Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB; literally New German Biography) is a biographical reference work. It is the successor to the Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB, Universal German Biography). The 26 volumes published thus far cover more than 22,500 individuals and families who lived in the German language area.
Literal translation, direct translation, or word-for-word translation is the rendering of text from one language to another one word at a time with or without conveying the sense of the original whole.
A biography, or simply bio, is a detailed description of a person's life. It involves more than just the basic facts like education, work, relationships, and death; it portrays a person's experience of these life events. Unlike a profile or curriculum vitae (résumé), a biography presents a subject's life story, highlighting various aspects of his or her life, including intimate details of experience, and may include an analysis of the subject's personality.
A reference work is a book or periodical to which one can refer for information. The information is intended to be found quickly when needed. Reference works are usually referred to for particular pieces of information, rather than read beginning to end. The writing style used in these works is informative; the authors avoid use of the first person, and emphasize facts. Many reference works are compiled by a team of contributors whose work is coordinated by one or more editors rather than by an individual author. Indices are commonly provided in many types of reference work. Updated editions are usually published as needed, in some cases annually. Reference works include dictionaries, thesauruses, encyclopedias, almanacs, bibliographies, and catalogs. Many reference works are available in electronic form and can be obtained as application software, CD-ROMs, DVDs, or online through the Internet.
NDB is published in German by the Historical Commission at the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities and printed by Duncker & Humblot in Berlin. The index and full-text articles of the first 25 volumes are freely available online via the website German Biography ( Deutsche Biographie ) and the Biographical Portal.
The Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities is an independent public institution, located in Alfons-Goppel-Str. 11, Munich, Germany. It appoints scholars whose research has contributed considerably to the increase of knowledge within their subject. The general goal of the academy is the promotion of interdisciplinary encounters and contacts and the cooperation of representatives of different subjects.
Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,748,148 (2018) inhabitants make it the second most populous city proper of the European Union after London. The city is one of Germany's 16 federal states. It is surrounded by the state of Brandenburg, and contiguous with its capital, Potsdam. The two cities are at the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region, which is, with about six million inhabitants and an area of more than 30,000 km², Germany's third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions.
Deutsche Biographie is a German-language publication. It publishes articles from
NDB is a comprehensive reference work, similar to Dictionary of National Biography , Dictionary of American Biography , American National Biography , Dictionary of Canadian Biography , Dictionary of Australian Biography , Dictionary of New Zealand Biography , Diccionario Biográfico Español , Dictionary of Irish Biography , Svenskt biografiskt lexikon , and Österreichisches Biographisches Lexikon 1815-1950 (ÖBL) (Austrian Biographical Dictionary 1815-1950).
The Dictionary of National Biography (DNB) is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published since 1885. The updated Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (ODNB) was published on 23 September 2004 in 60 volumes and online, with 50,113 biographical articles covering 54,922 lives.
The Dictionary of American Biography was published in New York City by Charles Scribner's Sons under the auspices of the American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS). The dictionary was first proposed to the Council in 1920 by historian Frederick Jackson Turner. The first edition was published in 20 volumes from 1928 to 1936, appearing at a rate of two or three volumes per year. These 20 volumes contained 15,000 biographies. In 1946, the 20 volumes were released as a ten-volume set, with each of the ten volumes divided into two parts corresponding to two volumes of the first edition combined into one, the page numbering of the first edition being retained.
The American National Biography (ANB) is a 24-volume biographical encyclopedia set that contains about 17,400 entries and 20 million words, first published in 1999 by Oxford University Press under the auspices of the American Council of Learned Societies. A 400-entry supplement appeared in 2002. Additional funding came from the Rockefeller Foundation, the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation and the National Endowment for the Humanities. The general editors were John A. Garraty and Mark C. Carnes.
Its first volume, alphabetically covering names from "Aachen" to "Behaim", was published in 1953. As of 2016, the most recent volume is the 26th, covering names from "Tecklenburg" to "Vocke", which was published in October 2016. So far, more than 22,500 biographies of individuals and families, who lived in the German language area (Sprachraum), have been published. Some 1,600 further articles will be added in two further volumes, with completion expected in 2021.
In linguistics, a sprachraum is a geographical region where a common first language, with dialect varieties, or group of languages is spoken.
An NDB article usually contains genealogical information such as date and place of birth, date and place of death, tomb, parents, grandparents, marriages, divorces, number of children, alternate and birth names, academic degrees, a curriculum vitae in whole sentences, a valuation of the subject's political, economic, social, scientific, technical or artistic achievements, a bibliography and references to portraits. Only deceased persons with a close relation to the German language area are recorded. Each article is signed by its author.
Genealogy, also known as family history, is the study of families and the tracing of their lineages and history. Genealogists use oral interviews, historical records, genetic analysis, and other records to obtain information about a family and to demonstrate kinship and pedigrees of its members. The results are often displayed in charts or written as narratives.
An academic degree is a qualification awarded to students upon successful completion of a course of study in higher education, usually at a college or university. These institutions commonly offer degrees at various levels, usually including bachelor's, master’s and doctorates, often alongside other academic certificates and professional degrees. The most common undergraduate degree is the bachelor's degree, although in some countries lower qualifications are titled degrees while in others a higher-level first degree is more usual.
