Treaty of Paris (1815)

Last updated
Treaty of Paris
Typebilateral treaty
Signed20 November 1815 (1815-11-20)
Location Paris, France
Original
signatories
France, UK, Sweden, Prussia, Russia

Treaty of Paris of 1815, [1] was signed on 20 November 1815 following the defeat and second abdication of Napoleon Bonaparte. In February, Napoleon had escaped from his exile on Elba; he entered Paris on 20 March, beginning the Hundred Days of his restored rule. Four days after France's defeat in the Battle of Waterloo, Napoleon was persuaded to abdicate again, on 22 June. King Louis XVIII, who had fled the country when Napoleon arrived in Paris, took the throne for a second time on 8 July.

Elba Mediterranean island near Italy

Elba is a Mediterranean island in Tuscany, Italy, 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) from the coastal town of Piombino, and the largest island of the Tuscan Archipelago. It is also part of the Arcipelago Toscano National Park, and the third largest island in Italy, after Sicily and Sardinia. It is located in the Tyrrhenian Sea about 50 kilometres (30 mi) east of the French island of Corsica.

Hundred Days Period from Napoleons escape from Elba to the second restoration of King Louis XVIII

The Hundred Days marked the period between Napoleon's return from exile on the island of Elba to Paris on 20 March 1815 and the second restoration of King Louis XVIII on 8 July 1815. This period saw the War of the Seventh Coalition, and includes the Waterloo Campaign, the Neapolitan War as well as several other minor campaigns. The phrase les Cent Jours was first used by the prefect of Paris, Gaspard, comte de Chabrol, in his speech welcoming the king back to Paris on 8 July.

Battle of Waterloo Battle of the Napoleonic Wars in which Napoleon was defeated

The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday, 18 June 1815 near Waterloo in Belgium, part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands at the time. A French army under the command of Napoleon Bonaparte was defeated by two of the armies of the Seventh Coalition: a British-led allied army under the command of the Duke of Wellington, and a Prussian army under the command of Field Marshal Blücher. The battle marked the end of the Napoleonic Wars.

Contents

The 1815 treaty had more punitive terms than the treaty of the previous year. France was ordered to pay 700 million francs in indemnities, and the country's borders were reduced to their 1790 level. France was to pay additional money to cover the cost of providing additional defensive fortifications to be built by neighbouring Coalition countries. Under the terms of the treaty parts of France were to be occupied by up to 150,000 soldiers for five years, with France covering the cost; however, the Coalition occupation under the command of the Duke of Wellington was only deemed necessary for three years and the foreign troops pulled out in 1818 (see Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle). [2] [3]

The Treaty of Paris, signed on 30 May 1814, ended the war between France and the Sixth Coalition, part of the Napoleonic Wars, following an armistice signed on 23 April between Charles, Count of Artois, and the allies. The treaty set the borders for France under the House of Bourbon and restored territories to other nations. It is sometimes called the First Peace of Paris, as another one followed in 1815.

Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle (1818) event

The Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle, held in the autumn of 1818, was a high-level diplomatic meeting of France and the four allied powers Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia which had defeated it in 1814. The purpose was to decide the withdrawal of the army of occupation from France and renegotiate the reparations it owed. It produced an amicable settlement, whereby France refinanced its reparations debt, and the Allies in a few weeks withdrew all of their troops.

In addition to the definitive peace treaty between France and Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia, there were four additional conventions and the act confirming the neutrality of Switzerland signed on the same day. These were listed by the British Foreign office as: [4]

Contents:
  1. Definitive Treaty Paris, 20 November 1815
    Additional Article on the Slave Trade
  2. Convention on Pecuniary Indemnity
  3. Convention on Military Line
    Additional Article on Deserters
    Tariff on Provisions, Hospitals &c
  4. Convention on Private Claims upon France
    Additional Article on the Claim of the Cti. de Bentheim and Steinfurtft.
    Separate Article between Russia and France.
    Claim of the Duchy of Warsaw
  5. Convention on Claims of British Subjects
    Additional Article—Bourdeaux Claims
    Notification—Period for presenting Claims
  6. Act on the Neutrality of Switzerland

