List of German monarchs

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This is about monarchs ruling over all of Germany; for the much more extensive number of monarchs ruling territories within Germany, see List of states in the Holy Roman Empire, Princes of the Holy Roman Empire, List of historic states of Germany.
German kingdom (blue) in the Holy Roman Empire around 1000 HRR 10Jh.jpg
German kingdom (blue) in the Holy Roman Empire around 1000

This is a list of monarchs who ruled over East Francia, and the Kingdom of Germany (Regnum Teutonicum), from the division of the Frankish Empire in 843 until the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806.

East Francia Former country in Europe

East Francia or the Kingdom of the East Franks was a precursor of the Holy Roman Empire. A successor state of Charlemagne's empire, it was ruled by the Carolingian dynasty until 911. It was created through the Treaty of Verdun (843) which divided the former empire into three kingdoms.

Kingdom of Germany 10th-century kingdom of Germany

The Kingdom of Germany or German Kingdom developed out of Eastern Francia, the eastern division of the former Carolingian Empire, over the 9th to 11th centuries. East Francia was formed by the Treaty of Verdun in 843, and was ruled by the Carolingian dynasty until 911, after which the kingship was elective. The initial electors were the rulers of the stem duchies, who generally chose one of their own. After 962, when Otto I was crowned emperor, East Francia formed the bulk of the Holy Roman Empire along with Italy; it later included Bohemia and Burgundy.

Treaty of Verdun treaty

The Treaty of Verdun, signed in August 843, was the first of the treaties that divided the Carolingian Empire into three kingdoms among the three surviving sons of Louis the Pious, who was the son of Charlemagne. The treaty, signed in Verdun-sur-Meuse, ended the three-year Carolingian Civil War.

Contents

The title used by the early rulers was Rex Francorum orientalium, "King of the East Franks", or Rex Francorum "King of the Franks". During the later medieval period (11th to 15th centuries), the title was "King of the Romans" (Rex Romanorum), and sometimes, interchangeably, "King of the Germans" (Rex Teutonicorum). From 1508 until 1806, "King of the Romans" continued to be used by the emperor, while Rex Germaniae "King of Germany" or Rex in Germania "King in Germany" was used by the emperor's heir-apparent.

King of the Romans title used by medieval German monarchs (for the monarch of the ancient Roman kingdom, use Q55375123)

King of the Romans was a title used by Syagrius, then by the German king following his election by the princes from the time of Emperor Henry II (1014–1024) onward. The title was predominantly a claim to become Holy Roman Emperor and was dependent upon coronation by the Pope.

Also listed are the heads of the various German confederations between the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire (of which Germany was a part) in 1806 until the collapse of the German Empire in 1918.

Dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire

The dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire occurred de facto on 6 August 1806, when Emperor Francis II abdicated his title and released all imperial states and officials from their oaths and obligations to the empire. Although the abdication was considered legal, the dissolution of the imperial bonds was not and several states refused to recognise the end of the empire at the time.

German Revolution of 1918–19 Revolution in 1918–1919 in Germany

The German Revolution or November Revolution was a civil conflict in the German Empire at the end of the First World War that resulted in the replacement of the German federal constitutional monarchy with a democratic parliamentary republic that later became known as the Weimar Republic. The revolutionary period lasted from November 1918 until the adoption in August 1919 of the Weimar Constitution.

German Empire empire in Central Europe between 1871–1918

The German Empire, also known as Imperial Germany, was the German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 until the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1918.

