Battle of Haslach-Jungingen

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Battle of Haslach-Jungingen
Part of the War of the Third Coalition
Karte Ulm in Deutschland.png
Ulm-Jungingen location in Germany
Date11 October 1805
Location Ulm-Jungingen, present-day Germany
Result French victory
Belligerents
Flag of France.svg First French Empire Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy.svg  Austrian Empire
Commanders and leaders
Pierre Dupont Karl Mack von Lieberich
Strength
5,000 21,000
Casualties and losses

1,000 total:
killed, wounded and captured

8 cannon captured

7,100 total:
1,100 killed and wounded
6,000 captured

2 cannon captured

Contents

The Battle of Haslach-Jungingen, also known as the Battle of Albeck, fought on 11 October 1805 at Ulm-Jungingen north of Ulm at the Danube between French and Austrian forces, was part of the War of the Third Coalition, which was a part of the greater Napoleonic Wars. The outcome of this battle was a French victory.

Ulm-Jungingen Stadtteil of Ulm in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

Ulm-Jungingen is a borough of Ulm in the German Bundesland of Baden-Württemberg with a population around 3,200.

Danube river in Central Europe

The Danube, known by various names in other languages, is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga. It is located in Central and Eastern Europe.

Austrian Empire monarchy in Central Europe between 1804 and 1867

The Austrian Empire was a Central European multinational great power from 1804 to 1867, created by proclamation out of the realms of the Habsburgs. During its existence, it was the third most populous empire after the Russian Empire and the United Kingdom in Europe. Along with Prussia, it was one of the two major powers of the German Confederation. Geographically, it was the third largest empire in Europe after the Russian Empire and the First French Empire. Proclaimed in response to the First French Empire, it partially overlapped with the Holy Roman Empire until the latter's dissolution in 1806.

Background

During the Ulm Campaign, Napoleon's Grand Army had executed a massive right wheel to trap the Austrian army led by Karl Mack von Lieberich. Starting on the Rhine River, facing east, the various French corps arrived on the Danube River, facing south. From the Danube, using Marshal Michel Ney's VI Corps as a pivot, the Grand Army continued its right wheel until most of Napoleon's corps were facing west. The bulk of the Austrian army was now trapped, though Napoleon did not know exactly where most of the enemy units were located.

Ulm Campaign

The Ulm Campaign was a series of French and Bavarian military maneuvers and battles to outflank and capture an Austrian army in 1805 during the War of the Third Coalition. It took place in the vicinity of and inside the Swabian city of Ulm. The French Grande Armée, led by Napoleon Bonaparte, comprised 210,000 troops organized into seven corps, and hoped to knock out the Austrian army in the Danube before Russian reinforcements could arrive. Through rapid marching, Napoleon conducted a large wheeling maneuver that captured an Austrian army of 23,000 under General Mack on 20 October at Ulm, bringing the total number of Austrian prisoners in the campaign to 60,000. The campaign is generally regarded as a strategic masterpiece and was influential in the development of the Schlieffen Plan in the late 19th century.

Napoleon 18th/19th-century French monarch, military and political leader

Napoléon Bonaparte was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. He was Emperor of the French as Napoleon I from 1804 until 1814 and again briefly in 1815 during the Hundred Days. Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, building a large empire that ruled over much of continental Europe before its final collapse in 1815. He is considered one of the greatest commanders in history, and his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide. Napoleon's political and cultural legacy has endured as one of the most celebrated and controversial leaders in human history.

Michel Ney French soldier and military commander

Marshal of the Empire Michel Ney, 1st Duke of Elchingen, 1st Prince of the Moskva, popularly known as Marshal Ney, was a French soldier and military commander during the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. He was one of the original 18 Marshals of the Empire created by Napoleon. He was known as Le Rougeaud by his men and nicknamed le Brave des Braves by Napoleon.

The French believed that the Austrian garrison of Ulm formed part of a rearguard, not a large army. Marshal Joachim Murat was placed in command of the VI Corps on the north bank and the V Corps and a large force of cavalry on the south bank. His mission was to drive west toward Ulm.

Garrison military base; collective term for a body of troops stationed in a particular location

Garrison is the collective term for any body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but now often simply using it as a home base. The garrison is usually in a city, town, fort, castle, ship or similar. "Garrison town" is a common expression for any town that has a military base nearby.

Joachim Murat Grand Duke of Berg and King of Naples

Joachim-Napoléon Murat was a Marshal of France and Admiral of France under the reign of Napoleon. He was also the 1st Prince Murat, Grand Duke of Berg from 1806 to 1808, and King of Naples from 1808 to 1815. Murat received his titles in part by being Napoleon's brother-in-law through marriage to his younger sister, Caroline Bonaparte, as well as personal merit. He was noted as a daring, brave, and charismatic cavalry officer as well as a flamboyant dresser, for which he was known as "the Dandy King".

On 11 October Murat ordered Marshal Michel Ney to move the bulk of his VI Corps to the south bank of the Danube. Ney argued that the north bank force was too small but Murat brushed him off with the comment, "I know nothing of plans except those made in the face of the enemy." Ney reluctantly complied with his orders, leaving only the division of Pierre Dupont on the north bank, supported by Tilly's VI Corps cavalry.

