Treaty of Paris (1814)

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The Treaty of Paris, signed on 30 May 1814, ended the war between France and the Sixth Coalition, part of the Napoleonic Wars, following an armistice signed on 23 April between Charles, Count of Artois, and the allies. [1] The treaty set the borders for France under the House of Bourbon and restored territories to other nations. It is sometimes called the First Peace of Paris, as another one followed in 1815.

Bourbon Restoration Period of French history, 1814-1830

The Bourbon Restoration was the period of French history following the first fall of Napoleon in 1814, and his final defeat in the Hundred Days in 1815, until the July Revolution of 1830. The brothers of the executed Louis XVI came to power, and reigned in highly conservative fashion; exiled supporters of the monarchy returned to France. They were nonetheless unable to reverse most of the changes made by the French Revolution and Napoleon. At the Congress of Vienna they were treated respectfully, but had to give up nearly all the territorial gains made since 1789.

Napoleonic Wars Series of early 19th century European wars

The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom. The wars stemmed from the unresolved disputes associated with the French Revolution and its resultant conflict. The wars are often categorised into five conflicts, each termed after the coalition that fought Napoleon: the Third Coalition (1805), the Fourth (1806–07), the Fifth (1809), the Sixth (1813), and the Seventh (1815).

Charles X of France King of France and of Navarre

Charles X was King of France from 16 September 1824 until 2 August 1830. For most of his life he was known as the Count of Artois. An uncle of the uncrowned Louis XVII and younger brother to reigning kings Louis XVI and Louis XVIII, he supported the latter in exile. After the Bourbon Restoration in 1814, Charles became the leader of the ultra-royalists, a radical monarchist faction within the French court that affirmed rule by divine right and opposed the concessions towards liberals and guarantees of civil liberties granted by the Charter of 1814. Charles gained influence within the French court after the assassination of his son Charles Ferdinand, Duke of Berry, in 1820 and eventually succeeded his brother in 1824.

Contents

Parties to the treaty

This treaty signed on 30 May 1814, following an armistice signed on 23 April 1814 between Charles, Count of Artois, and the allies. [1] Napoleon had abdicated as Emperor on 13 April, as a result of negotiations at Fontainebleau.

Treaty of Fontainebleau (1814) 1814 treaty that exiled Napoleon to Elba

The Treaty of Fontainebleau was an agreement established in Fontainebleau, France, on 11 April 1814 between Napoleon I and representatives from the Austrian Empire, Russia and Prussia. The treaty was signed at Paris on 11 April by the plenipotentiaries of both sides and ratified by Napoleon on 13 April. With this treaty, the allies ended Napoleon's rule as emperor of France and sent him into exile on Elba.

Peace talks had started on 9 May between Talleyrand, who negotiated with the allies of Chaumont on behalf of the exiled Bourbon king Louis XVIII of France, and the allies. The Treaty of Paris established peace between France and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Russia, Austria, and Prussia, who in March had defined their common war aim in Chaumont. [2] The Treaty was also signed by Portugal and Sweden while Spain signed shortly after in July. [3] The allied parties did not sign a common document, but instead concluded separate treaties with France allowing for specific amendments. [3]

Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord French diplomat

Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, 1st Prince of Benevento, then 1st Prince of Talleyrand, was a French politician and diplomat. After theology studies, he became in 1780 Agent-General of the Clergy and represented the Catholic Church to the French Crown. He worked at the highest levels of successive French governments, most commonly as foreign minister or in some other diplomatic capacity. His career spanned the regimes of Louis XVI, the years of the French Revolution, Napoleon, Louis XVIII, and Louis-Philippe. Those he served often distrusted Talleyrand but, like Napoleon, found him extremely useful. The name "Talleyrand" has become a byword for crafty, cynical diplomacy.

Louis XVIII of France Bourbon King of France and of Navarre

Louis XVIII, known as "the Desired", was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1814 to 1824, except for a period in 1815 known as the Hundred Days. He spent twenty-three years in exile, from 1791 to 1814, during the French Revolution and the First French Empire, and again in 1815, during the period of the Hundred Days, upon the return of Napoleon I from Elba.

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Historical sovereign state from 1801 to 1927

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.

New borders of France

A map of the Eastern boundary of France to illustrate Article III in The First Peace of Paris 30th May 1814. A map of the Eastern boundary of France to illustrate Article III in The First Peace of Paris 30th May 1814.jpg
A map of the Eastern boundary of France to illustrate Article III in The First Peace of Paris 30th May 1814.
South-east frontier of France after the Treaty of Paris, 1814. South-east frontier of France after the Treaty of Paris, 1814.jpg
South-east frontier of France after the Treaty of Paris, 1814.

The allies had agreed to reduce France to her 1792 borders and restore the independence of her neighbors after Napoleon Bonaparte's defeat. [2]

Plan for Congress of Vienna

In addition to the cessation of hostilities, the treaty provided a rough draft of a final settlement, which according to article 32 was to be concluded within the next two months at a congress involving all belligerents of the Napoleonic Wars. [4] This provision resulted in the Congress of Vienna, held between September 1814 and June 1815. [5]

Congress of Vienna conference of ambassadors of European states

The Congress of Vienna, also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814. The objective of the Congress was to provide a long-term peace plan for Europe by settling critical issues arising from the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. The goal was not simply to restore old boundaries but to resize the main powers so they could balance each other and remain at peace. The leaders were conservatives with little use for republicanism or revolution, both of which threatened to upset the status quo in Europe. France lost all its recent conquests while Prussia, Austria and Russia made major territorial gains. Prussia added smaller German states in the west, Swedish Pomerania and 60% of the Kingdom of Saxony; Austria gained Venice and much of northern Italy. Russia gained parts of Poland. The new Kingdom of the Netherlands had been created just months before, and included formerly Austrian territory that in 1830 became Belgium.