Note on titles

  1. The Kingdom of Germany started out as the eastern section of the Frankish kingdom, which was split by the Treaty of Verdun in 843. The rulers of the eastern area thus called themselves rex Francorum, king of the Franks, and later just rex. A reference to the "Germans", indicating the emergence of a German nation of some sort, did not appear until the eleventh century, when the pope referred to his enemy Henry IV as rex teutonicorum, king of the Germans, in order to brand him as a foreigner. The kings reacted by consistently using the title rex Romanorum, King of the Romans, to emphasize their universal rule even before becoming emperor. This title remained until the end of the Empire in 1806, though after 1508 Emperors-elect added "king in Germany" to their titles. (Note: in this and related entries, the kings are called kings of Germany, for clarity's sake)
  2. The Kingdom of Germany was never entirely hereditary; rather, ancestry was only one of the factors that determined the succession of kings. During the 10th to 13th centuries, the king was formally elected by the leading nobility in the realm, continuing the Frankish tradition. Gradually the election became the privilege of a group of princes called electors, and the Golden Bull of 1356 formally defined election proceedings. [1]
  3. In the Middle Ages, the king did not assume the title "Emperor" (since 982 the full title was Imperator Augustus Romanorum, Venerable Emperor of the Romans) until crowned by the pope. Moving to Italy, he was usually first crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy, after which he assumed the title of rex Italiae, King of Italy. After this he would ride on to Rome and be crowned emperor by the pope. See Coronation of the Holy Roman Emperor for more details.
  4. The title of "King of the Germans" (rex teutonicorum) was in use from the 11th until the 18th centuries, in origin a derogatory replacement of King of the Romans (rex romanorum) imposed on Henry IV by Pope Gregory VII, in the later period a nominal title given to the heir apparent of the ruling emperor.
  5. Maximilian I was the first king to bear the title of Elected Emperor. After the failure in 1508 of his attempt to march to Rome and be crowned by the pope, he had himself proclaimed Elected Emperor with papal consent. His successor Charles V also assumed that title after his coronation in 1520 until he was crowned emperor by the pope in 1530. From Ferdinand I onwards, all emperors were Elected Emperor, although they were normally referred to as emperors. At the same time, chosen successors of the emperors held the title of king of the Romans, if elected by the college of electors during their predecessor's lifetime. See King of the Romans for more details.

Emperors are listed in bold. Rival kings, anti-kings, and junior co-regents are italicized.

East Francia, 843–962

Carolingians

Seal/PortraitNameHouseKingEmperorEndedNotes
Ludwig der Deutsche.jpg Louis the German
Ludwig der Deutsche
Carolingian 11 August 84323 August 876Son of Emperor Louis the Pious and grandson of Charlemagne
Carloman of Bavaria.png Carloman
(Karlmann)
Carolingian 28 87622 March 880Son of Louis the German; ruled in Bavaria; from 877, also King of Italy
Louis the Younger of Saxony.PNG Louis the Younger
(Ludwig III. der Jüngere)
Carolingian 28 August 87620 January 882Son of Louis the German; ruled in East Francia, Saxony; from 880, also Bavaria
Sceau de Charles le gros.jpg Charles the Fat
(Karl III. der Dicke)
Carolingian 28 August 87612 February 88111 November 887Son of Louis the German; ruled in Alemannia, Raetia, from 882 in the entire Eastern Kingdom; from 879, also King of Italy
Seal of Arnulph of Carinthia (896).jpg Arnulf of Carinthia
(Arnulf von Kärnten)
Carolingian 30 November 88725 April 8968 December 899Son of Carloman
Reichsschwert ludwig das kind.jpg Louis the Child
(Ludwig IV. das Kind)
Carolingian 21 January 90020/24 September 911Son of Arnulf of Carinthia

Conradines

SealNameHouseKingEmperorEndedNotes
KonradSiegel.jpg Conrad I
(Konrad I.)
Conradine (Franconian) 10 November 91123 December 918 

Ottonian dynasty

SealNameHouseKingEmperorEndedNotes
Siegel Heinrich I Posse.JPG Henry I the Fowler
(Heinrich I. der Vogler)
Liudolfing (Saxon) 23 April 9192 July 936 
Arnulf the Bad
(Arnulf der Böse, Herzog von Bayern)
Luitpolding (Bavarian) 919921Rival king to Henry I

Holy Roman Empire, 962–1806

The title "King of the Romans", used under the Holy Roman Empire, is considered equivalent to King of Germany. A king was chosen by the German electors and would then proceed to Rome to be crowned emperor by the pope.

