King of Italy

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Iron Crown of Lombardy Corona ferrea, Monza, Tesoro del Duomo.jpg
Iron Crown of Lombardy

King of Italy (Latin: Rex Italiae; Italian: Re d'Italia) was the title given to the ruler of the Kingdom of Italy after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The first to take the title was Odoacer, a "barbarian" military leader, in the late 5th century, followed by the Ostrogothic kings up to the mid-6th century. With the Frankish conquest of Italy in the 8th century, the Carolingians assumed the title, which was maintained by subsequent Holy Roman Emperors throughout the Middle Ages. The last Emperor to claim the title was Charles V in the 16th century. During this period, the holders of the title were crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy.

Italian language Romance language

Italian is a Romance language of the Indo-European language family. Italian, together with Sardinian, is by most measures the closest language to Vulgar Latin of the Romance languages. Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino and Vatican City. It has an official minority status in western Istria. It formerly had official status in Albania, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro (Kotor) and Greece, and is generally understood in Corsica and Savoie. It also used to be an official language in the former Italian East Africa and Italian North Africa, where it plays a significant role in various sectors. Italian is also spoken by large expatriate communities in the Americas and Australia. In spite of not existing any Italian community in their respective national territories and of not being spoken at any level, Italian is included de jure, but not de facto, between the recognized minority languages of Bosnia-Herzegovina and Romania. Many speakers of Italian are native bilinguals of both standardized Italian and other regional languages.

Kingdom of Italy (Holy Roman Empire) Medieval kingdom on the Apennine Peninsula between 962 and 1024

The Kingdom of Italy was one of the constituent kingdoms of the Holy Roman Empire, along with the kingdoms of Germany, Bohemia, and Burgundy. It comprised northern and central Italy, but excluded the Republic of Venice and the Papal States. Its original capital was Pavia until the 11th century.

Western Roman Empire independently administered western provinces of the Roman Empire

In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court; in particular, this term is used to describe the period from 395 to 476, where there were separate coequal courts dividing the governance of the empire in the Western and the Eastern provinces, with a distinct imperial succession in the separate courts. The terms Western Roman Empire and Eastern Roman Empire are modern descriptions that describe political entities that were de facto independent; contemporary Romans did not consider the Empire to have been split into two separate empires but viewed it as a single polity governed by two separate imperial courts as an administrative expediency. The Western Roman Empire collapsed in 476, and the Western imperial court was formally dissolved in 480. The Eastern imperial court survived until 1453.

Contents

A Kingdom of Italy was restored from 1805 to 1814 with Napoleon as its only king, centered in Northern Italy. It was not until the Italian unification in the 1860s that a Kingdom of Italy covering the entire peninsula was restored. From 1861 the House of Savoy held the title of King of Italy until the last king, Umberto II, was exiled in 1946 when Italy became a republic.

Kingdom of Italy (Napoleonic) kingdom on the Apennine Peninsula between 1805 and 1814

The Kingdom of Italy was a kingdom in Northern Italy in personal union with France under Napoleon I. It was fully influenced by revolutionary France and ended with his defeat and fall. Its governance was conducted by Napoleon and his step-son and viceroy Eugène de Beauharnais.

Napoleon 18th/19th-century French monarch, military and political leader

Napoléon Bonaparte was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars. He was Emperor of the French as Napoleon I from 1804 until 1814 and again briefly in 1815 during the Hundred Days. Napoleon dominated European and global affairs for more than a decade while leading France against a series of coalitions in the Napoleonic Wars. He won most of these wars and the vast majority of his battles, building a large empire that ruled over much of continental Europe before its final collapse in 1815. He is considered one of the greatest commanders in history, and his wars and campaigns are studied at military schools worldwide. Napoleon's political and cultural legacy has endured as one of the most celebrated and controversial leaders in human history.

Italian unification political and social movement that consolidated different Italian states into a single state

Italian unification, or the Risorgimento, was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century. The process began in 1815 with the Congress of Vienna and was completed in 1871 when Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy.

History

After the deposition of the last Western Emperor in 476, Heruli leader Odoacer was appointed Dux Italiae ("Duke of Italy") by the reigning Byzantine Emperor Zeno. Later, the Germanic foederati, the Scirians and the Heruli, as well as a large segment of the Italic Roman army, proclaimed Odoacer Rex Italiae ("King of Italy"). [1] In 493, the Ostrogothic king Theoderic the Great killed Odoacer, and set up a new dynasty of kings of Italy. Ostrogothic rule ended when Italy was reconquered by the Byzantine Empire in 552.

