Battle of Castel di Sangro

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Battle of Castel di Sangro
Part of the Neapolitan War
Date13 May 1815
Location
Castel di Sangro, present-day Italy
Result Austrian victory
Belligerents
Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy.svg  Austrian Empire Flag of the Kingdom of Naples (1811).svg  Kingdom of Naples
Commanders and leaders
Frederick Bianchi Pignatelli Cerchiara
Strength
1,000 infantry
1,000 cavalry
1,900 infantry
Casualties and losses
15 killed or wounded 400 killed or wounded
206 captured

The Battle of Castel di Sangro was a minor battle in the Neapolitan War that took place on 13 May 1815 in the town of Castel di Sangro in central Italy. The battle resulted in the Neapolitan force being routed.

Neapolitan War conflict

The Neapolitan War was a conflict between the Napoleonic Kingdom of Naples and the Austrian Empire. It started on 15 March 1815 when King Joachim Murat declared war on Austria and ended on 20 May 1815 with the signing of the Treaty of Casalanza. The war occurred during the Hundred Days between Napoleon's return from exile and before he left Paris to be decisively defeated at the Battle of Waterloo. The war was triggered by a pro-Napoleon uprising in Naples, and ended with a decisive Austrian victory at the Battle of Tolentino after which Bourbon monarch Ferdinand IV was reinstated as King of Naples and Sicily. However, the intervention by Austria caused resentment in Italy, which further spurred on the drive towards Italian unification.

Castel di Sangro Comune in Abruzzo, Italy

Castel di Sangro is a city and comune of 6,461 people in the Province of L'Aquila, in Abruzzo, Central Italy. It is the main city of the Alto Sangro e Altopiano delle Cinque Miglia area.

Following defeat at the Battle of Tolentino, the 4th Division of the Neapolitan army, commanded by General Pignatelli Cerchiara had detached from the main army under their king, Joachim Murat, and were retreating south. The commander of the Austrian force, Frederick Bianchi, dispatched his advanced guard, consisting of Hungarian hussars and Tyrolean jägers, in pursuit. The Austrians finally caught up with the Neapolitans on 13 May in the town of Castel di Sangro. Seeing the hussars, the Neapolitans formed squares. However, during the cause of the disastrous campaign, the 4th Division had been reduced to less than 2,000 men. The hussars broke the Neapolitan square and sent the remaining troops into disarray.

Battle of Tolentino battle

The Battle of Tolentino was fought from 2–3 May 1815 near Tolentino, Kingdom of Naples in what is now Marche, Italy: it was the decisive battle in the Neapolitan War, fought by the Napoleonic King of Naples Joachim Murat to keep the throne after the Congress of Vienna. The battle was similar to the Battle of Waterloo. Both occurred during the Hundred Days following Napoleon's return from exile and resulted in a decisive victory for the Seventh Coalition, leading to the restoration of a Bourbon king.

Joachim Murat Grand Duke of Berg and King of Naples

Joachim-Napoléon Murat was a Marshal of France and Admiral of France under the reign of Napoleon. He was also the 1st Prince Murat, Grand Duke of Berg from 1806 to 1808, and King of Naples from 1808 to 1815. Murat received his titles in part by being Napoleon's brother-in-law through marriage to his younger sister, Caroline Bonaparte, as well as personal merit. He was noted as a daring, brave, and charismatic cavalry officer as well as a flamboyant dresser, for which he was known as "the Dandy King".

Hussar light cavalry originally from Hungary

A hussar was a member of a class of light cavalry, originating in Central Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries. The title and distinctive dress of these horsemen were subsequently widely adopted by light cavalry regiments in European armies in the late 17th and early 18th centuries.

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