Ottonian dynasty (continued)

ImageNameHouseKingEmperorEndedNotes
017 otto siegel 2.jpg Otto I the Great
(Otto I. der Große)
Ottonian 7 August 9362 February 9627 May 973Son of Henry I; first king crowned in Aachen Cathedral since Lothair I; crowned as Otto by the grace of God King; [2] crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 961
Otton2.JPG Otto II the Red
(Otto II.)
Ottonian 26 May 96125 December 9677 December 983Son of Otto I;
Otto by the grace of God King [2] under his father 961–973;
also crowned Emperor in his father's lifetime
Meister der Reichenauer Schule 002.jpg Otto III
(Otto III.)
Ottonian 25 December 98321 May 99621 January 1002Son of Otto II; Otto by the grace of God King [2]
Kronung Heinrich II.jpg Henry II
(Heinrich II. der Heilige)
Ottonian 7 June 100226 April 101413 July 1024Great-grandson of Henry I

Salian dynasty

ImageNameHouseKingEmperorEndedNotes
Drittes Kaisersiegel Konrads II. mit dem sogenannten Adlerszepter.jpg Conrad II
(Konrad II.)
Salian (Frankish) 8 September 102426 March 10274 June 1039Great-great-grandson of Otto I
Heinrich III..jpg Henry III
(Heinrich III.)
Salian 14 April 102825 December 10465 October 1056Son of Conrad II;
King (of the Germans?) [2] under his father 1028–1039
Heinrich 4 g.jpg Henry IV
(Heinrich IV.)
Salian 17 July 105421 March 108431 December 1105Son of Henry III;
King of Germany under his father, 1054–1056
Grabplatte Rudolf von Rheinfelden Detail.JPG Rudolf of Rheinfelden
(Rudolf von Rheinfelden)
Rheinfeld15 March 107715 October 1080Rival king to Henry IV
Town Hall Eisleben-Smaller Detail.jpg Hermann of Salm
(Hermann von Luxemburg, Graf von Salm)
Salm6 August 108128 September 1088Rival king to Henry IV
Conrad II of Italy.jpg Conrad
(Konrad)
Salian 30 May 108727 July 1101Son of Henry IV;
King of Germany under his father, 1087–1098,
King of Italy, 1093–1098, 1095–1101 in rebellion.
Herrschaftsubergabe von Heirich IV. an Heinrich V.jpg Henry V
(Heinrich V.)
Salian 6 January 109913 April 111123 May 1125Son of Henry IV;
King of Germany under his father, 1099–1105, forced his father to abdicate

Supplinburger dynasty

ImageNameHouseKingEmperorEndedNotes
Siegel Lothar III.jpg Lothair II
(Lothar II.)
Supplinburger 30 August 11254 June 11334 December 1137He was Lothair II of Germany, but Lothair III of Italy

Hohenstaufen and Welf

ImageNameHouseKingEmperorEndedNotes
Konrad III Miniatur 13 Jahrhundert.jpg Conrad III
(Konrad III.)
Hohenstaufen 7 March 113815 February 1152Grandson of Henry IV (through his mother);
Previously Rival King to Lothair III 1127–1135
Henry Berengar
(Heinrich (VI.))
Hohenstaufen 30 March 1147August? 1150Son of Conrad III;
King of Germany under his father 1147–1150
Friedrich-barbarossa-und-soehne-welfenchronik 1-1000x1540.jpg Frederick I Barbarossa
(Friedrich I. Barbarossa)
Hohenstaufen 4 March 115218 June 115510 June 1190Nephew of Conrad III
Kaiser Heinrich VI. im Codex Manesse.jpg Henry VI
(Heinrich VI.)
Hohenstaufen 15 August 116914 April 119128 September 1197Son of Frederick I;
King of Germany under his father 1169–1190
Frederick II and eagle.jpg Frederick II
(Friedrich II.)
Hohenstaufen 11971197Son of Henry VI;
King of Germany under his father, 1196
Vad-0321 040 Philipp von Schwaben.jpg Philip of Swabia
(Philipp von Schwaben)
Hohenstaufen 6 March 119821 August 1208Son of Frederick I; rival king to Otto IV
OttoIVgb.jpg Otto IV
(Otto IV. von Braunschweig)
Welf 29 March 11984 October 12095 July 1215Rival king to Philip of Swabia; later opposed by Frederick II; deposed, 1215; died 19 May 1218
Frederick II and eagle.jpg Frederick II
(Friedrich II.)
Hohenstaufen 5 December 121222 November 122026 December 1250Son of Henry VI;
Rival king to Otto IV until 5 July 1215
Henry 7 of Germany.jpg Henry
(Heinrich (VII.))
Hohenstaufen 23 April 122015 August 1235Son of Frederick II;
King of Germany under his father, 1220–1235
Seal of Conrad IV of Germany.jpeg Conrad IV
(Konrad IV.)
Hohenstaufen May 12371 May 1254Son of Frederick II;
King of Germany under his father, 1237–1250