The preliminary conditions already agreed in Paris were moderate for France so as not to disturb the re-enthronement of the returned Bourbon king: France's borders of 1 June 1792 were confirmed, and in addition, she was allowed to retain Saarbrücken, Saarlouis, Landau, the County of Montbéliard, part of Savoy with Annecy and Chambéry, also Avignon and the Comtat Venaissin as well as artifacts acquired during the war, while on the other hand she had to cede several colonies. [2]

Saarbrücken Place in Saarland, Germany

Saarbrücken is the capital and largest city of the state of Saarland, Germany. Saarbrücken is Saarland's administrative, commercial and cultural centre and is next to the French border.

Saarlouis Place in Saarland, Germany

Saarlouis is a city in the Saarland, (Germany), capital of the district of Saarlouis. In 2017, the town had a population of 34,758. Saarlouis, as the name implies, is located on the River Saar. It was built as a fortress in 1680 and named after Louis XIV of France.

Landau Place in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany

Landau, or Landau in der Pfalz, is an autonomous (kreisfrei) town surrounded by the Südliche Weinstraße district of southern Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It is a university town, a long-standing cultural centre, and a market and shopping town, surrounded by vineyards and wine-growing villages of the Palatinate wine region. Landau lies east of the Palatinate forest, Europe's largest contiguous forest, on the German Wine Route.

To distinguish this agreement from a second treaty of Paris, concluded on 20 November 1815 as one of the treaties amending Vienna, [6] the treaty of 30 May 1814 is sometimes referred to as the First Peace of Paris. [2] [4]

Territories of other nations

The treaty reapportioned several territories amongst various countries. Most notably, France retained all territory that it possessed on 1 January 1792 and so reacquired many of the territories lost to Britain during the war. They included Guadeloupe (Art. IX), which had been ceded to Sweden by Britain when it entered the coalition. In return, Sweden was compensated 24 million francs, which gave rise to the Guadeloupe Fund. The only exceptions were Tobago, St. Lucia, Seychelles and Mauritius, all of which were handed over to British control. Britain kept sovereignty over the island of Malta (Art. VII). [7]

The treaty returned to Spain the territory of Santo Domingo, which had been transferred to France by the 1795 Peace of Basel in 1795 (Art. VIII). That implicitly recognised French sovereignty over Saint-Domingue, which Dessalines had proclaimed independent under the name of Haiti. France did not recognize the independence of Haiti until 1824. [8] [9] [10]

This treaty formally recognized the independence of Switzerland (Art. VI). [11]

House of Bourbon

The treaty recognised the Bourbon monarchy in France, in the person of Louis XVIII, because the treaty was between the Louis XVIII the king of France and the heads of states of the Coalition great powers (Preamble to the treaty).

Slave trade and slavery

The treaty aimed to abolish the French slave trade in France but not slavery over a five-year period (Additional Art. I). The territories of France were not included in this aim.

Aftermath

Several powers, despite the peaceful intentions of the treaty, still feared a reassertion of French power.[ citation needed ] The territories strengthened themselves for protection. William I of the House of Orange, was asked by the Netherlands, freed from the French empire by Prussians and Russians after Napoleon's loss at Leipzig in fall of 1813, to be their prince, which request he accepted in late 1813. This was a first step to what occurred in 1815 during the Congress of Vienna and simultaneously, Napoleon's Hundred Days. In March 1815, the United Kingdom of the Netherlands was formed, which added the former territory of the low countries that had been ruled by the Austrian Empire to the Netherlands, and had William I as its king. His son William joined the fighting at Waterloo, which battle site was located in the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. Though the Dutch initiated their request to William I, the great powers of the Napoleonic wars had made a secret pact to support a strong nation on that border with France with William as its king, in the Eight Articles of London, signed on 21 June 1814. Thus the action by the Dutch had the strong support of the United Kingdom and the other signatories of that pact.

Many German states had been consolidated by Napoleon, and retained that status after the Treaty of Paris of 1814. Prussia gained territory in western Germany, near the border with France, in a swap with William I of the Netherlands. In Italy, several different political entities were recognized.[ citation needed ]

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 Büsch 1992, p. 72.
  2. 1 2 3 4 Malettke 2009, p. 66.
  3. 1 2 Büsch 1992, p. 73.
  4. 1 2 Büsch 1992, pp. 73–74.
  5. Büsch 1992, p. 74.
  6. Büsch 1992, p. 81.
  7. Rudolf & Berg 2010, p. 11.
  8. "La première ambassade française en Haïti". Menu Contenu Plan du siteAmbassade de France à Port-au-Prince (in French). Government of France. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
  9. M. Degros, Création des postes diplomatiques et consulaires, Revue d’histoire diplomatique, 1986; in French
  10. J-F. Brière, Haïti et la France, 1804–1848: le rêve brisé, Paris, Karthala 2008; in French
  11. EB staff 2014.

Bibliography