Deposition of Romulus Augustulus

Odoacer's deposition of Romulus Augustulus, occurring in 476 AD, marked the end of the period during which Western Roman Emperors exercised sovereignty, although Julius Nepos exercised control over Dalmatia until 480. Romulus Augustulus was a 16-year-old minor at the time.

Odoacer 5th-century Germanic soldier and monarch

Flavius Odoacer, also known as Flavius Odovacer or Odovacar, was a barbarian statesman who in 476 became the first King of Italy (476–493). His reign is commonly seen as marking the end of the Western Roman Empire. Odoacer is the earliest ruler of Italy for whom an autograph of any of his legal acts has survived to the current day.

Zeno (emperor) 5th-century Byzantine Emperor

Zeno the Isaurian, originally named Tarasis Kodisa Rousombladadiotes, was Eastern Roman Emperor from 474 to 475 and again from 476 to 491. Domestic revolts and religious dissension plagued his reign, which nevertheless succeeded to some extent in foreign issues. His reign saw the end of the Western Roman Empire following the deposition of Romulus Augustus and the death of Julius Nepos, but he contributed much to stabilising the Eastern Empire.

In 568, the Lombards entered the peninsula and ventured to recreate a barbarian kingdom in opposition to the Empire, establishing their authority over much of Italy, except the Exarchate of Ravenna and the duchies of Rome, Venetia, Naples and the southernmost portions. In the 8th century, estrangement between the Italians and the Byzantines allowed the Lombards to capture the remaining Roman enclaves in northern Italy. However, in 774, they were defeated by the Franks under Charlemagne, who deposed their king and took up the title "king of the Lombards". After the death of Charles the Fat in 887, Italy fell into instability and a number of kings attempted to establish themselves as independent Italian monarchs. During this period, known as the Feudal Anarchy (888–962), the title Rex Italicorum ("King of the Italians" or "King of the Italics") was introduced. After the breakup of the Frankish empire, Otto I added Italy to the Holy Roman Empire and continued the use of the title Rex Italicorum. The last to use this title was Henry II (1004-1024). Subsequent emperors used the title "King of Italy" until Charles V. At first they were crowned in Pavia, later Milan, and Charles was crowned in Bologna.

Lombards Historical ethnical group

The Lombards or Longobards were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774.

Exarchate of Ravenna

The Exarchate of Ravenna or of Italy was a lordship of the Byzantine Empire in Italy, from 584 to 751, when the last exarch was put to death by the Lombards. It was one of two exarchates established following the western reconquests under Emperor Justinian to more effectively administrate the territories, along with the Exarchate of Africa.

Duchy of Rome

The Duchy of Rome was a state within the Byzantine Exarchate of Ravenna. Like other Byzantine states in Italy, it was ruled by an imperial functionary with the title dux. The duchy often came into conflict with the Papacy over supremacy within Rome. The duchy was founded by the conquest of Emperor Justinian I in 533 AD. After the founding of the Papal States in 751, the title of Duke of Rome fell into disuse.

In 1805, Napoleon I was crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy at the Milan Cathedral. The next year, Holy Roman Emperor Francis II abdicated his imperial title. From the deposition of Napoleon I (1814) until the Italian Unification (1861), there was no Italian monarch claiming the overarching title. The Risorgimento successfully established a dynasty, the House of Savoy, over the whole peninsula, uniting the kingdoms of Sardinia and the Two Sicilies to form the modern Kingdom of Italy. The monarchy was superseded by the Italian Republic, after a constitutional referendum was held on 2 June 1946, after World War II. [2] The Italian monarchy formally ended on 12 June of that year, and Umberto II left the country.

Milan Cathedral Church in Milan, Italy

Milan Cathedral is the cathedral church of Milan, Lombardy, Italy. Dedicated to St Mary of the Nativity, it is the seat of the Archbishop of Milan, currently Archbishop Mario Delpini. The cathedral took nearly six centuries to complete. It is the largest church in Italy, the third largest in Europe and the fourth largest in the world.

Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor also known as Francis I, Emperor of Austria

Francis II was the last Holy Roman Emperor, ruling from 1792 until 6 August 1806, when he dissolved the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation after the decisive defeat at the hands of the First French Empire led by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz. In 1804, he had founded the Austrian Empire and became Francis I, the first Emperor of Austria, ruling from 1804 to 1835, so later he was named the one and only Doppelkaiser in history. For the two years between 1804 and 1806, Francis used the title and style by the Grace of God elected Roman Emperor, ever Augustus, hereditary Emperor of Austria and he was called the Emperor of both the Holy Roman Empire and Austria. He was also Apostolic King of Hungary, Croatia and Bohemia as Francis I. He also served as the first president of the German Confederation following its establishment in 1815.