Interregnum

ImageCoat of armsNameHouseKingEmperorEndedNotes
Heinrich Raspe.jpg Die lantgreue van Hessen.svg Henry Raspe
(Heinrich Raspe)
Thuringia 22 May 124616 February 1247Rival King to Frederick II and great-great-great grandson of Henry IV
Seal of William II of Holland, King of the H.R. Empire.jpg Holland wapen.svg William of Holland
(Wilhelm von Holland)
Holland 3 October 124728 January 1256Rival King to Frederick II and Conrad IV, 1247–1254
RisaCornwall.jpg Richard of Cornwall Arms (alternate).svg Richard of Cornwall
(Richard von Cornwall)
Plantagenet 13 January 12572 April 1272Brother-in-law of Frederick II; rival king to Alfonso of Castile; held no real authority.
AlfonsX.jpg Royal Coat of Arms of the Crown of Castile (1230-1284).svg Alfonso of Castile
(Alfons von Kastilien)
House of Ivrea 1 April 12571275Grandson of Philip; rival king to Richard of Cornwall; held no authority; later opposed by Rudolf I; relinquished claims 1275, died 1284

Habsburg and Nassau

ImageCoat of armsNameHouseKingEmperorEndedNotes
Kaiser Rudolf I. 1275.jpg Arms of Counts of Habsbourg.svg Rudolf I
(Rudolf I. von Habsburg)
Habsburg 29 September 127315 July 1291First of the Habsburgs
Siegel Konig Adolf von Nassau.jpg Wapen Nassauw.svg Adolf of Nassau
(Adolf von Nassau)
Nassau 5 May 129223 June 1298According to some historians, Adolf's election was preceded by the short-lived kingship of Conrad, Duke of Teck. See his article for details.
Albecht1.jpg Arms of the Archduchy of Austria.svg Albert I
(Albrecht I. von Habsburg)
Habsburg 24 June 12981 May 1308Son of Rudolf I; Rival king to Adolf of Nassau, 1298

Luxembourg and Wittelsbach

ImageCoat of armsNameHouseKingEmperorEndedNotes
Henry Lux head.jpg Henric van Lusenborch.svg Henry VII
(Heinrich VII., Luxemburger)
Luxembourg 27 November 130813 June 131124 August 1313 Holy Roman Emperor
Ludovico il Bavaro.jpeg Bavaria Wittelsbach coa medieval.svg Louis IV
(Ludwig IV. der Bayer, Wittelsbacher)
Wittelsbach 20 October 131417 January 132811 October 1347Grandson of Rudolf I; rival king to Frederick the Fair, 1314–1322
Slicny2.jpg Arms of the Archduchy of Austria.svg Frederick the Fair
(Friedrich der Schöne, Habsburger)
Habsburg 19 October 1314/
5 September 1325
28 September 1322/
13 January 1330
Son of Albert I;
rival king to Louis IV, 1314–1322;
associate king with Louis IV, 1325–1330
Charles IV-John Ocko votive picture-fragment.jpg Insigne Cechicum.svg Charles IV
(Karl IV. von Luxemburg)
Luxembourg 11 July 13465 April 135529 November 1378Grandson of Henry VII; rival king to Louis IV, 1346–1347;
also King of Bohemia, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor
Guenther von schwarzburg.jpg CoA Schwarzburg County.svg Günther von Schwarzburg
(Günther von Schwarzburg)
Schwarzburg 30 January 134924 May 1349Rival king to Charles IV
Vasikzfrkronik.jpg Arms of the Counts of Luxembourg.svg Wenceslaus
(Wenzel von Luxemburg)
Luxembourg 10 June 137620 August 1400Son of Charles IV; king of Germany under his father 1376–1378; deposed 1400;
also by inheritance King of Bohemia; died 1419
Ruprecht III (Pfalz).jpg Armoiries Baviere-Palatinat.svg Rupert of the Palatinate
(Ruprecht von der Pfalz, Wittelsbacher)
Wittelsbach 21 August 140018 May 1410Great-grandnephew of Louis IV
Pisanello 024b.jpg Sigismund Arms Hungarian Czech per pale.svg Sigismund
(Sigismund von Luxemburg)
Luxembourg 20 September 1410
/21 July 1411
3 May 14339 December 1437Son of Charles IV
Jost Lucembursky.jpg Armoiries Josse de Luxembourg.svg Jobst of Moravia
(Jobst von Mähren, Luxemburger)
Luxembourg 1 October 14108 January 1411Nephew of Charles IV; rival king to Sigismund

