Battle of Scapezzano

Last updated
Battle of Scapezzano
Part of the Neapolitan War
Date1 May 1815
Location
West of Senigallia, present-day Italy
Result Austrian victory
Belligerents
Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy.svg  Austrian Empire Flag of the Kingdom of Naples (1811).svg  Kingdom of Naples
Commanders and leaders
Adam Albert von Neipperg Michele Carrascosa
Strength
15,300 8,256 men
240 horses
10 guns
Casualties and losses
light light

The Battle of Scapezzano was a short engagement in the Neapolitan War on 1 May 1815 between an Austrian corps under Adam Albert von Neipperg and Neapolitan division under Michele Carrascosa.

Neapolitan War conflict

The Neapolitan War was a conflict between the Napoleonic Kingdom of Naples and the Austrian Empire. It started on 15 March 1815 when King Joachim Murat declared war on Austria and ended on 20 May 1815 with the signing of the Treaty of Casalanza. The war occurred during the Hundred Days between Napoleon's return from exile and before he left Paris to be decisively defeated at the Battle of Waterloo. The war was triggered by a pro-Napoleon uprising in Naples, and ended with a decisive Austrian victory at the Battle of Tolentino after which Bourbon monarch Ferdinand IV was reinstated as King of Naples and Sicily. However, the intervention by Austria caused resentment in Italy, which further spurred on the drive towards Italian unification.

Austrian Empire monarchy in Central Europe between 1804 and 1867


The Austrian Empire was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1867, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs. During its existence, it was the third most populous empire after the Russian Empire and the United Kingdom in Europe. Along with Prussia, it was one of the two major powers of the German Confederation. Geographically, it was the third largest empire in Europe after the Russian Empire and the First French Empire. Proclaimed in response to the First French Empire, it partially overlapped with the Holy Roman Empire until the latter's dissolution in 1806.

Corps military unit size

Corps is a term used for several different kinds of organisation. A military innovation by Napoleon, the formation was first named as such in 1805.

By May 1815, the war had turned against the Neapolitans and Murat had been driven back to his original headquarters in Ancona. However, the two pursuing Austrian corps under the command of Neipperg and Bianchi had become separated by the Apennine Mountains. Neipperg's force of 15,300 had directly followed the retreating Neapolitans along the Adriatic coast, whilst Bianchi's force of 12,000 had marched on Foligno, in the centre of Italy, to cut off the line of retreat back to Naples. Murat, who now had over 30,000 men in Ancona, hoped to turn and defeat one Austrian corps before the two forces could join together.

Ancona Comune in Marche, Italy

Ancona is a city and a seaport in the Marche region in central Italy, with a population of around 101,997 as of 2015. Ancona is the capital of the province of Ancona and of the region. The city is located 280 km (170 mi) northeast of Rome, on the Adriatic Sea, between the slopes of the two extremities of the promontory of Monte Conero, Monte Astagno and Monte Guasco.

Frederick Bianchi, Duke of Casalanza Austrian general

Frederick Bianchi, Duke of Casalanza, was an Austrian general and later field marshal.

Apennine Mountains mountain range stretching 1000 km from the north to the south of Italy along its east coast, traversing the entire peninsula, and forming the backbone of the country

The Apennines or Apennine Mountains are a mountain range consisting of parallel smaller chains extending c. 1,200 km (750 mi) along the length of peninsular Italy. In the northwest they join with the Ligurian Alps at Altare. In the southwest they end at Reggio di Calabria, the coastal city at the tip of the peninsula. Since 2000 the Environment Ministry of Italy, following the recommendations of the Apennines Park of Europe Project, has been defining the Apennines System to include the mountains of north Sicily, for a total distance of 1,500 kilometres (930 mi). The system forms an arc enclosing the east side of the Ligurian and Tyrrhenian Seas.

Murat decided to send his main force against Bianchi and chose an area around Tolentino, west of Ancona to give battle. He dispatched a division under Carascosa north along the Adriatic coast to hold Neipperg until Bianchi had been defeated. However, following intense manoeuvring and a few small skirmishes, the Neapolitans were in danger of becoming surrounded and retreated in an orderly fashion. This allowed Neipperg to threaten the main Neapolitan force under Joachim Murat engaged at the Battle of Tolentino. This engagement eventually resulted in a decisive victory for the Austrians, and the war soon ended with the Treaty of Casalanza on 20 May.

Tolentino Comune in Marche, Italy

Tolentino is a town and comune of about 20,000 inhabitants, in the province of Macerata in the Marche region of central Italy.

Joachim Murat Grand Duke of Berg and King of Naples

Joachim-Napoléon Murat was a Marshal of France and Admiral of France under the reign of Napoleon. He was also the 1st Prince Murat, Grand Duke of Berg from 1806 to 1808, and King of Naples from 1808 to 1815. Murat received his titles in part by being Napoleon's brother-in-law through marriage to his younger sister, Caroline Bonaparte, as well as personal merit. He was noted as a daring, brave, and charismatic cavalry officer as well as a flamboyant dresser, for which he was known as "the Dandy King".

Battle of Tolentino battle

The Battle of Tolentino was fought from 2–3 May 1815 near Tolentino, Kingdom of Naples in what is now Marche, Italy: it was the decisive battle in the Neapolitan War, fought by the Napoleonic King of Naples Joachim Murat to keep the throne after the Congress of Vienna. The battle was similar to the Battle of Waterloo. Both occurred during the Hundred Days following Napoleon's return from exile and resulted in a decisive victory for the Seventh Coalition, leading to the restoration of a Bourbon king.

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Kingdom of Naples (Napoleonic) Former country, established in 1805 as Napoleonic client state and dissolved in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna

The Kingdom of Naples(Italian: Regno di Napoli) was a French client state in southern Italy created in 1806 when the Bourbon Ferdinand IV & VII of Naples and Sicily sided with the Third Coalition against Napoleon and was in return ousted from his kingdom by a French invasion. Joseph Bonaparte, elder brother of Napoleon I, was installed in his stead, he conferred the title "Prince of Naples" to be hereditary on his children and grandchildren. when Joseph became King of Spain in 1808, Napoleon appointed his brother-in-law Joachim Murat to take his place. Murat was later deposed by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 after striking at Austria in the Neapolitan War, in which he was decisively defeated at the Battle of Tolentino.

References

Coordinates: 43°43′13″N13°10′12″E / 43.7204°N 13.170006°E / 43.7204; 13.170006

Geographic coordinate system Coordinate system

A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.