Longman

Last updated

Pearson Longman
Pearson Longman logo.png
Parent company Pearson Education
Founded1724;297 years ago (1724)
Founder Thomas Longman
Successor Pearson PLC
Country of originEngland
Headquarters location Harlow
Publication types Reference works, textbooks
Imprints Pearson Longman
Official website www.pearsonelt.com

Longman, also known as Pearson Longman, is a publishing company founded in London, England, in 1724 and is owned by Pearson PLC.

Contents

Since 1968, Longman has been used primarily as an imprint by Pearson's Schools business. The Longman brand is also used for the Longman Schools in China and the Longman Dictionary .

History

Beginnings

The Longman company was founded by Thomas Longman (1699 – 18 June 1755), the son of Ezekiel Longman (died 1708), a gentleman of Bristol. Thomas was apprenticed in 1716 to John Osborn, a London bookseller, and at the expiration of his apprenticeship married Osborn's daughter. In August 1724, he purchased the stock and household goods of William Taylor, the first publisher of Robinson Crusoe , for £ 2282 9s 6d. Taylor's two shops in Paternoster Row, London, were known respectively as the Black Swan and the Ship , [1] premises at that time having signs rather than numbers, and became the publishing house premises.[ citation needed ]

Longman entered into partnership with his father-in-law, Osborn, who held one-sixth of the shares in Ephraim Chambers's Cyclopaedia (1728). Longman himself was one of the six booksellers, who undertook the responsibility of Samuel Johnson's Dictionary (1746–1755). [1]

Second and third generations

In 1754, Longman took into partnership his nephew, Thomas Longman (1730–1797), and the title of the firm became 'T. and T. Longman'. Upon the death of his uncle in 1755, Longman became sole proprietor. He greatly extended the colonial trade of the firm. In 1777, Thomas Longman was sued by the composers Johann Christian Bach and Karl Friedrich Abel for publishing their music without permission or compensation. The resulting case expanded the Copyright Act 1710 to cover sheet music as well as literature. In 1794, he took Owen Rees as a partner; [1] [2] in the same year, Thomas Brown (c. 1777–1869) entered the house as an apprentice. [1]

Longman had three sons. Of these, Thomas Norton Longman (1771–1842) succeeded to the business. In 1804, two more partners were admitted, and the former apprentice Brown became a partner in 1811; in 1824, the title of the firm was changed to 'Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, Brown & Green'. A document of 1823 "Grant of Land in the Concan" printed by the firm under this name shows the name change was from 1823 or earlier.

In 1799, Longman purchased the copyright of Lindley Murray's English Grammar, which had an annual sale of about 50000 copies. [1] In the following year, Richmal Mangnall's Historical and Miscellaneous Questions for the Use of Young People was purchased, and went through 84 editions by 1857. [3] About 1800 he also purchased the copyright of Southey's Joan of Arc and Wordsworth's Lyrical Ballads , from Joseph Cottle of Bristol. He published the works of Wordsworth, Coleridge, Southey and Scott, and acted as London agent for the Edinburgh Review , which was started in 1802. [1] In 1802 appeared the first part of Rees's Cyclopædia , edited by Abraham Rees. This was completed in 39 volumes plus 6 volumes of plates in 1819.[ citation needed ]

In 1814 arrangements were made with Thomas Moore for the publication of Laila Rookh, for which he was paid £3000; and when Archibald Constable failed in 1826, Longmans became the proprietors of the Edinburgh Review . They issued in 1829 Lardner's Cabinet Encyclopaedia, and in 1832 McCulloch's Commercial Dictionary. [1]

Fourth and fifth generations

Thomas Norton Longman died on 29 August 1842, leaving his two sons, Thomas (1804–1879) and William (1813–1877), in control of the business in Paternoster Row. Their first success was the publication of Macaulay's Lays of Ancient Rome , which was followed in 1841 by the issue of the first two volumes of his History of England , which after a few years had a sale of 40000 copies. [1]

The two brothers were well known for their literary talent. Thomas Longman edited a beautifully illustrated edition of the New Testament, and William Longman was the author of several important books, among them a History of the Three Cathedrals dedicated to St Paul (1869) and a work on the History of the Life and Times of Edward III (1873). In 1863, the firm took over the business of John William Parker, and with it Fraser's Magazine , and the publication of the works of John Stuart Mill and James Anthony Froude; while in 1890 they incorporated with their own all the publications of the old firm of Rivington, established in 1711. [4] The family control of the firm (later 'Longmans, Green & Co.') was continued by Thomas Norton Longman, son of Thomas Longman. [1] In 1884 the firm employed John William Allen as an educationalist. Allen grew the firm's educational list, including textbooks he wrote himself. He later inherited the shares of W. E. Green and became a shareholder in 1918.