The battle

The battle occurred when Mack and Archduke Ferdinand made an attempt to break out from the French forces that were surrounding them at Ulm. Later that day, Dupont found himself faced with 35,000 Austrian troops, including 10,000 cavalry, which Mack had sent eastward along the bank of the Danube. Dupont felt that retreat would lead to an Austrian pursuit and the destruction of his division, so he chose instead to attack the numerically superior Austrians. He also hoped that he could blunt their attack and at the same time convince them that he had a greater force at his disposal than was in fact the case.

Archduke Ferdinand Karl Joseph of Austria-Este Austrian archduke

Archduke Ferdinand Karl Joseph of Austria-Este was the third son of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria-Este and of his wife Princess Maria Beatrice Ricciarda d'Este, last member and heiress of the House of Este. For much of the Napoleonic Wars he was in command of the Austrian army.

Cavalry soldiers or warriors fighting from horseback

Cavalry or horsemen are soldiers or warriors who fight mounted on horseback. Cavalry were historically the most mobile of the combat arms. An individual soldier in the cavalry is known by a number of designations such as cavalryman, horseman, dragoon, or trooper. The designation of cavalry was not usually given to any military forces that used other animals, such as camels, mules or elephants. Infantry who moved on horseback, but dismounted to fight on foot, were known in the 17th and early 18th centuries as dragoons, a class of mounted infantry which later evolved into cavalry proper while retaining their historic title.

Withdrawal (military) military operation

A withdrawal is a type of military operation, generally meaning retreating forces back while maintaining contact with the enemy. A withdrawal may be undertaken as part of a general retreat, to consolidate forces, to occupy ground that is more easily defended, or to lead the enemy into an ambush. It is considered a relatively risky operation, requiring discipline to keep from turning into a disorganized rout or at the very least doing severe damage to the military's morale.

Dupont's 4,100-man 1st Division of the VI Corps was made up of two battalions of 9th Light Infantry and two battalions each of the 32nd and 96th Line Infantry Regiments under Generals of Brigade Jean Rouyer and Jean Marchand. Tilly's cavalry brigade included the 1st Hussar Regiments, plus the 15th and 17th Dragoons. This made a total of 900 horsemen. His nearest support was a division of dragoons under the command of General Louis Baraguey d'Hilliers.

Jean Gabriel Marchand French general

Jean Gabriel Marchand, 1st Count Marchand went from being an attorney to a company commander in the army of the First French Republic in 1791. He fought almost exclusively in Italy throughout the French Revolutionary Wars and served on the staffs of a number of generals. He participated in Napoleon Bonaparte's celebrated 1796-1797 Italian campaign. In 1799, he was with army commander Barthélemy Catherine Joubert when that general was killed at Novi. Promoted to general officer soon after, he transferred to the Rhine theater in 1800.

Louis Baraguey dHilliers French general

Louis Baraguey d'Hilliers was a French Army general who fought in the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic Wars. He was the father of Achille Baraguey d'Hilliers, a Marshal of France, and the father-in-law of General Damrémont, governor-general of Algeria.

Throughout the day the French were able to launch a series of holding attacks against the Austrian force, the fiercest taking place at the village of Ulm-Jungingen just to the west of Albeck. Here the church was held by the 9th Light. Rouyer fortified the church and sent skirmishers forward to blunt the Austrian attacks. He then sent forward reserve columns that had been held outside the village when the Austrian assault slowed at the church. Mack was unable to make effective use of his massive superiority in cavalry because woods to the north of Dupont’s position protected that general’s flank. As the battle progressed, Field Marshal Mack came to believe that the French troops he was now facing were part of an advance guard, not an isolated group, which prevented him from committing all of his reserves. This blunder allowed Dupont to hold off the Austrians long enough for nightfall to come, at which point he withdrew with his exhausted troops, 6,000 Austrian prisoners and 8 captured cannons toward Brenz. In addition, the Austrians lost 1,100 killed or wounded. Mack was lightly wounded and he withdrew back into Ulm.

The Austrians inflicted a loss of 1,000 killed and captured 2 cannons on Dupont's command. The Austrian Latour Light Dragoons Nr. 4 seized the eagle of the 15th Dragoons.

Strategic consequences

Murat's error gave Mack a great opportunity to break out to the east on the north bank of the Danube. Mack's very weak leadership and Dupont's aggressive response prevented the Austrian army from escaping the trap that Napoleon had set for them. For a few more days, only Dupont and some cavalry blocked the north bank while Mack dithered. After the fighting at Haslach-Jungingen a furious argument broke out between Ney and Murat as to who was responsible for the danger into which Dupont had been placed. Napoleon intervened in this altercation, in the end supporting Ney. On 14 October, at the Battle of Elchingen, Mack tried to break out again, but the rest of Ney's corps attacked across the river to the north bank. This plugged one of Mack's few remaining escape hatches.

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References

Coordinates: 48°24′N9°59′E / 48.4°N 9.98°E / 48.4; 9.98