List of German monarchs

Last updated
German kingdom (blue) in the Holy Roman Empire around 1000 HRR 10Jh.jpg
German kingdom (blue) in the Holy Roman Empire around 1000

This is a list of monarchs who ruled over East Francia, and the Kingdom of Germany (Regnum Teutonicum), from the division of the Frankish Empire in 843 until the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806.


The title used by the early rulers was Rex Francorum orientalium, "King of the East Franks", or Rex Francorum "King of the Franks". During the later medieval period (11th to 15th centuries), the title was "King of the Romans" (Rex Romanorum), and sometimes, interchangeably, "King of the Germans" (Rex Teutonicorum). From 1508 until 1806, "King of the Romans" continued to be used by the emperor, while Rex Germaniae "King of Germany" or Rex in Germania "King in Germany" was used by the emperor's heir-apparent.

Also listed are the heads of the various German confederations between the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire (of which Germany was a part) in 1806 until the collapse of the German Empire in 1918.

Note on titles

  1. The Kingdom of Germany started out as the eastern section of the Frankish kingdom, which was split by the Treaty of Verdun in 843. The rulers of the eastern area thus called themselves rex Francorum, king of the Franks, and later just rex. A reference to the "Germans", indicating the emergence of a German nation of some sort, did not appear until the eleventh century, when the pope referred to his enemy Henry IV as rex teutonicorum, king of the Germans, in order to brand him as a foreigner. The kings reacted by consistently using the title rex Romanorum, King of the Romans, to emphasize their universal rule even before becoming emperor. This title remained until the end of the Empire in 1806, though after 1508 Emperors-elect added "king in Germany" to their titles. (Note: in this and related entries, the kings are called kings of Germany, for clarity's sake)
  2. The Kingdom of Germany was never entirely hereditary; rather, ancestry was only one of the factors that determined the succession of kings. During the 10th to 13th centuries, the king was formally elected by the leading nobility in the realm, continuing the Frankish tradition. Gradually the election became the privilege of a group of princes called electors, and the Golden Bull of 1356 formally defined election proceedings. [1]
  3. In the Middle Ages, the king did not assume the title "Emperor" (since 982 the full title was Imperator Augustus Romanorum, Venerable Emperor of the Romans) until crowned by the pope. Moving to Italy, he was usually first crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy, after which he assumed the title of rex Italiae, King of Italy. After this he would ride on to Rome and be crowned emperor by the pope. See Coronation of the Holy Roman Emperor for more details.
  4. The title of "King of the Germans" (rex teutonicorum) was in use from the 11th until the 18th centuries, in origin a derogatory replacement of King of the Romans (rex romanorum) imposed on Henry IV by Pope Gregory VII, in the later period a nominal title given to the heir apparent of the ruling emperor.
  5. Maximilian I was the first king to bear the title of Elected Emperor. After the failure in 1508 of his attempt to march to Rome and be crowned by the pope, he had himself proclaimed Elected Emperor with papal consent. His successor Charles V also assumed that title after his coronation in 1520 until he was crowned emperor by the pope in 1530. From Ferdinand I onwards, all emperors were Elected Emperor, although they were normally referred to as emperors. At the same time, chosen successors of the emperors held the title of king of the Romans, if elected by the college of electors during their predecessor's lifetime. See King of the Romans for more details.

Emperors are listed in bold. Rival kings, anti-kings, and junior co-regents are italicized.

East Francia, 843–962


Ludwig der Deutsche.jpg Louis the German
Ludwig der Deutsche
Carolingian 11 August 84323 August 876Son of Emperor Louis the Pious and grandson of Charlemagne
Carloman of Bavaria.png Carloman
Carolingian 28 August


22 March 880Son of Louis the German; ruled in Bavaria; from 877, also King of Italy
Louis the Younger of Saxony.PNG Louis the Younger
(Ludwig III. der Jüngere)
Carolingian 28 August 87620 January 882Son of Louis the German; ruled in East Francia, Saxony; from 880, also Bavaria
Sceau de Charles le gros.jpg Charles the Fat
(Karl III. der Dicke)
Carolingian 28 August 87612 February 88111 November 887Son of Louis the German; ruled in Alemannia, Raetia, from 882 in the entire Eastern Kingdom; from 879, also King of Italy
Seal of Arnulph of Carinthia (896).jpg Arnulf of Carinthia
(Arnulf von Kärnten)
Carolingian 30 November 88725 April 8968 December 899Illegitimate son of Carloman
Die deutschen Kaiser Ludwig das Kind.jpg Louis the Child
(Ludwig IV. das Kind)
Carolingian 21 January 90020/24 September 911Son of Arnulf of Carinthia