1900 onwards

In December 1940, Longman's Paternoster Row offices were destroyed [5] in The Blitz, along with most of the company's stock. The company survived this crisis, however, and became a public company in 1948. [6] Longman was acquired by the global publisher Pearson, owner of Penguin and The Financial Times , in 1968. Longman's medical lists was merged with other Pearson subsidiaries to form Churchill Livingstone in 1972. Also in 1972, Mark Longman, last of the Longman family to run the company, died. [7]

Longman continued to exist as an imprint of Pearson, under the name 'Pearson Longman'. Pearson Longman specialized in English, including English as a second or foreign language, history, economics, philosophy, political science, and religion.

Longman is now primarily used by Pearson's ELT business (English Language Teaching). The Longman brand is now only used for the Longman Schools in China and oddments such as the Longman Dictionary and Kennedy's Revised Latin Primer. All other textbooks and products use the Pearson brand/imprint.

Longman imprints

Longman imprints: [8]

See also

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Chisholm 1911, p. 984.
  2. Gordon 1896.
  3. Treasure 1997, p. [ page needed ].
  4. Chisholm 1911b, p. 387.
  5. Museum of London. "Bomb damage to Paternoster Square during the Blitz". Exploring 20th Century London. Retrieved 5 August 2021.
  6. www.bibliopolis.com. "A HISTORY OF LONGMANS AND THEIR BOOKS, 1724-1990: LONGEVITY IN PUBLISHING by Asa Briggs on Oak Knoll". Oak Knoll. Retrieved 5 August 2021.
  7. "Mark Longman Dies at 55; Head of British Publishers". New York Times. 8 September 1972.
  8. Briggs 2008, Appendix 2.

Related Research Articles

William Coxe (historian)

William Coxe was an English historian and priest who served as a travelling companion and tutor to nobility from 1771 to 1786. He wrote numerous historical works and travel chronicles. Ordained a deacon in 1771, he served as a rector and then archdeacon of Bemerton near Salisbury from 1786 until his death.

Châtelain was originally the French title for the keeper of a castle.

Henry Taylor (dramatist) English playwright and poet

Sir Henry Taylor was an English dramatist and poet, Colonial Office official, and man of letters.

Thomas Moule

Thomas Moule was an English antiquarian, writer on heraldry, and one of Victorian England's most influential map-makers. He is best known for his popular and highly decorated county maps of England, steel-engraved and first published separately between 1830 and 1832.

George Robert Gleig was a Scottish soldier, military writer, and priest.

Dunce is a mild insult in English meaning a person who is slow at learning or stupid. In art, dunces are often comedically shown wearing paper cone hats – dunce caps – marked with 'dunce', 'dumb', or 'D'. Schoolchildren were sometimes compelled to wear a dunce cap and to stand or sit on a stool in the corner as a form of punishment for misbehaving or for failing to demonstrate that they had properly performed their studies.

William Miller (engraver) Scottish engraver and watercolorist (1796–1882)

William Miller was a Scottish Quaker line engraver and watercolourist from Edinburgh.

John Britton (antiquary)

John Britton was an English antiquary, topographer, author and editor. He was a prolific populariser of the work of others, rather than an undertaker of original research. He is remembered as co-author of nine volumes in the series The Beauties of England and Wales (1801–1814); and as sole author of the Architectural Antiquities of Great Britain and Cathedral Antiquities of England.

Paternoster Row Former street in London

Paternoster Row was a street in the City of London that was a centre of the London publishing trade, with booksellers operating from the street. Paternoster Row was described as "almost synonymous" with the book trade. It was part of an area called St Paul's Churchyard.

William Mackenzie (ophthalmologist)

William Mackenzie was a Scottish ophthalmologist. He wrote Practical Treatise of the Diseases of the Eye, one of the first British textbooks of ophthalmology.

Admiral Sir Albemarle Bertie, 1st Baronet, was a long-serving and at the time controversial officer of the Royal Navy who saw extensive service in his career, but also courted controversy with several of his actions.

Thomas Longman (1699–1755)

Thomas Longman was an English publisher who founded the publishing house of Longman.

Henry Koster (author)

Henry Koster, also known in Portuguese as Henrique da Costa, was an English coffee-grower, explorer and author who spent most of his short adult life in Brazil, writing about his travels, slavery, and other subjects.

Philip Rundell (1746–1827) was a highly prosperous English jeweller, fine jewellery retailer and master jewellery makers' business proprietor, known for his association with royalty. With John Bridge, he ran and co-owned Rundell and Bridge, a firm with widespread interests in the jewellery and precious metal trades.

Anthony Hamilton (Archdeacon of Colchester)

Anthony Hamilton (1739–1812) was an Anglican priest, Archdeacon of Colchester from 1775.

Sir Francis Gosling (1719–1768) was a partner in Goslings Bank, later Goslings and Sharpe, one of the banks merged into Barclays Bank in 1896. He was an Alderman of the City of London.

Aladdin Imad Shah was the second Sultan of Berar. He reigned between 1504 and 1529.

Thomas Norton Longman (1771–1842) was an English publisher, who succeeded to the Longman’s publishing business in 1793.

<i>Rosamond</i> (Arne)

Rosamond is an opera by Thomas Arne with a libretto by Joseph Addison. It was first performed at the Lincoln's Inn Fields Theatre in London on 1 March 1733.

References

Attribution:

Further reading