A curriculum vitae, often shortened as CV or vita, is a written overview of a person's experience and other qualifications for a job opportunity. It is akin to a résumé in North America. In some countries, a CV is typically the first item that a potential employer encounters regarding the job seeker and is typically used to screen applicants, often followed by an interview. CVs may also be requested for applicants to postsecondary programs, scholarships, grants and bursaries. In the 2010s, some applicants provide an electronic text of their CV to employers using email, an online employment website or using a job-oriented social-networking-service website, such as LinkedIn.
An index cataloguing all articles and the full text of articles in the first 26 volumes, covering names from "Aachen" to "Vocke", is freely available online. The index is also part of the Biographie-Portal (Biographical Portal). This cooperative project of the Bavarian State Library (Bayerische Staatsbibliothek), the Historical Commission at the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities (Historische Kommission bei der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften), the Austrian Academy of Sciences and Humanities (Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften) the Foundation Historical Dictionary of Switzerland, and Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts also makes available data of Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB), Österreichisches Biographisches Lexikon 1815-1950 (ÖBL) (Austrian Biographical Dictionary 1815-1950), Historisches Lexikon der Schweiz / Dictionnaire Historique de la Suisse / Dizionario Storico della Svizzera (HLS / DHS / DSS), Slovenska Biografija, Rheinland-Pfälzische Personendatenbank (RPPB), Sächsische Biografie (Saxon Biography), and Oesterreichisches Musiklexikon (OeML).
The Biographical Portal is a free online index to biographical reference works in the German language area. Intended to facilitate access to reliable biographical information, it contains entries for more than 160,000 biographies of persons from all social backgrounds and nearly all periods of German, Austrian, Swiss, Slovenian and South-East European history.
The Bavarian State Library in Munich is the central "Landesbibliothek", i. e. the state library of the Free State of Bavaria and one of Europe's most important universal libraries. With its collections currently comprising around 10.36 million books, it ranks among the best research libraries worldwide. Moreover, its historical stock encompasses one of the most important manuscript collections of the world, the largest collection of incunabula worldwide, as well as numerous further important special collections.
The Austrian Academy of Sciences is a legal entity under the special protection of the Republic of Austria. According to the statutes of the Academy its mission is to promote the sciences and humanities in every respect and in every field, particularly in fundamental research.
Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie is one of the most important and most comprehensive biographical reference works in the German language.
Johann Christoph Heilbronner was a German mathematical historian (Mathematikhistoriker) and theologian.
Friedrich Joseph of Nauendorf, a general in Habsburg service during the French Revolutionary Wars, was noted for his intrepid and daring cavalry raids. Like most Austrian officers of the French Revolutionary Wars, he joined the military as a young man, and served in the War of Bavarian Succession. In the war's opening action, he successfully repelled a Prussian border raid, which earned him the admiration of the Empress Maria Theresa's son, Joseph. His continued success in the Habsburg border wars with the Ottoman Empire added to his reputation as a commander.
Count Eduard Clam-Gallas was an Austrian General. He was the eldest son of Count Christian Christoph Clam-Gallas (1771–1838), patron of Beethoven, and Countess Josephine Clary-Aldringen (1777–1828).
Maximilian Ernest of Austria, was a German prince member of the House of Habsburg and by birth Archduke of Austria.
Johann Nepomuk Berger was an Austrian lawyer, politician and writer.
Johann Georg von Lori was a Bavarian high official, lawyer and historian. He was the driving force behind the foundation of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities in 1759.
Franz Töpsl was an Augustinian Canon Regular, provost of Polling Abbey, historian and librarian.
Louis Philippe de Bombelles was an Austrian count and diplomat.
Ludwig, Baron von Terzy (1740–1800) was an Austrian General. He served in the War of Bavarian Succession, with particular distinction in one of its few actions of the war. In January 1779, his commander, Dagobert Sigmund von Wurmser advanced into the County of Glatz in five columns, two of which, commanded by Major General Franz Joseph, Count Kinsky, surrounded Habelschwerdt on 17–18 January. While one column secured the approach, the other, under the leadership of Colonel Pallavicini, stormed the village and captured the Prince of Hessen-Philippsthal and 700 men, three cannon and seven colors. Wurmser himself led the third column in an assault on the so-called Swedish blockhouse at Oberschwedeldorf. It and the village of Habelschwerdt were set on fire by howitzers. Terzy, then a major general commanding the remaining two columns, threw back the enemy support and took 300 Prussian prisoners.
Wilhelm August Lampadius was born in Hehlen (Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel) on 8 August 1772 and died on 13 April 1842 in Freiberg. He was a German pharmacist in Göttingen from 1785 until 1791. Also he was an "extraordinary professor" of chemistry and mineralogy in 1794 and an "ordinary professor" in 1795. He taught at the Mining Academy in Freiberg.
Lampadius is best known for inflaming the first coal gas lantern on European ground.
Karl Wilhelm Franz Brümmer was a German educator and lexicographer.
Robert Eitner was a German musicologist, researcher and bibliographer.
Theodor Fuchs was an Austrian geologist and paleontologist.
Christian Cornelius Jensen was a German classical philologist and papyrologist. His father, Christian Jensen (1857–1936), was a local historian and teacher.
Jakob Franck was a German philologist and teacher who contributed more than 300 biographical entries to the German General Biographical Dictionary .
Eduard Alberti was a German literary historian and philosopher. His surviving published output includes approximately twenty biographical entries in Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie.
Karl Tomaschek was an Austrian literary historian, best known for his writings on Friedrich Schiller.
Jakob Baechtold, surname sometimes spelled as Bächtold was a Swiss literary scholar.