Conradine dynasty

KonradSiegel.jpg Conrad I
(Konrad I.)
Conradine (Franconian) 10 November 91123 December 918Elected by the nobility

Ottonian dynasty

Siegel Heinrich I Posse.JPG Henry I the Fowler
(Heinrich I. der Vogler)
Liudolfing (Saxon) 23 April 9192 July 936Elected by the nobility
Arnulf II. Pfalzgraf von Bayern.jpg Arnulf the Bad
(Arnulf der Böse, Herzog von Bayern)
Luitpolding (Bavarian) 919921Rival king to Henry I

Holy Roman Empire, 962–1806

The title "King of the Romans", used under the Holy Roman Empire, is (from this point onwards) considered equivalent to King of Germany. A king was chosen by the German electors and would then proceed to Rome to be crowned emperor by the pope.

Ottonian dynasty (continued)

Siegel Otto I Posse.JPG Otto I the Great
(Otto I. der Große)
Ottonian 7 August 9362 February 9627 May 973Son of Henry I; first king crowned in Aachen Cathedral since Lothair I; crowned as Otto by the grace of God King; [2] crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 961
Otto II (HRE).jpg Otto II the Red
(Otto II.)
Ottonian 26 May 96125 December 9677 December 983Son of Otto I;
Otto by the grace of God King [2] under his father 961–973;
also crowned Emperor in his father's lifetime
Meister der Reichenauer Schule 002.jpg Otto III
(Otto III.)
Ottonian 25 December 98321 May 99621 January 1002Son of Otto II; Otto by the grace of God King [2]
Kronung Heinrich II.jpg Henry II
(Heinrich II. der Heilige)
Ottonian 7 June 100226 April 101413 July 1024Great-grandson of Henry I

Salian dynasty

Conrad II (HRE).jpg Conrad II
(Konrad II.)
Salian (Frankish) 8 September 102426 March 10274 June 1039Great-great-grandson of Otto I
Heinrich III. (HRR) Miniatur.jpg Henry III
(Heinrich III.)
Salian 14 April 102825 December 10465 October 1056Son of Conrad II;
King (of the Germans?) [2] under his father 1028–1039
Heinrich 4 g.jpg Henry IV
(Heinrich IV.)
Salian 17 July 105421 March 108431 December 1105Son of Henry III;
King of Germany under his father, 1054–1056
Grabplatte Rudolf von Rheinfelden Detail.JPG Rudolf of Rheinfelden
(Rudolf von Rheinfelden)
Rheinfeld15 March 107715 October 1080Rival king to Henry IV
Town Hall Eisleben-Smaller Detail.jpg Hermann of Salm
(Hermann von Luxemburg, Graf von Salm)
Salm6 August 108128 September 1088Rival king to Henry IV
Conrad II of Italy.jpg Conrad
Salian 30 May 108727 July 1101Son of Henry IV;
King of Germany under his father, 1087–1098,
King of Italy, 1093–1098, 1095–1101 in rebellion.
Henry V of Germany.jpg Henry V
(Heinrich V.)
Salian 6 January 109913 April 111123 May 1125Son of Henry IV;
King of Germany under his father, 1099–1105, forced his father to abdicate

Supplinburger dynasty

Lothair II, Holy Roman Emperor.jpg Lothair III
(Lothar III.)
Supplinburger 30 August 11254 June 11334 December 1137He was Lothair II of Germany, but Lothair III of Italy