Habsburg

ImageCoat of armsNameHouseKingEmperorEndedNotes
Albrecht II. von Habsburg.jpg Arms of Albert II of Habsbourg (Variant).svg Albert II
(Albrecht II.)
Habsburg 18 March 143827 October 14394th in descent from Albert I;
son-in-law of Sigismund
Hans Burgkmair d. A. 005.jpg Arms of Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor.svg Frederick III
(Friedrich III.)
Habsburg 2 February 144016 March 145219 August 14934th in descent from Albert I; 2nd cousin of Albert II
Ambrogio de Predis - Maximilian I Holy Roman Emperor.jpg Maximilian I Arms.svg Maximilian I
(Maximilian I.)
Habsburg 16 February 14864 February 1508
Emperor
12 January 1519Son of Frederick III; King of Germany under his father, 1486–1493; assumed the title "Elected Emperor" in 1508 with the pope's approval
Carlos V pintado por Arias Fernandez.jpg Charles V Arms-imperial.svg Charles V
(Karl V.)
Habsburg 28 June 151928 June 1519
Emperor
3 August 1556Grandson of Maximilian I; died 21 September 1558
Bemberg Fondation Toulouse - Portrait paintings of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor by Jan Cornelisz Vermeyen Inv.1056.jpg Arms of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor (variant).svg Ferdinand I
(Ferdinand I.)
Habsburg 5 January 153114 March 1558
Emperor
25 July 1564Grandson of Maximilian I; brother of Charles V; King of Germany under his brother Charles V 1531–1556; last king to be crowned in Aachen Cathedral. Emperor
Nicolas Neufchatel 002.jpg Arms of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor (variant).svg Maximilian II
(Maximilian II.)
Habsburg 22 November 156225 July 1564
Emperor
12 October 1576Son of Ferdinand I;
King of Germany under his father 1562–1564
Joseph Heintz d. A. 002.jpg Arms of Rudolph II, Holy Roman Emperor (variant).svg Rudolf II
(Rudolf II.)
Habsburg 27 October 15752 November 1576
Emperor
20 January 1612Son of Maximilian II;
King of Germany under his father, 1575–1576
Lucas van Valckenborch - Emperor Matthias as Archduke, with baton.jpg Arms of Rudolph II, Holy Roman Emperor (variant).svg Matthias
(Matthias)
Habsburg 13 June 161213 June 1612
Emperor
20 March 1619Son of Maximilian II
Kaiser Ferdinand II. 1614.jpg Arms of Rudolph II, Holy Roman Emperor (variant).svg Ferdinand II
(Ferdinand II.)
Habsburg 28 August 161928 August 1619
Emperor
15 February 1637Grandson of Ferdinand I
Frans Luycx 002.jpg Arms of Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor-Or shield variant.svg Ferdinand III
(Ferdinand III.)
Habsburg 22 December 163615 February 1637
Emperor
2 April 1657Son of Ferdinand II;
King of Germany under his father 1636–1637
Anselmus-van-Hulle-Hommes-illustres MG 0432.tif Arms of Ferdinand III and Ferdinand VI as Kings of the Romans.svg Ferdinand IV
(Ferdinand IV.)
Habsburg 31 May 16539 July 1654Son of Ferdinand III;
King of Germany under his father
Benjamin von Block 001.jpg Arms of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor (variant).svg Leopold I
(Leopold I.)
Habsburg 18 July 165818 July 1658
Emperor
5 May 1705Son of Ferdinand III
Joseph I Holy Roman Emperor.png Arms of Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor (variant).svg Joseph I
(Joseph I.)
Habsburg 23 January 16905 May 1705
Emperor
17 April 1711Son of Leopold I; King of Germany under his father 1690–1705
Johann Gottfried Auerbach 004.jpg Arms of Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor-Or shield variant.svg Charles VI
(Karl VI.)
Habsburg 27 October 171127 October 1711
Emperor
20 October 1740Son of Leopold I