Definitive Treaty

A map of the Eastern boundary of France to illustrate The Second Peace of Paris 20th Nov. 1815 A map of the Eastern boundary of France to illustrate The Second Peace of Paris 20th Nov 1815.jpg
A map of the Eastern boundary of France to illustrate The Second Peace of Paris 20th Nov. 1815
South-east frontier of France after the Treaty of Paris, 1815 South-east frontier of France after the Treaty of Paris, 1815.jpg
South-east frontier of France after the Treaty of Paris, 1815

The 1815 peace treaties were drawn up entirely in French, the lingua franca of contemporary diplomacy. There were four treaties, between France and each of the four major Seventh Coalition powers: Austria, Great Britain, Prussia and Russia. All four treaties were signed on the same day (20 November 1815), had verbatim stipulations, and were styled the same way (for example the "Definitive Treaty between Great Britain and France"). [4]

French language Romance language

French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.

Lingua franca languages used to facilitate trade between groups without a common native language

A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vehicular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between groups of people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both of the speakers' native languages.

The treaty was harsher towards France than the Treaty of 1814, which had been negotiated through the manoeuvre of Talleyrand, because of reservations raised by the recent widespread support for Napoleon in France. France lost the territorial gains of the Revolutionary armies in 1790–92, which the previous treaty had allowed France to keep; the nation was reduced to its 1790 boundaries (plus the enclaves of the Comtat Venaissin and the County of Montbéliard, which France was allowed to keep). [5] France was now also ordered to pay 700 million francs in indemnities, in five yearly instalments, [6] and to maintain at its own expense a Coalition army of occupation of 150,000 soldiers [7] in the eastern border territories of France, from the English Channel to the border with Switzerland, for a maximum of five years. [8] The twofold purpose of the military occupation was rendered self-evident by the convention annexed to the treaty outlining the incremental terms by which France would issue negotiable bonds covering the indemnity: in addition to safeguarding the neighboring states from a revival of revolution in France, it guaranteed fulfilment of the treaty's financial clauses. [9]

Comtat Venaissin countship

The Comtat Venaissin, often called the Comtat for short, was a part of the Papal States in what is now the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region of France.

County of Montbéliard

The County of Montbéliard, was a feudal county of the Holy Roman Empire seated in the city of Montbéliard in the present-day Franche-Comté region of France. From 1444 onwards it was held by the House of Württemberg.

English Channel Arm of the Atlantic Ocean that separates southern England from northern France

The English Channel, also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates Southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean. It is the busiest shipping area in the world.

Although some of the Allies, notably Prussia, initially demanded that France cede significant territory in the East, rivalry among the powers and the general desire to secure the Bourbon restoration made the peace settlement less onerous than it might have been.[ citation needed ] The treaty was signed for Great Britain by Lord Castlereagh and the Duke of Wellington and by the duc de Richelieu for France; parallel treaties with France were signed by Austria, Russia, and Prussia, forming in effect the first confederation of Europe. The Quadruple Alliance was reinstated in a separate treaty also signed 20 November 1815, introducing a new concept in European diplomacy, the peacetime congress "for the maintenance of peace in Europe" [10] on the pattern of the Congress of Vienna, which had concluded 9 June 1815.

Kingdom of Prussia Former German state (1701–1918)

The Kingdom of Prussia was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918. It was the driving force behind the unification of Germany in 1871 and was the leading state of the German Empire until its dissolution in 1918. Although it took its name from the region called Prussia, it was based in the Margraviate of Brandenburg, where its capital was Berlin.

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Historical sovereign state from 1801 to 1921

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was a sovereign state established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.

The treaty is brief. In addition to having "preserved France and Europe from the convulsions with which they were menaced by the late enterprise of Napoleon Bonaparte", [10] the signers of the Treaty also repudiated "the revolutionary system reproduced in France". [10]

The treaty is presented "in the desire to consolidate, by maintaining inviolate the Royal authority, and by restoring the operation of the Constitutional Charter, the order of things which had been happily re-established in France". The Constitutional Charter that is referred to so hopefully, was the Constitution of 1791, promulgated under the Ancien régime at the outset of the Revolution. Its provisions for the government of France would rapidly fall by the wayside, "notwithstanding the paternal intentions of her King" as the treaty remarks. The first Treaty of Paris, of 30 May 1814, and the Final Act of the Congress of Vienna, of 9 June 1815, were confirmed. On the same day, in a separate document, Great Britain, Russia, Austria, and Prussia renewed the Quadruple Alliance. The princes and free towns, who were not signatories, were invited to accede to its terms, [11] whereby the treaty became a part of the public law by which Europe, with the exclusion of Ottoman Turkey, [12] established "relations from which a system of real and permanent balance of power in Europe is to be derived". [13]