Hohenstaufen and Welf

Konrad III Miniatur 13 Jahrhundert.jpg Conrad III
(Konrad III.)
Hohenstaufen 7 March 113815 February 1152Grandson of Henry IV (through his mother);
Previously Rival King to Lothair III 1127–1135
Henry Berengar
(Heinrich (VI.))
Hohenstaufen 30 March 1147August? 1150Son of Conrad III;
King of Germany under his father 1147–1150
Friedrich-barbarossa-und-soehne-welfenchronik 1-1000x1540.jpg Frederick I Barbarossa
(Friedrich I. Barbarossa)
Hohenstaufen 4 March 115218 June 115510 June 1190Nephew of Conrad III
Kaiser Heinrich VI. im Codex Manesse.jpg Henry VI
(Heinrich VI.)
Hohenstaufen 15 August 116914 April 119128 September 1197Son of Frederick I;
King of Germany under his father 1169–1190
Frederick II and eagle.jpg Frederick II
(Friedrich II.)
Hohenstaufen 11971197Son of Henry VI;
King of Germany under his father, 1196
Vad-0321 040 Philipp von Schwaben.jpg Philip of Swabia
(Philipp von Schwaben)
Hohenstaufen 6 March 119821 August 1208Son of Frederick I; rival king to Otto IV
Ottta4Brunsvicky.jpg Otto IV
(Otto IV. von Braunschweig)
Welf 29 March 11984 October 12095 July 1215Rival king to Philip of Swabia; later opposed by Frederick II; deposed, 1215; died 19 May 1218
Frederick II and eagle.jpg Frederick II
(Friedrich II.)
Hohenstaufen 5 December 121222 November 122026 December 1250Son of Henry VI;
Rival king to Otto IV until 5 July 1215
Henry 7 of Germany.jpg Henry
(Heinrich (VII.))
Hohenstaufen 23 April 122015 August 1235Son of Frederick II;
King of Germany under his father, 1220–1235
Seal of Conrad IV of Germany.jpeg Conrad IV
(Konrad IV.)
Hohenstaufen May 12371 May 1254Son of Frederick II;
King of Germany under his father, 1237–1250


ImageCoat of armsNameHouseKingEmperorEndedNotes
Heinrich Raspe.jpg Die lantgreue van Hessen.svg Henry Raspe
(Heinrich Raspe)
Thuringia 22 May 124616 February 1247Rival King to Frederick II and great-great-great grandson of Henry IV
Seal of William II of Holland, King of the H.R. Empire.jpg Holland wapen.svg William of Holland
(Wilhelm von Holland)
Holland 3 October 124728 January 1256Rival King to Frederick II and Conrad IV, 1247–1254
Richard Cornwall.jpg Richard of Cornwall Arms (alternate).svg Richard of Cornwall
(Richard von Cornwall)
Plantagenet 13 January 12572 April 1272Brother-in-law of Frederick II; rival king to Alfonso of Castile; held no real authority.
Alfonso X el Sabio en El libro de los juegos.jpg Royal Coat of Arms of the Crown of Castile (1230-1284).svg Alfonso of Castile
(Alfons von Kastilien)
House of Ivrea 1 April 12571275Grandson of Philip; rival king to Richard of Cornwall; held no authority; later opposed by Rudolf I; relinquished claims 1275, died 1284

Habsburg and Nassau

ImageCoat of armsNameHouseKingEmperorEndedNotes
Rudolf von Habsburg Speyer.jpg Arms of Counts of Habsbourg.svg Rudolf I
(Rudolf I. von Habsburg)
Habsburg 29 September 127315 July 1291First of the Habsburgs
Adolf von nassau montanus.JPG Wapen Nassauw.svg Adolf of Nassau
(Adolf von Nassau)
Nassau 5 May 129223 June 1298According to some historians, Adolf's election was preceded by the short-lived kingship of Conrad, Duke of Teck. See his article for details.
Albrecht Erste Habsburg.jpg Arms of the Archduchy of Austria.svg Albert I
(Albrecht I. von Habsburg)
Habsburg 24 June 12981 May 1308Son of Rudolf I; Rival king to Adolf of Nassau, 1298