Wittelsbach

ImageCoat of armsNameHouseKingEmperorEndedNotes
Charles VII, Holy Roman Emperor.PNG Arms of Charles VII Albert, Holy Roman Emperor-Or shield variant.svg Charles VII
(Karl VII.)
Wittelsbach 14 January 174214 January 1742
Emperor
20 January 1745Great-great-grandson of Ferdinand II; Husband of Maria Amalia, daughter of Joseph I

Habsburg-Lorraine

ImageCoat of armsNameHouseKingEmperorEndedNotes
Martin van Meytens 006.jpg Arms of Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor-Or shield variant.svg Francis I
(Franz I.)
Lorraine 13 September 174513 September 1745
Emperor
18 August 1765Great-grandson of Ferdinand III; Husband of Maria Theresa, daughter of Charles VI
Anton von Maron 006.png Arms of Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor-Or shield variant.svg Joseph II
(Joseph II.)
Habsburg-Lorraine 27 March 176418 August 1765
Emperor
20 February 1790Son of Francis I and Maria Theresa; King of Germany under his father 1764–1765
Johann Daniel Donat, Emperor Leopold II in the Regalia of the Golden Fleece (1806).png Arms of Leopold II and Francis II, Holy Roman Emperors-Or shield variant.svg Leopold II
(Leopold II.)
Habsburg-Lorraine 30 September 179030 September 1790
Emperor
1 March 1792Son of Francis I and Maria Theresa
Friedrich von Amerling 003a.jpg Arms of Leopold II and Francis II, Holy Roman Emperors-Or shield variant.svg Francis II
(Franz II.)
Habsburg-Lorraine 7 July 17927 July 1792
Emperor
6 August 1806Son of Leopold II; Dissolved the Holy Roman Empire; also Emperor of Austria 1804–1835; President of the German Confederation (1815-1835), died 1835

Modern Germany, 1806–1918

Confederation of the Rhine, 1806–1813

NamePortraitTitleHouseBeganEnded
Napoleon
Emperor of the French
King of Italy
Napoleon crop.jpg Protector of the
Confederation of the Rhine
Insigne Francum Napoleonis.svg
Bonaparte
12 July 180619 October 1813
Karl Theodor von Dalberg,
Prince-Archbishop of Regensburg
Grand Duke of Frankfurt
Portrait of Karl Theodor von Dalberg by Franz Stirnbrand.jpg Prince Primate of the
Confederation of the Rhine
Wappen Grossherzogtum Frankfurt.svg
Dalberg
25 July 180626 October 1813
Eugène de Beauharnais,
Grand Duke of Frankfurt
EugeneBeau.jpg Prince Primate of the
Confederation of the Rhine
Blason Eugene de Beauharnais (1781-1824).svg
Beauharnais
26 October 1813December
1813

German Confederation, 1815–1866

NamePortraitTitleHouseBeganEnded
Francis I,
Emperor of Austria
(Franz I., Kaiser von Österreich)
Friedrich von Amerling 003a.jpg Head of the presiding power (Präsidialmacht) Austria [3] Imperial Coat of Arms of the Empire of Austria (1815).svg
Habsburg-Lorraine
20 June 18152 March 1835
Ferdinand I,
Emperor of Austria
(Ferdinand I., Kaiser von Österreich)
Ferdinand I; Keizer van Oostenrijk.jpg Head of the presiding power (Präsidialmacht) Austria [3] Imperial Coat of Arms of the Empire of Austria (1815).svg
Habsburg-Lorraine
2 March 183512 July 1848
Archduke John of Austria
(Erzherzog Johann von Österreich)
Leopold Kupelwieser 001.jpg Imperial Vicar (Reichsverweser) of the revolutionary German Empire [4] Imperial Coat of Arms of the Empire of Austria (1815).svg
Habsburg-Lorraine
12 July 184820 December 1849
Frederick William IV, King of Prussia
(Friedrich Wilhelm IV., König von Preußen)
FWIV.jpg Emperor of the Germans elect [5] Preussen1817 Wappen.jpg
Hohenzollern
28 March 184928 April 1849
Presidium of the Union (Unionsvorstand) of the
Erfurt Union [6]
26 May 184929 November 1850
Francis Joseph I,
Emperor of Austria
(Franz Joseph I., Kaiser von Österreich)
Franz joseph1.jpg Head of the presiding power (Präsidialmacht) Austria Imperial Coat of Arms of the Empire of Austria (1815).svg
Habsburg-Lorraine
1 May 185024 August 1866