Additional Article on the Slave Trade

An additional article appended to the Definitive Peace Treaty addressed the issue of slavery. It reaffirmed the Declaration of the Powers, on the Abolition of the Slave Trade, of 8th of February 1815 (Which also formed ACT, No. XV. of the Final Act of the Congress of Vienna) and added that the governments of the contracting parties should "without loss of time, ... [find] the most effectual measures for the entire and definitive abolition of a Commerce so odious, and so strongly condemned by the laws of religion and of nature". [14] [15]

Convention on Pecuniary Indemnity

The convention on pecuniary indemnity regulated the mode of liquidating the indemnity of 700 millions francs to be paid by France, in conformity to the fourth article of the treaty. The sum was to be paid, day by day, in equal portions, in the space of five years, from 1 December 1815. [16]

Thus, France had to pay on account of this convention, 383,251 francs every day for five years; equal to about 16,000 pounds sterling at the exchange rate of the day. [16] For this daily quota, the French government had to give assignations on the French treasury, payable to bearer, day by day. In the first instance, however, the Coalition Commissioners were to receive the whole of the 700 million in fifteen bonds of 46⅔ million each; the first of which was payable on 31 March 1816, the second on 21 July 1816, and so on, every fourth month. In the month preceding the commencement of each of these four monthly periods, France was to redeem successively one of these bonds for 46⅔ millions, by exchanging it against the first-mentioned daily assignations payable to bearer, which assignations, for the purpose of convenience and negotiability, were again subdivided into coupures , or sets of smaller sums. As a guarantee for the regular payment of these assignations, and to provide for deficiencies, France assigned, moreover, to the allies, a fund of interest, to be inscribed in the Grand Livre of her public debt, of seven millions francs on a capital of 140 millions. A liquidation was to take place every six months, when the assignations duly discharged by the French Treasury were to be received as payments to their amount, and the deficiency arising from assignations not honoured would be made good, with interest, at five percent from the fund of interest inscribed in the Grand Livre, in a manner specified in this convention. [16]

The distribution of the sum among the Coalition Powers, agreed to be paid by France in this convention, was regulated by a separate convention, (the Protocol for the pecuniary indemnity to be furnished by France and the Table of allotment): [16]

StateFrancsTotal
Austria100,000,000
Russia100,000,000
Great Britain100,000,000
Prussia100,000,000
Subtotal400,000,000
StateMenFrancs
The German States, together with the Netherlands and Sardinia, a like sum of 100 million, to be shared at the rate of 425 francs 89 centimes and a fraction for each man furnished by them respectively: [17]
Bavaria 60,00025,517,798
Netherlands 50,00021,264,832
Württemberg 20,0008,505,932
Baden 16,0006,804,746
Saxony 16,0006,804,746
Sardinia 15,0006,379,419
Hessen-Kassel 12,0005,103,559
Hanover 10,0004,252,966
Hesse Darmstadt 8,0003,408,373
Mecklenburg Schwerin 3,2001,616,127
Nassau 3,0001,275,889
Brunswick 3,0001,275,889
Hanse Towns 3,0001,275,889
Saxe-Gotha 2,200935,632
Saxe-Weimar 1,600680,474
Anhalt 1,600680,474
Oldenburg 1,600680,474
Schwarzburgh 1,300552,885
Lippe 1,300552,885
Reuss 900382,766
Mecklenburg-Strelitz 800340,837
Saxe Coburg 800340,837
Waldeck 800340,837
Frankfurt 750318,972
Saxe-Meiningen 600255,177
Saxe-Hildburghausen 400170,118
Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen 386164,164
Hohenzollern-Hechingen 19482,507
Liechtenstein 10042,529
Subtotal234,530100,000,000
StateFrancs
Spain5,000,000
Portugal2,000,000
Denmark2,500,000
Switzerland3,000,000
Subtotal12,500,000
Gratuity to the British and Prussian armies under Wellington and Blücher, for their exertions at Waterloo and their conquest of Paris, 25 millions each50,000,000
StateFrancs
For the erection of fortresses against France:
Netherlands60,000,000
Prussia (besides Saarlouis, valued at 50 mill.)20,000,000
Bavaria15,000,000
Spain7,500,000
Sardinia10,000,000
To strengthen Mainz 5,000,000
To erect a new fortress of the German Confederacy on the Upper Rhine [18] 20,000,000
Subtotal137,500,000
Total in francs700,000,000