Luxembourg and Wittelsbach

ImageCoat of armsNameHouseKingEmperorEndedNotes
Henry Lux head.jpg Henric van Lusenborch.svg Henry VII
(Heinrich VII., Luxemburger)
Luxembourg 27 November 130813 June 131124 August 1313 Holy Roman Emperor
Ludwig der Bayer.jpg Bavaria Wittelsbach coa medieval.svg Louis IV
(Ludwig IV. der Bayer, Wittelsbacher)
Wittelsbach 20 October 131417 January 132811 October 1347Grandson of Rudolf I; rival king to Frederick the Fair, 1314–1322
Frederick III the Fair.jpg Arms of the Archduchy of Austria.svg Frederick the Fair
(Friedrich der Schöne, Habsburger)
Habsburg 19 October 1314/
5 September 1325
28 September 1322/
13 January 1330
Son of Albert I;
rival king to Louis IV, 1314–1322;
associate king with Louis IV, 1325–1330
Charles IV-John Ocko votive picture-fragment.jpg Insigne Cechicum.svg Charles IV
(Karl IV. von Luxemburg)
Luxembourg 11 July 13465 April 135529 November 1378Grandson of Henry VII; rival king to Louis IV, 1346–1347;
also King of Bohemia, King of Italy and Holy Roman Emperor
Guenther von schwarzburg.jpg CoA Schwarzburg County.svg Günther von Schwarzburg
(Günther von Schwarzburg)
Schwarzburg 30 January 134924 May 1349Rival king to Charles IV
Vaclav of Bohemia.jpg Arms of the Counts of Luxembourg.svg Wenceslaus
(Wenzel von Luxemburg)
Luxembourg 10 June 137620 August 1400Son of Charles IV; king of Germany under his father 1376–1378; deposed 1400;
also by inheritance King of Bohemia; died 1419
Rupert I of Germany.jpg Armoiries Baviere-Palatinat.svg Rupert of the Palatinate
(Ruprecht von der Pfalz, Wittelsbacher)
Wittelsbach 21 August 140018 May 1410Great-grandnephew of Louis IV
Pisanello 024b.jpg Sigismund Arms Hungarian Czech per pale.svg Sigismund
(Sigismund von Luxemburg)
Luxembourg 20 September 1410
/21 July 1411
3 May 14339 December 1437Son of Charles IV
Jost Lucembursky.jpg Armoiries Josse de Luxembourg.svg Jobst of Moravia
(Jobst von Mähren, Luxemburger)
Luxembourg 1 October 14108 January 1411Nephew of Charles IV; rival king to Sigismund


ImageCoat of armsNameHouseKingEmperorEndedNotes
Albrecht II. von Habsburg.jpg Arms of Albert II of Habsbourg (Variant).svg Albert II
(Albrecht II.)
Habsburg 18 March 143827 October 14394th in descent from Albert I;
son-in-law of Sigismund
Hans Burgkmair d. A. 005.jpg Arms of Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor.svg Frederick III
(Friedrich III.)
Habsburg 2 February 144016 March 145219 August 14934th in descent from Albert I; 2nd cousin of Albert II
Albrecht Durer - Portrait of Maximilian I - Google Art Project.jpg Maximilian I Arms.svg Maximilian I
(Maximilian I.)
Habsburg 16 February 14864 February 1508
12 January 1519Son of Frederick III; King of Germany under his father, 1486–1493; assumed the title "Elected Emperor" in 1508 with the pope's approval
Elderly Karl V.jpg Charles V Arms-imperial.svg Charles V
(Karl V.)
Habsburg 28 June 151928 June 1519
3 August 1556Grandson of Maximilian I; died 21 September 1558
Hans Bocksberger der Aeltere 001.jpg Arms of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor (variant).svg Ferdinand I
(Ferdinand I.)
Habsburg 5 January 153114 March 1558
25 July 1564Grandson of Maximilian I; brother of Charles V; King of Germany under his brother Charles V 1531–1556; last king to be crowned in Aachen Cathedral. Emperor
Nicolas Neufchatel 002.jpg Arms of Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor (variant).svg Maximilian II
(Maximilian II.)
Habsburg 22 November 156225 July 1564
12 October 1576Son of Ferdinand I;
King of Germany under his father 1562–1564
AACHEN, Hans von - Portrait of Emperor Rudolf II - WGA.jpg Arms of Rudolph II, Holy Roman Emperor (variant).svg Rudolf II
(Rudolf II.)
Habsburg 27 October 15752 November 1576
20 January 1612Son of Maximilian II;
King of Germany under his father, 1575–1576
Matthias, keizer van het Heilige Roomse Rijk (1557-1619). Rijksmuseum SK-A-1412.jpeg Arms of Rudolph II, Holy Roman Emperor (variant).svg Matthias
Habsburg 13 June 161213 June 1612
20 March 1619Son of Maximilian II
Kaiser Ferdinand II. 1614.jpg Arms of Rudolph II, Holy Roman Emperor (variant).svg Ferdinand II
(Ferdinand II.)
Habsburg 28 August 161928 August 1619
15 February 1637Grandson of Ferdinand I
Jan van den Hoecke - Portrait of Emperor Ferdinand III.jpg Arms of Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor-Or shield variant.svg Ferdinand III
(Ferdinand III.)
Habsburg 22 December 163615 February 1637
2 April 1657Son of Ferdinand II;
King of Germany under his father 1636–1637
Frans Luyckx - Ferdinand IV, King of the Romans.jpg Arms of Ferdinand III and Ferdinand VI as Kings of the Romans.svg Ferdinand IV
(Ferdinand IV.)
Habsburg 31 May 16539 July 1654Son of Ferdinand III;
King of Germany under his father
Benjamin von Block 001.jpg Arms of Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor (variant).svg Leopold I
(Leopold I.)
Habsburg 18 July 165818 July 1658
5 May 1705Son of Ferdinand III
JosephI.1705.JPG Arms of Joseph I, Holy Roman Emperor (variant).svg Joseph I
(Joseph I.)
Habsburg 23 January 16905 May 1705
17 April 1711Son of Leopold I; King of Germany under his father 1690–1705
Martin van Meytens (attrib.) - Portrat Kaiser Karl VI.jpg Arms of Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor-Or shield variant.svg Charles VI
(Karl VI.)
Habsburg 27 October 171127 October 1711
20 October 1740Son of Leopold I