House of Savoy noble family

The House of Savoy is a royal family that was established in 1003 in the historical Savoy region. Through gradual expansion, the family grew in power from ruling a small county in the Alps north-west of Italy to absolute rule of the kingdom of Sicily in 1713 to 1720. Through its junior branch, the House of Savoy-Carignano, it led the unification of Italy in 1861 and ruled the Kingdom of Italy from 1861 until 1946 and, briefly, the Kingdom of Spain in the 19th century. The Savoyard kings of Italy were Victor Emmanuel II, Umberto I, Victor Emmanuel III, and Umberto II. The last monarch ruled for a few weeks before being deposed following the Constitutional Referendum of 1946, after which the Italian Republic was proclaimed.

List of kings

As "Rex Italiae"

vassal of the Eastern Roman Empire.

Ostrogothic Kingdom (493553)

Theoderic the Great King of the Germanic Ostrogoths and ruler of Italy

Theoderic the Great, often referred to as Theodoric, was king of the Ostrogoths (475–526), ruler of Italy (493–526), regent of the Visigoths (511–526), and a patrician of the Roman Empire. As ruler of the combined Gothic realms, Theoderic controlled an empire stretching from the Atlantic Ocean to the Adriatic Sea. He kept good relations between Ostrogoths and Romans, maintained a Roman legal administration and oversaw a flourishing scholarly culture and the largest building program in Italy in 100 years.

Athalaric Ostrogothic king

Athalaric was the King of the Ostrogoths in Italy between 526 and 534. He was a son of Eutharic and Amalasuntha, the youngest daughter of Theoderic the Great, whom Athalaric succeeded as king in 526.

Theodahad King of the Ostrogoths

Theodahad, also known as Thiudahad was king of the Ostrogoths from 534 to 536 and a nephew of Theodoric the Great through his mother Amalafrida. He is probably the son of Amalafrida's first husband because her second marriage was about 500 AD. His sister was Amalaberga.

Kingdom of the Lombards (568814)

Kingdom of Italy (781963)

Carolingian Dynasty (781888)

Instability (888962)

After 887, Italy fell into instability, with many rulers claiming the kingship simultaneously:

vassal of the German King Arnulf of Carinthia, reduced to Friuli 889-894, deposed by Arnulf in 896.
opponent of Berengar, ruled most of Italy but was deposed by Arnulf.
subking of his father Guy before 894, reduced to Spoleto 894–895.

In 896, Arnulf and Ratold lost control of Italy, which was divided between Berengar and Lambert:

seized Lambert's portion upon the latter's death in 898.
opposed Berengar 900-902 and 905.
defeated Berengar but fled Italy in 926.
elected by Berengar's partisans in 925, resigned to Provence after 945.
jointly with his son:

In 951 Otto I of Germany invaded Italy and was crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy. In 952, Berengar and Adalbert became his vassals but remained Kings until being deposed by Otto.

Holy Roman Empire (9621556)

Ottonian dynasty (9621024)

ImageNameLifeCoronationCeased to be King
Otto the Great.jpg
Otto I 23 November 912
-
7 May 973
962 [4] 7 May 973
Otton2.JPG
Otto II 955
-
7 December 983
c. October 980 [5] 7 December 983
Meister der Reichenauer Schule 002.jpg
Otto III 980
-
23 January 1002
c. February 996 [6] 23 January 1002
Arduino d'ivrea (2).jpg
Arduin I of Ivrea 955
-
1015
1002 [4] 1014
Ubf Richard-Wagner-Platz Mosaik Heinrich II.jpg
Henry II
[7]
6 May 973
-
13 July 1024
1004 [4] 13 July 1024

Salian dynasty (10271125)

ImageNameLifeCoronationCeased to be King
Konrad2.jpg
Conrad II
[8]
990
-
4 June 1039
1026 [4] 4 June 1039
Heinrich III. (HRR) Miniatur.jpg
Henry III 29 October 1017
-
5 October 1056
1039 [4] 5 October 1056
Jindra4Salsky.jpg
Henry IV 11 November 1050
-
7 August 1106
1056 [4] December 1105
Conrad II of Italy.jpg
Conrad II of Italy 1074
-
1101
1093 [4] 1101
Jindra5Salsky.jpg
Henry V
[9]
8 November 1086
-
23 May 1125
1106 [4] 23 May 1125

Süpplingenburg dynasty (11251137)

ImageNameLifeCoronationCeased to be King
Siegel Lothar III.jpg
Lothair III (or II) 9 June 1075
-
4 December 1137
1125 [4] 4 December 1137

Hauteville dynasty (11301154)

Roger II used the title King of Sicily and Italy until at least 1135; later he used only the title King of Sicily, Apulia and Calabria. Although his realm included the southern Italian mainland, he never exerted any control over the official Kingdom of Italy, and none of his successors claimed the title King of Italy.