Convention on the Military Line

The convention on the military line regulated all matters concerning the temporary occupation of the frontiers of France by a Coalition army of 150,000 men, conforming to Article V of the definitive treaty. The military line to be occupied, would extend along the frontiers which separated the departments of the Pas de Calais, of the North of the Ardennes, of the Meuse, of the Moselle, of the Lower Rhine, and of the Upper Rhine, from the interior of France. [19]

It was also agreed that neither the Coalition nor the French troops would occupy (unless for particular reasons and by mutual agreement), the following territories and districts: [19]

NameMenNameMen
Calais 1000 Dunkirk and its forts1000
Gravelines 500 Douai and Fort de Scarpe 1000
Bergues 500 Verdun 500
Saint-Omer 1500 Metz 3000
Béthune 500 Lauterbourg 150
Montreuil 500 Wissembourg 150
Hesdin 250 Lichtenberg 150
Ardres 150 Petite Pierre 100
Aire 500 Phalsbourg 600
Arras 1000 Strasbourg 3000
Boulogne 300 Sélestat 1000
Saint-Venant 300 Neuf-Brisach and Fort Mortier 1000
Lille 3000 Belfort 1000

Within the line occupied by the Coalition army, 26 fortresses were allowed to have garrisons (see he table on the right), but without any materiel or equipment of artillery and engineer stores. [19]

France was to supply all the wants of the 150,000 allied troops who remained in the country. Lodging, fuel, light, provisions, and forage were to be furnished in kind, to an extent not exceeding 200,000 daily rations for men, and 50,000 daily rations for horses; and for pay, equipment, clothing, &c. [19]

France was to pay to the allies 50 millions francs per annum during the five-year occupation: the allies, however, were content with only 30 million, on account, for the first year. The territories and fortresses definitively ceded by France, as well as the fortresses to be provisionally occupied by the Coalition troops for five years, were to be given up to them within ten days from the signature of the principal treaty, and all the Coalition forces, except 150,000 which were to remain, were to evacuate France within 21 days from that date. [19]

The direct expense entailed upon France by this convention greatly exceed the amount of the indemnity of 700 million. Estimating the value of the soldier's portion and allowances at 1½ francs, and the cavalry ration at 2 francs, the annual cost of the deliveries in kind for 200,000 portions and 50,000 rations would have been 146 million in francs, which, with the addition of 50 million franc of money per annum, formed a total of 196 million francs per annum, equal to 22,370 sterling per day at the exchange rate of the time. [19]

Convention on Private Claims upon France

The convention on private claims upon France assured the payment of money due by France to the subjects of the Coalition powers, in conformity with the treaty of 1814 and to the Article VIII of the 1815 peace treaty. There were twenty-six articles in the convention which: [19]

All these claims were to be sent in within a year after the ratification of the treaty or they would be voided (Article XVI), and committees for their liquidation were to be appointed.

Articles XVII–XIX, related to the payment of the claims and their inscription in the Grand Livre (general ledger). The claims under this convention were immense, so it is totally impossible when the convention was signed for the parties to have a clear idea of the amount. As a guarantee of payment, Article XX provided that a capital, bearing 3½ millions of francs in interest, be inscribed in the Grand Livre, the interest of which is to be received half yearly by joint-commissioners. [19]

Convention on Claims of British Subjects

The fourth convention related exclusively to the liquidation of the claims of British subjects on the government of France, in conformity with the Paris peace treaty of 1814, and the Article VIII of the Paris Peace Treaty of 1815. All British subjects who, since 1 January 1791, had suffered loss of property in France, by sequestration or confiscation by the French Government, were to be indemnified. The amount of permanent stock lost was to be inscribed in the Grand Livre, and to bear interest from 22 March 1816; excepting, however, such holders as had, since 1797, voluntarily submitted to receive their dividends at a third. The same was to be the case in regard to former life annuities from the French government. [24]