ImageCoat of armsNameHouseKingEmperorEndedNotes
Carl Albrecht VII, by workshop of George Desmarees.jpg Arms of Charles VII Albert, Holy Roman Emperor-Or shield variant.svg Charles VII
(Karl VII.)
Wittelsbach 14 January 174214 January 1742
20 January 1745Great-great-grandson of Ferdinand II; Husband of Maria Amalia, daughter of Joseph I


ImageCoat of armsNameHouseKingEmperorEndedNotes
Martin van Meytens 006.jpg Arms of Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor-Or shield variant.svg Francis I
(Franz I.)
Lorraine 13 September 174513 September 1745
18 August 1765Great-grandson of Ferdinand III; Husband of Maria Theresa, daughter of Charles VI
Carl von Sales Bildnis Joseph II posthum 1823.jpg Arms of Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor-Or shield variant.svg Joseph II
(Joseph II.)
Habsburg-Lorraine 27 March 176418 August 1765
20 February 1790Son of Francis I and Maria Theresa; King of Germany under his father 1764–1765
Mengs, Anton Raphael - Pietro Leopoldo d'Asburgo Lorena, granduca di Toscana - 1770 - Prado.jpg Arms of Leopold II and Francis II, Holy Roman Emperors-Or shield variant.svg Leopold II
(Leopold II.)
Habsburg-Lorraine 30 September 179030 September 1790
1 March 1792Son of Francis I and Maria Theresa
Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor at age 25, 1792.png Arms of Leopold II and Francis II, Holy Roman Emperors-Or shield variant.svg Francis II
(Franz II.)
Habsburg-Lorraine 7 July 17927 July 1792
6 August 1806Son of Leopold II; Dissolved the Holy Roman Empire; also Emperor of Austria 1804–1835; President of the German Confederation (1815-1835), died 1835

Modern Germany, 1806–1918

Confederation of the Rhine, 1806–1813

Emperor of the French
King of Italy
Jacques-Louis David - The Emperor Napoleon in His Study at the Tuileries - Google Art Project.jpg Protector of the Confederation of the Rhine Insigne Francum Napoleonis.svg
12 July 180619 October 1813
Karl Theodor von Dalberg,
Prince-Archbishop of Regensburg
Grand Duke of Frankfurt
Portrait of Karl Theodor von Dalberg by Franz Stirnbrand.jpg Prince-primate of the
Confederation of the Rhine
Wappen Grossherzogtum Frankfurt.svg
25 July 180626 October 1813
Eugène de Beauharnais,
Grand Duke of Frankfurt
Eugene de Beauharnais, vice-roi d'Italie.jpg Prince-primate of the
Confederation of the Rhine
Blason Eugene de Beauharnais (1781-1824).svg
26 October 1813December

