Motto: Libertà, Virtù, Eguaglianza
Liberty, Virtue, Equality
The Piedmontese Republic, surrounded by the French Republic and its other sister republics in 1799
|Status||Client state of France|
|Common languages||Italian, Piedmontese|
|Historical era||French Revolutionary Wars|
|10 September 1798|
|20 June 1799|
The Piedmontese Republic (Italian : Repubblica Piemontese) was a short-lived Sister Republic that existed between 1798 and 1799 on the territory of Piedmont during its military rule by the French First Republic.
Piedmont was the main part of the Kingdom of Sardinia which, despite its name, had its core on the mainland. The kingdom suffered a first French invasion in 1796, which led to the Treaty of Paris and the loss of Savoy and Nice. After a second invasion in 1798, King Charles Emmanuel IV escaped to Rome, but he never agreed to sign a new peace treaty, approving a final arrangement of its continental territories according to international law.
The Piedmontese Republic was declared on 10 September 1798; General Joubert occupied the Sardinian capital of Turin on 6 December 1798. It was heavily dependent on France and was never really independent as it was under French military occupation. The state was not recognized by the international community. The structure of government was a directorial system.
The republic used the motto Libertà, Virtù, Eguaglianza, echoing the French motto Liberté, égalité, fraternité , on its coins.
On 20 June 1799, the 1798-1799 Piedmontese Republic ceased to exist when it was conquered by Austro-Russian troops immediately after the Battle of Trebbia (1799). It was subsequently reincorporated into the Kingdom of Sardinia, but exactly a year later, it was reestablished as the Subalpine Republic, after Napoleon took back much of northern Italy after the victorious Battle of Marengo. The Subalpine Republic lasted until 11 September 1802, when it was divided between the French and Italian Republics.
Piedmont is a region in northwest Italy, one of the 20 regions of the country. It borders the Liguria region to the south, the Lombardy and Emilia-Romagna regions to the east and the Aosta Valley region to the northwest; it also borders Switzerland to the northeast and France to the west. It has an area of 25,402 square kilometres (9,808 sq mi) and a population of 4,377,941 as of 30 November 2017. The capital of Piedmont is Turin.
The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution. They pitted France against Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, Russia and several other monarchies. They are divided in two periods: the War of the First Coalition (1792–97) and the War of the Second Coalition (1798–1802). Initially confined to Europe, the fighting gradually assumed a global dimension. After a decade of constant warfare and aggressive diplomacy, France had conquered a wide array of territories, from the Italian Peninsula and the Low Countries in Europe to the Louisiana Territory in North America. French success in these conflicts ensured the spread of revolutionary principles over much of Europe.
The War of the Second Coalition (1798–1802) was the second war on revolutionary France by most of the European monarchies, led by Britain, Austria and Russia, and including the Ottoman Empire, Portugal, Naples, various German monarchies and Sweden, though Prussia did not join this coalition and Spain supported France.
Piedmontese is a Romance language spoken by some 700,000 people mostly in Piedmont, northwestern region of Italy. It is geographically and linguistically included in the Gallo-Italic languages group of Northern Italy. It is part of the wider western group of Romance languages, which also includes French, Occitan, and Catalan. It is spoken in Piedmont, Liguria and Lombardy.
The Roman Republic was proclaimed on 15 February 1798 after Louis Alexandre Berthier, a general of Napoleon, had invaded the city of Rome on 10 February. The Roman Republic was one of the Italian "sister republics" of Revolutionary France. It was placed under the French Directory and was composed of territory conquered from the Papal States. Pope Pius VI was exiled to France and died there in 1799. It immediately took control of the other two former-papal revolutionary administrations, the Tiberina Republic and the Anconine Republic. The Roman Republic was short-lived, as the Papal States were restored in October 1799.
Mont-Blanc[mɔ̃ blɑ̃] was a department of the First French Empire. It was named after Mont Blanc, the highest mountain in Western Europe, which marks the border between France and Piedmont. It was formed in 1792, when the Savoy region, was occupied by the French. The department ceased to exist following Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo; the territory was restored to its former rulers.
Marengo[ma.ʁɛŋ.ɡo] was a department of the French Consulate and of the First French Empire in present-day Italy. It was named after the Marengo plain near Alessandria to commemorate the eponymous French victory. It was formed in 1802, when the Subalpine Republic was directly annexed to France. Its capital was Alessandria.
The former Province of Turin was a province in the Piedmont region of Italy. Its capital was the city of Turin. The province existed until 31 December 2014, when it was replaced by the Metropolitan City of Turin.
The Second Italian War of Independence, also called the Franco-Austrian War, Austro-Sardinian War or Italian War of 1859, was fought by the French Empire and the Kingdom of Sardinia against the Austrian Empire in 1859 and played a crucial part in the process of Italian unification.
This article is about the battle in 1849. For other battles here see Battle of Novara
The Republic of Alba was a revolutionary municipality proclaimed on 26 April 1796, in Alba, Piedmont, when the town was taken by the French army.
A sister republic was a republic established by French armies or by local revolutionaries and assisted by the First French Republic during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The United Provinces of Central Italy, also known as Confederation of Central Italy or General Government of Central Italy, was a short-lived military government established by the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia. It was formed by a union of the former Grand Duchy of Tuscany, Duchy of Parma, Duchy of Modena, and the Papal Legations, after their monarchs were ousted by popular revolutions.
The Subalpine Republic was a short-lived republic that existed between 1800 and 1802 on the territory of Piedmont during its military rule by Napoleonic France.
The County of Nice is a historical region of France located around the south-eastern city of Nice, and roughly equivalent to the modern arrondissement of Nice.
The Treaty of Paris of May 15, 1796 was a treaty between the French Republic and the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia during the War of the First Coalition.
The Republic of San Marco, an Italian revolutionary state, existed for 17 months in 1848–1849. Based on the Venetian Lagoon, it extended into most of Venetia, or the Terraferma territory of the Venetian Republic, suppressed 51 years earlier in the French Revolutionary Wars. After declaring independence from the Habsburg Austrian Empire, the republic later joined the Kingdom of Sardinia in an attempt, led by the latter, to unite northern Italy against foreign domination. But the First Italian War of Independence ended in the defeat of Sardinia, and Austrian forces reconquered the Republic of San Marco on 28 August 1849 following a long siege.
The Kingdom of Sardinia was a state in Southern Europe from the early 14th until the mid-19th century.
Joseph Nikolaus Freiherr de Vins or Joseph de Wins, joined the army of Habsburg Austria and fought in the Seven Years' War where he was decorated for bravery. By 1773 he earned promotion to general officer. From 1783 he held important posts on the Military Frontier and led an independent corps in Croatia during the Austro-Turkish War. In the French Revolutionary Wars he commanded the joint forces of Austria and the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont from 1792 until 1795. Though the French were held at bay during his tenure, his slowness and poor health prevented Piedmont's lost territories from being recovered. Throughout the period much tension existed between the two allies. Ironically, the day after De Vins resigned, the French attacked and badly defeated his replacement. He was Proprietor (Inhaber) of an Austrian infantry regiment from 1784 until his death.
The Plombières Agreement of 21 July 1858 was a secret verbal agreement concluded at Plombières-les-Bains between the chief minister of Piedmont-Sardinia, Count Cavour, and the French Emperor, Napoleon III. Some older English language sources refer to it as the Treaty of Plombières, but most avoid identifying it as a "treaty".
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