North German Confederation, 1867–1871

NamePortraitTitleHouseBeganEnded
Wilhelm I,
King of Prussia
(Wilhelm I, König von Preußen)
Wilhelm1.jpg
Holder of the Bundespräsidium of the
North German Confederation
Preussen1817 Wappen.jpg
Hohenzollern
1 July 18671 January 1871 [7]

German Empire, 1871–1918

NamePortraitTitleHouseBeganEnded
Wilhelm I,
German Emperor
(Wilhelm I., Deutscher Kaiser)
Wilhelm1.jpg
German Emperor Hohenzollern Reichswappen Kleines.png
Hohenzollern
1 January 1871 [7] 9 March 1888
Friedrich III,
German Emperor
(Friedrich III., Deutscher Kaiser)
FriedIII.jpg
German Emperor Hohenzollern Reichswappen Kleines.png
Hohenzollern
9 March 188815 June 1888
Wilhelm II,
German Emperor
(Wilhelm II., Deutscher Kaiser)
EmporerWilhelm2.jpg
German Emperor Hohenzollern Reichswappen Kleines.png
Hohenzollern
15 June 18889/28 November 1918 [8]

See also

Footnotes

    1. Germany - Britannica Educational Publishing
    2. 1 2 3 4 Medieval Europeans: studies in ethnic identity and national perspectives in medieval Europe By Alfred P. Smyth, Palgrave Macmillan (1998), p. 64
    3. 1 2 Ernst Rudolf Huber: Deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte seit 1789. Vol. I: Reform und Restauration 1789 bis 1830. 2nd edition, Verlag W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart [et.al.] 1967, p. 589.
    4. Ernst Rudolf Huber: Deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte seit 1789. Vol. I: Reform und Restauration 1789 bis 1830. 2nd edition, Verlag W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart [et.al.] 1967, p. 625–627, 808.
    5. Elected Emperor of the Germans by the Frankfurt National Assembly on 28 March 1849, but refused the crown on 28 April 1849. Manfred Botzenhart: Deutscher Parlamentarismus in der Revolutionszeit 1848–1850. Droste Verlag, Düsseldorf 1977, pp. 697/698.
    6. Anlage II: Additional-Akte zu dem Entwurf der Verfassung des Deutschen Reichs. In: Thüringer Landtag Erfurt (ed.): 150 Jahre Erfurter Unionsparlament (1850–2000) (= Schriften zur Geschichte des Parlamentarismus in Thüringen. H. 15) Wartburg Verlag, Weimar 2000, ISBN   3-86160-515-5, S. 27–44, here pp. 185–187.
    7. 1 2 Ernst Rudolf Huber: Deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte seit 1789. Band III: Bismarck und das Reich. 3. Auflage, W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1988, S. 750/751.
    8. His abdication was announced by the Chancellor on 9 November, and the Emperor went into exile in the Netherlands. He did not formally abdicate until 28 November.

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    The Holy Roman Empire was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars. The largest territory of the empire after 962 was the Kingdom of Germany, though it also came to include the neighboring Kingdom of Bohemia, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, and numerous other territories.

    House of Habsburg Austrian dynastic family

    The House of Habsburg, also called the House of Austria, was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe. The throne of the Holy Roman Empire was continuously occupied by the Habsburgs from 1438 until their extinction in the male line in 1740. The house also produced emperors and kings of the Kingdom of Bohemia, Kingdom of England, Kingdom of Germany, Kingdom of Hungary, Kingdom of Croatia, Kingdom of Illyria, Second Mexican Empire, Kingdom of Ireland, Kingdom of Portugal, and Kingdom of Spain, as well as rulers of several Dutch and Italian principalities. From the 16th century, following the reign of Charles V, the dynasty was split between its Austrian and Spanish branches. Although they ruled distinct territories, they nevertheless maintained close relations and frequently intermarried.