German Confederation, 1815–1866

Francis I,
Emperor of Austria
(Franz I., Kaiser von Österreich)
Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor at age 25, 1792.png Head of the presiding power (Präsidialmacht) Austria [3] Imperial Coat of Arms of the Empire of Austria (1815).svg
20 June 18152 March 1835
Ferdinand I,
Emperor of Austria
(Ferdinand I., Kaiser von Österreich)
Kaiser Ferdinand I.jpg Head of the presiding power (Präsidialmacht) Austria [3] Imperial Coat of Arms of the Empire of Austria (1815).svg
2 March 183512 July 1848
Archduke John of Austria
(Erzherzog Johann von Österreich)
Leopold Kupelwieser - Erzherzog Johann.jpg Imperial Vicar (Reichsverweser) of the revolutionary German Empire [4] Imperial Coat of Arms of the Empire of Austria (1815).svg
12 July 184820 December 1849
Frederick William IV, King of Prussia
(Friedrich Wilhelm IV., König von Preußen)
Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia (1847).jpg Emperor of the Germans elect [5] Wappen Hohenzollern.svg
28 March 184928 April 1849
Presidium of the Union (Unionsvorstand) of the
Erfurt Union [6]
26 May 184929 November 1850
Francis Joseph I,
Emperor of Austria
(Franz Joseph I., Kaiser von Österreich)
Emperor Francis Joseph.jpg Head of the presiding power (Präsidialmacht) Austria Imperial Coat of Arms of the Empire of Austria (1815).svg
1 May 185024 August 1866

North German Confederation, 1867–1871

Wilhelm I,
King of Prussia
(Wilhelm I, König von Preußen)
Kaiser Wilhelm I. .JPG
Holder of the Bundespräsidium of the
North German Confederation
Wappen Hohenzollern.svg
1 July 18671 January 1871 [7]

German Empire, 1871–1918

Wilhelm I,
German Emperor
(Wilhelm I., Deutscher Kaiser)
Kaiser Wilhelm I. .JPG
German Emperor Wappenschild des Deutschen Kaiserreiches (1889-1918).svg
1 January 1871 [7] 9 March 1888
Friedrich III,
German Emperor
(Friedrich III., Deutscher Kaiser)
Emperor Friedrich III.png
German Emperor Wappenschild des Deutschen Kaiserreiches (1889-1918).svg
9 March 188815 June 1888
Wilhelm II,
German Emperor
(Wilhelm II., Deutscher Kaiser)
Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany - 1902.jpg
German Emperor Wappenschild des Deutschen Kaiserreiches (1889-1918).svg
15 June 18889/28 November 1918 [8]

See also


    1. Germany - Britannica Educational Publishing
    2. 1 2 3 4 Medieval Europeans: studies in ethnic identity and national perspectives in medieval Europe By Alfred P. Smyth, Palgrave Macmillan (1998), p. 64
    3. 1 2 Ernst Rudolf Huber: Deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte seit 1789. Vol. I: Reform und Restauration 1789 bis 1830. 2nd edition, Kohlhammer Verlag, Stuttgart [] 1967, p. 589.
    4. Ernst Rudolf Huber: Deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte seit 1789. Vol. I: Reform und Restauration 1789 bis 1830. 2nd edition, Kohlhammer Verlag, Stuttgart [] 1967, p. 625–627, 808.
    5. Elected Emperor of the Germans by the Frankfurt National Assembly on 28 March 1849, but refused the crown on 28 April 1849. Manfred Botzenhart: Deutscher Parlamentarismus in der Revolutionszeit 1848–1850. Droste Verlag, Düsseldorf 1977, pp. 697/698.
    6. Anlage II: Additional-Akte zu dem Entwurf der Verfassung des Deutschen Reichs. In: Thüringer Landtag Erfurt (ed.): 150 Jahre Erfurter Unionsparlament (1850–2000) (= Schriften zur Geschichte des Parlamentarismus in Thüringen. H. 15) Wartburg Verlag, Weimar 2000, ISBN   3-86160-515-5, S. 27–44, here pp. 185–187.
    7. 1 2 Ernst Rudolf Huber: Deutsche Verfassungsgeschichte seit 1789. Band III: Bismarck und das Reich. 3. Auflage, Kohlhammer Verlag, Stuttgart 1988, S. 750/751.
    8. His abdication was announced by the Chancellor on 9 November, and the Emperor went into exile in the Netherlands. He did not formally abdicate until 28 November.