Indemnification was further granted for the loss of immovable property by sequestration, confiscation, or sale; and particular regulations were laid down for ascertaining its value in the fairest possible manner. A separate account was to be kept of arrears that had accrued for all types of property, for which arrears were to be calculated at an interest of four percent per annum. Movable properly, lost through the above causes, was also to be paid for by inscriptions according to its value, with interest calculated on it at three percent per annum. From this indemnity, however, were excluded ships, cargoes, and other movable property seized in conformity to the laws of war and the prohibitory decrees. All claims of the above, or any other description, were to be given in, within three months after the date of the signing fourth convention (20 November 1815) from Europe, six months from the western colonies, and twelve months from the East Indies, &c. [24]

The claims were to be examined and decided on by a mixed commission of liquidation: and, if their votes were equal, an arbitrator would be chosen by lot from a mixed commission of arbitration. As a guarantee for the payment of claims sanctioned under this convention, there was to be inscribed in the Grand Livre, before 1 January 1816, a capital bearing 3½ millions francs of interest, in the name of a further mixed commission of English and French officers, who were to receive such interest; without, however, disposing of the same otherwise than by placing it in the public funds, at accumulating interest for the benefit of the creditors. As soon as the inscription had been effected, Britain would restore the French colonies as agreed in the treaty of 1814, including the islands of Martinique and Guadeloupe, provisionally re-occupied by the British troops. [24]

Act on the Neutrality of Switzerland

The Swiss Confederation had been internationally recognised as an independent neutral state at the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. During the Napoleonic Wars it failed to remain neutral, as some cantons had been annexed into other states and, under French influence, the Act of Mediation was signed and the Swiss Confederation was replaced by the more centralised Helvetic Republic which was allied to France. With the fall of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1814, the Cantons of Switzerland started the process of constructing a new, less centralised constitution. [25]

On 20 March 1815, at the Congress of Vienna, the European powers (Austria, France, Great Britain, Portugal, Prussia, Russia, Spain and Sweden) agreed to recognise permanently an independent, neutral Switzerland, and on 27 May Switzerland acceded to this declaration.

However, during Napoleon's Hundred Days the Seventh Coalition suspended the signing of the Act of Acknowledgement and Guarantee of the perpetual Neutrality of Switzerland until after Napoleon Bonaparte was defeated — this allowed Coalition forces to pass through Swiss territory. So with Article 84 of the Final Act of the Congress of Vienna dated 20 November 1815, the four major Coalition powers (Austria, Great Britain, Prussia and Russia) and France gave their formal and authentic acknowledgement of the perpetual neutrality of Switzerland. [25] [26]