    Ottonian dynasty dynasty

    The Ottonian dynasty was a Saxon dynasty of German monarchs (919–1024), named after three of its kings and Holy Roman Emperors named Otto, especially its first Emperor Otto I. It is also known as the Saxon dynasty after the family's origin in the German stem duchy of Saxony. The family itself is also sometimes known as the Liudolfings (Liudolfinger), after its earliest known member Count Liudolf and one of its primary leading-names. The Ottonian rulers were successors of the Germanic king Conrad I who was the only Germanic king to rule in East Francia after the Carolingian dynasty and before this dynasty.

    The Salian dynasty was a dynasty in the High Middle Ages. The dynasty provided four German Kings (1024–1125), all of whom went on to be crowned Holy Roman Emperor (1027–1125); as such, the term Salic dynasty is also used to refer to the Holy Roman Empire of the time as a separate term.

    The Holy Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire during the Middle Ages and the early modern period. The title was, almost without interruption, held in conjunction with title of King of Germany throughout the 12th to 18th centuries.

    <i>Kaiser</i> title of authority

    Kaiser is the German word for "emperor". Like the Bulgarian, Serbian and Russian word Tsar, it is directly derived from the Roman emperors' title of Caesar, which in turn is derived from the personal name of a branch of the gens (clan) Julia, to which Gaius Julius Caesar, the forebear of the first imperial family, belonged. In general the german title was only used for rulers over kings (König). Although the British monarchs styled "Emperor of India" were also called Kaisar-i-Hind in Hindi and Urdu, this word, although ultimately sharing the same Latin origin, is derived from the Greek: Καῖσαρ (kaisar), not the German Kaiser.

    King of Italy ruler who ruled part or all of the Italian Peninsula after the fall of the Western Roman Empire

    King of Italy was the title given to the ruler of the Kingdom of Italy after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The first to take the title was Odoacer, a "barbarian" military leader, in the late 5th century, followed by the Ostrogothic kings up to the mid-6th century. With the Frankish conquest of Italy in the 8th century, the Carolingians assumed the title, which was maintained by subsequent Holy Roman Emperors throughout the Middle Ages. The last Emperor to claim the title was Charles V in the 16th century. During this period, the holders of the title were crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy.

    German Emperor Head of state of Germany 1871-1918

    The German Emperor was the official title of the head of state and hereditary ruler of the German Empire. A specifically chosen term, it was introduced with the 1 January 1871 constitution and lasted until the official abdication of Wilhelm II on 28 November 1918. The Holy Roman Emperor is sometimes also called "German Emperor" when the historical context is clear, as derived from the Holy Roman Empire's official name of "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation" from 1512.

    Declaration of Rhense

    The Declaration of Rhens or Treaty of Rhens was a decree or Kurverein of the Prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire issued in 1338 and initiated by Baldwin of Luxembourg, the Archbishop of Trier and brother of the late Emperor Henry VII.

    Kingdom of Italy (Holy Roman Empire) Medieval kingdom on the Apennine Peninsula between 962 and 1024

    The Kingdom of Italy was one of the constituent kingdoms of the Holy Roman Empire, along with the kingdoms of Germany, Bohemia, and Burgundy. It comprised northern and central Italy, but excluded the Republic of Venice and the Papal States. Its original capital was Pavia until the 11th century.

    Tsar title given to a male monarch in Russia, Bulgaria and Serbia

    Tsar, also spelled czar, or tzar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe, originally Bulgarian monarchs from 10th century onwards. As a system of government in the Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire, it is known as Tsarist autocracy, or Tsarism. The term is derived from the Latin word Caesar, which was intended to mean "Emperor" in the European medieval sense of the term—a ruler with the same rank as a Roman emperor, holding it by the approval of another emperor or a supreme ecclesiastical official —but was usually considered by western Europeans to be equivalent to king, or to be somewhat in between a royal and imperial rank.

    The Imperial Plan of 1870 was a diplomatic initiative set out by the Prussian Minister President and Federal Chancellor of the North German Confederation, Otto von Bismarck. Accordingly, the Prussian King was able to assume the title of Emperor.

    Imperial Sovereign

    The question of an Imperial Sovereign or emperor was a central issue in Germany's attempts at unification between 1848 and 1850. Both the draft constitutional act with its provision for centralised power as well as the constitutional plans at that time, laid down how a German head of state would be selected for office and what rights they were to have.