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    King of Italy ruler who ruled part or all of the Italian Peninsula after the fall of the Western Roman Empire

    King of Italy was the title given to the ruler of the Kingdom of Italy after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The first to take the title was Odoacer, a barbarian military leader, in the late 5th century, followed by the Ostrogothic kings up to the mid-6th century. With the Frankish conquest of Italy in the 8th century, the Carolingians assumed the title, which was maintained by subsequent Holy Roman Emperors throughout the Middle Ages. The last Emperor to claim the title was Charles V in the 16th century. During this period, the holders of the title were crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy.

    East Francia Former country in Europe

    East Francia or the Kingdom of the East Franks was a precursor of the Holy Roman Empire. A successor state of Charlemagne's empire, it was ruled by the Carolingian dynasty until 911. It was created through the Treaty of Verdun (843) which divided the former empire into three kingdoms.

    German Emperor 1871–1918 hereditary head of state of the German Empire

    The German Emperor was the official title of the head of state and hereditary ruler of the German Empire. A specifically chosen term, it was introduced with the 1 January 1871 constitution and lasted until the official abdication of Wilhelm II on 28 November 1918. The Holy Roman Emperor is sometimes also called "German Emperor" when the historical context is clear, as derived from the Holy Roman Empire's official name of "Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation" from 1512.

    Kingdom of Germany 10th-century kingdom of Germany

    The Kingdom of Germany or German Kingdom developed out of Eastern Francia, the eastern division of the former Carolingian Empire, over the 9th to 11th centuries. East Francia was formed by the Treaty of Verdun in 843, and was ruled by the Carolingian dynasty until 911, after which the kingship was elective. The initial electors were the rulers of the stem duchies, who generally chose one of their own. After 962, when Otto I was crowned emperor, East Francia formed the bulk of the Holy Roman Empire along with Italy; it later included Bohemia and Burgundy.

    Kingdom of Italy (Holy Roman Empire) Medieval kingdom on the Apennine Peninsula between 962 and 1024

    The Kingdom of Italy, also called Imperial Italy, was one of the constituent kingdoms of the Holy Roman Empire, along with the kingdoms of Germany, Bohemia, and Burgundy. It comprised northern and central Italy, but excluded the Republic of Venice and the Papal States. Its original capital was Pavia until the 11th century.

    The Imperial Plan of 1870 was a diplomatic initiative set out by the Prussian Minister President and Federal Chancellor of the North German Confederation, Otto von Bismarck. Accordingly, the Prussian King was able to assume the title of Emperor.

    Imperial Sovereign

    The question of an Imperial Sovereign or emperor was a central issue in Germany's attempts at unification between 1848 and 1850. Both the draft constitutional act with its provision for centralised power as well as the constitutional plans at that time, laid down how a German head of state would be selected for office and what rights they were to have.

    Bundespräsidium German head of state 1867–1918

    Präsidium des Bundes or Bundespräsidium was a title under the German Confederation whereby the Austrian delegate held the chair of the Federal Assembly. Austria was thus called the presidential power. This did not give Austria extra power: its delegate simply led the proceedings of the Federal Assembly.


    Reichsminister was the title of members of the German Government during two historical periods: during the March revolution of 1848/1849 in the German Reich of that period, and in the modern German federal state from 1919 to the end of the National Socialist regime in 1945.

    Problem of two emperors A problem arising when multiple people claim the title of emperor

    The problem of two emperors or two-emperors-problem is the historiographical term for the historical contradiction between the idea of the universal empire, that there was only ever one true emperor at any one given time, and the truth that there were often two individuals who claimed the position simultaneously. The term is mostly used in regards to medieval Europe, in particular, the long-lasting dispute between the Byzantine emperors in Constantinople and the Holy Roman emperors in modern-day Germany and Austria as to which emperor represented the legitimate Roman emperor.