ImageNameLifeCoronationCeased to be King
Roger II. Sicilsky (cropped1).jpg
Roger II 22 December 1095
-
26 February 1154
25 December 113026 February 1154

House of Hohenstaufen (11281197)

ImageNameLifeCoronationCeased to be King
Konrad III Miniatur 13 Jahrhundert.jpg
Conrad III 1093
-
15 February 1152
1138 [4]
(Also crowned in 1128 in opposition to Lothair [10] )
1152
Wgt Stifterbuchlein 43r.jpg
Frederick I 1122
-
10 June 1190
11541186
JindrichVIStauf trun.jpg
Henry VI November 1165
-
28 September 1197
1186 [4] 28 September 1197

House of Welf (12081212)

ImageNameLifeCoronationCeased to be King
OttoIVgb.jpg
Otto IV 1175 or 1176
-
19 May 1218
1209 [4] 1212

House of Hohenstaufen (12121254)

ImageCoat of ArmsNameLifeCoronationCeased to be King
Frederick II and eagle.jpg
Arms of Swabia (lions passant regardant).svg
Frederick II
(Friedrich II)
26 December 1194 – 13 December 12505 December 121213 December 1250
Jindra7.jpg
Arms of Swabia (lions passant regardant).svg
Henry
(Heinrich (VII))
1211 – 12 February 124223 April 122012 February 1242
Conrad IV of Germany.jpg
Arms of Swabia (lions passant regardant).svg
Conrad IV
(Konrad IV)
25 April 1228 – 21 May 1254May 123721 May 1254

House of Luxembourg (13111313)

ImageCoat of ArmsNameLifeCoronationCeased to be King
Henry7Luc.jpg
Henric van Lusenborch.svg
Henry VII 1275 [11]
-
24 August 1313
6 January 1311 [12] 24 August 1313

House of Wittelsbach (13271347)

ImageCoat of ArmsNameLifeCoronationCeased to be King
Ludwig der Bayer.jpg
Bavaria Wittelsbach coa medieval.svg
Louis IV 1 April 1282
-
11 October 1347
132711 October 1347

House of Luxembourg (13551437)

ImageCoat of ArmsNameLifeCoronationCeased to be King
Charles IV-John Ocko votive picture-fragment.jpg
Insigne Cechicum.svg
Charles IV 14 May 1316
-
29 November 1378
1355 [4] 29 November 1378
Zikmund Zhorelecka radnice.jpg
Sigismund Arms Hungarian Czech per pale.svg
Sigismund 14 February 1368
-
9 December 1437
1431 [4] 9 December 1437

House of Habsburg (14371556)

ImageCoat of ArmsNameLifeCoronationCeased to be King
Hans Burgkmair d. A. 005.jpg
Bindenschild Privilegium maius 1512.svg
Frederick III 21 September 1415
-
19 August 1493
16 March 145219 August 1493
Charles I of Spain.jpg
Bindenschild Privilegium maius 1512.svg
Charles V 24 February 1500
-
21 September 1558
24 February 1530 [13] 16 January 1556

Charles V was the last emperor to be crowned king of Italy, or to use the title. [4] The Peace of Westphalia, in 1648, formally ended the rule of the Holy Roman Emperors in Italy. However, the empire continued to include some territory in northern Italy, including Tyrol, until its dissolution in 1806.

Kingdom of Italy (1805–1814), House of Bonaparte

ImageCoat of ArmsNameLifeCoronationCeased to be King
Andrea Appiani 002.jpg
Coat of arms of the Kingdom of Italy (1805-1814), round shield version.svg
Napoleon I 15 August 1769
-
5 May 1821
17 March 180511 April 1814

Full title

This title is present on Italian laws proclaimed by Napoleon I:

[Name], by the Grace of God and the Constitutions, Emperor of the French and King of Italy.

Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946), House of Savoy

ImageCoat of ArmsNameLifeBecame KingCeased to be King
Dipinto di Re Vittorio Emanuele II.jpg
Great coat of arms of the king of italy (1890-1946).svg
Victor Emmanuel II 14 March 1820
-
9 January 1878
17 March 18619 January 1878
Ritratto di Umberto I.jpg
Great coat of arms of the king of italy (1890-1946).svg
Umberto I 14 March 1844
-
29 July 1900
9 January 187829 July 1900
Eduardo Gioja Viktor Emanuel III 1913.jpg
Great coat of arms of the king of italy (1890-1946).svg
Victor Emmanuel III 11 November 1869
-
28 December 1947
29 July 19009 May 1946
Hrh Prince Umberto of Italy, May 1944 TR1836.jpg
Great coat of arms of the king of italy (1890-1946).svg
Umberto II 15 September 1904
-
18 March 1983
9 May 194612 June 1946

Full title

Up until the dissolution of the monarchy in 1946, full title of the Kings of Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946) was:

[Name], by the Grace of God and the will of the Nation, King of Italy, King of Sardinia, Cyprus, Jerusalem, Armenia, Duke of Savoy, count of Maurienne, Marquis (of the Holy Roman Empire) in Italy; Prince of Piedmont, Carignano, Oneglia, Poirino, Trino; Prince and Perpetual Vicar of the Holy Roman Empire; Prince of Carmagnola, Montmellian with Arbin and Francin, Prince bailiff of the Duchy of Aosta, Prince of Chieri, Dronero, Crescentino, Riva di Chieri and Banna, Busca, Bene, Bra, Duke of Genoa, Monferrat, Aosta, Duke of Chablais, Genevois, Duke of Piacenza, Marquis of Saluzzo (Saluces), Ivrea, Susa, of Maro, Oristano, Cesana, Savona, Tarantasia, Borgomanero and Cureggio, Caselle, Rivoli, Pianezza, Govone, Salussola, Racconigi over Tegerone, Migliabruna and Motturone, Cavallermaggiore, Marene, Modane and Lanslebourg, Livorno Ferraris, Santhià, Agliè, Centallo and Demonte, Desana, Ghemme, Vigone, Count of Barge, Villafranca, Ginevra, Nizza, Tenda, Romont, Asti, Alessandria, of Goceano, Novara, Tortona, Bobbio, Soissons, Sant'Antioco, Pollenzo, Roccabruna, Tricerro, Bairo, Ozegna, delle Apertole, Baron of Vaud and of Faucigni, Lord of Vercelli, Pinerolo, of Lomellina, of Valle Sesia, of the Marquisate of Ceva, Overlord of Monaco, Roccabruna and eleven-twelfths of Menton, Noble Patrician of Venice, Patrician of Ferrara.

See also

Notes

  1. Bury, History, vol. 1 p. 406
  2. Nohlen, D & Stöver, P (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p1047 ISBN   978-3-8329-5609-7
  3. Bryce, James The Holy Roman Empire (1913), pg. xxxv
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Lodovico Antonio Muratori, Giuseppe Oggeri Vincenti, Annali d'Italia , 1788, pp. 78-81.
  5. According to Sismondi, History of the Italian Republics in the Middle Ages (pg. 29), although Otto II was crowned King of the Romans in 961 and Holy Roman Emperor in 967, he only obtained the Iron Crown at Pavia in late 980, during his descent into Italy, and prior to his celebrating Christmas at Ravenna.
  6. Although Otto III was crowned Holy Roman Emperor at Rome on 21 May 996, he was crowned King of Italy at Milan prior to the death of Pope John XV in early March 996 - see Comyn, History of the Western Empire, Vol. 1, pg. 123
  7. enumerated as successor of Henry I who was German King 919–936 but not Emperor.
  8. enumerated as successor of Conrad I who was German King 911–918 but not Emperor
  9. Barraclough, Geoffrey (1984). The Origins of Modern Germany. W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN   0-393-30153-2.
  10. Comyn, Robert. History of the Western Empire, from its Restoration by Charlemagne to the Accession of Charles V, Vol. I. 1851, p. 191.
  11. Kleinhenz, Christopher, Medieval Italy: an encyclopedia, Volume 1, Routledge, 2004, pg. 494
  12. Jones, Michael, The New Cambridge Medieval History, Vol. VI: c. 1300-c. 1415, Cambridge University Press, 2000, pg. 533
  13. Philip Pandely Argenti, Chius Vincta , 1941, p. xvii.

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