See also

Notes

  1. Also known as the Second Treaty of Paris
  2. Tombs 1996, p. 337.
  3. EM staff 1918, p. 161.
  4. 1 2 Great Britain Foreign Office 1838 , p.  .
  5. Michael G. Fry, Erik Goldstein and Richard Langhorne, Guide to International Relations and Diplomacy, "The Congress and Concert of Europe, 1814–1830" p, 118.
  6. Article 9; the 1814 treaty had required only that France honour public and private debts incurred by the Napoleonic regime; see André Nicolle, "The Problem of Reparations after the Hundred Days" The Journal of Modern History25.4 (December 1953:343–354)
  7. Articles 4 and 5.
  8. The army of occupation and the Duke of Wellington's moderating transformation from soldier to statesman are discussed in Thomas Dwight Veve, The Duke of Wellington and the British Army of Occupation in France, 1815–1818 (Westport CT:Greenwood Press) 1992.
  9. A point made by Nicolle 1953:344.
  10. 1 2 3 British and Foreign State Papers, p.281
  11. Act of the Congress of Vienna, Article 119.
  12. Turkey had been excluded from the Congress of Vienna by the express wish of Russia (K. Strupp, et al., Wörterbuch des Völkerrechts, (Berlin, 1960-62) s.v. "Wiener Kongress").
  13. The wording is from the 20 May 1814 treaty, quoted in Hugh McKinnon Wood, "The Treaty of Paris and Turkey's Status in International Law" The American Journal of International Law37.2 (April 1943:262–274) p 263 and note 6; Wood's main subject is the Treaty of Paris (1856), terminating the Crimean War.
  14. The Parliamentary Debates from the Year 1803 to the Present Time, Published by s.n., 1816 Volume 32. p. 200
  15. British and Foreign State Papers, p. 292
  16. 1 2 3 4 Staff. The European Magazine, and London Review, Philological Society (Great Britain), January 1918 pp. 159,160
  17. To divide up the sum of 100 million more precisely for this number of men the payment would be 426 francs 38.50 cents per man.
  18. Delayed until after the 1840 Rhine crisis. In 1841 the German Confederacy decided to erect two fortresses in Rastatt and Ulm.
  19. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Staff. The European Magazine, and London Review, Philological Society (Great Britain), January 1918 p. 161
  20. The Gentleman's Magazine, Volume 84, Part 2, F. Jefferies, 1814. p. 175
  21. Arthur Wellesley 2nd Duke of Wellington, John Gurwood. The Dispatches of Field Marshal the Duke of Wellington, K.G.: During His Various Campaigns in India, Denmark, Portugal, Spain, the Low Countries, and France, J. Murray, 1838 pp. 159–161
  22. Joseph Blunt . The American Annual Register, G. & C. Carvill, 1835. p. 208
  23. Executive Documents: 13th Congress, 2d Session–49th Congress, 1st Session, United States Congress, 1832. p. 73
  24. 1 2 3 Staff. The European Magazine, and London Review, Philological Society (Great Britain), January 1918 pp. 161–162
  25. 1 2 Lassa Oppenheim, Ronald Roxburgh (2005). International Law, The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. ISBN   978-1-58477-609-3. p. 173
  26. The Parliamentary Debates from the Year 1803 to the Present Time, Volume 32 (1 February to 6 March 1816), Hansard, p. 308

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The Treaty of Chaumont was a series of separately signed but identically worded agreements between the Austrian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, the Russian Empire and the United Kingdom dated 1 March 1814, although the actual signings took place on 9 or 19 March. The treaty was intended to draw the powers of the Sixth Coalition into a closer alliance in the event that France rejected the peace terms they had recently offered. Each agreed to put 150,000 soldiers in the field against France and to guarantee the European peace against French aggression for twenty years.

Treaty of Fontainebleau (1814) 1814 treaty that exiled Napoleon to Elba

The Treaty of Fontainebleau was an agreement established in Fontainebleau, France, on 11 April 1814 between Napoleon I and representatives from the Austrian Empire, Russia and Prussia. The treaty was signed at Paris on 11 April by the plenipotentiaries of both sides and ratified by Napoleon on 13 April. With this treaty, the allies ended Napoleon's rule as emperor of France and sent him into exile on Elba.

Denmark–United Kingdom relations Diplomatic relations between the Kingdom of Denmark and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

British–Danish relations are foreign relations between the United Kingdom and Denmark. The United Kingdom has an embassy in Copenhagen and Denmark has an embassy in London. Both countries are full members of NATO and of the European Union, although the United Kingdom plans to leave the European Union.

First French Empire Empire of Napoleon I of France between 1804–1815

The First French Empire, officially the French Empire, was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. Although France had already established an overseas colonial empire beginning in the 17th century, the French state had remained a kingdom under the Bourbons and a republic after the Revolution. Historians refer to Napoleon's regime as the First Empire to distinguish it from the restorationist Second Empire (1852–1870) ruled by his nephew as Napoleon III.

Diplomatic timeline for 1815

Diplomatic timeline for 1815

Reduction of the French fortresses in 1815

After the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo and the advance on Paris by the Coalition armies during the months of June and July 1815, although they besieged and took some towns and fortresses as they advance, they bypassed many of them and detached forces to observe and reduce them. The last of the French fortresses did not capitulate until September of that year.

Treaty of Turin (1816)

The 1816 Treaty of Turin was a treaty between Switzerland and the Kingdom of Sardinia which expanded the Canton of Geneva.

Treaty of Schönbrunn (1805)

The Convention of Schönbrunn was signed between France and Prussia at Schönbrunn Palace in Vienna on 15 December 1805. The terms were negotiated by Géraud Duroc, who signed for France, and Christian Graf von Haugwitz, who signed for Prussia. The convention was superseded by the Treaty of Paris of 15 February 1806, which incorporated its main terms.

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