Reggio Emilia and Carpi.

Michele Carrascosa (1774–1853) was a Neapolitan general and politician.

Castelfranco Emilia Comune in Emilia-Romagna, Italy

Castelfranco Emilia is a town and comune in the Modena, Emilia-Romagna, northern-central Italy. The town lies about 25 kilometres (16 mi) northwest of Bologna.

Pietro Colletta Italian general

Pietro Colletta was a Neapolitan general and historian, entered the Neapolitan artillery in 1796 and took part in the campaign against the French in 1798.

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References

Coordinates: 44°37′22.71″N10°59′50.33″E / 44.6229750°N 10.9973139°E / 44.6229750; 10.9973139

Geographic coordinate system Coordinate system

A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.