Anconine Republic

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Anconine Republic

Repubblica Anconitana (Italian)
1797–1798
Flag of the Repubblica Anconitana.svg
Flag of the Repubblica Anconitana. The yellow and the red are the colours of the city, while the blue was adopted as a symbol of the bond to the French Republic
Ancona in Italy.svg
Map of Ancona within modern Italy
Capital Ancona
Common languages Italian
Religion
Roman Catholicism
GovernmentRepublic
Consul 
Historical era French Revolutionary Wars
 Proclaimed
17 November 1797
 Disestablished
7 March 1798
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Flag of the Papal States (pre 1808).svg Papal States
Roman Republic (18th century) Flag of the Repubblica Romana 1798.svg
Today part ofFlag of Italy.svg  Italy

The Anconine Republic (Italian : Repubblica Anconitana) was a revolutionary municipality formed on 19 November 1797. It came about after a French victory at Ancona in February 1797, and the consequent occupation of the city. [1] It existed in the region of Marche, with Ancona serving as its capital. Despite the Treaty of Campo Formio stating that Ancona and the surrounding region had to be returned to the Papal States, the municipality proclaimed the decadence of papal rule, under French protection. The subsequent tension led to general conflict with Pope Pius VI and the French occupation of the whole of the Papal States. Ancona was incorporated into the Roman Republic on 7 March 1798. It had a consul as its head.

Italian language Romance language

Italian is a Romance language of the Indo-European language family. Italian, together with Sardinian, is by most measures the closest language to Vulgar Latin of the Romance languages. Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino and Vatican City. It has an official minority status in western Istria. It formerly had official status in Albania, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro (Kotor) and Greece, and is generally understood in Corsica and Savoie. It also used to be an official language in the former Italian East Africa and Italian North Africa, where it plays a significant role in various sectors. Italian is also spoken by large expatriate communities in the Americas and Australia. In spite of not existing any Italian community in their respective national territories and of not being spoken at any level, Italian is included de jure, but not de facto, between the recognized minority languages of Bosnia-Herzegovina and Romania. Many speakers of Italian are native bilinguals of both standardized Italian and other regional languages.

Municipality An administrative division having corporate status and usually some powers of self-government or jurisdiction

A municipality is usually a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished (usually) from the county, which may encompass rural territory or numerous small communities such as towns, villages and hamlets.

Ancona Comune in Marche, Italy

Ancona is a city and a seaport in the Marche region in central Italy, with a population of around 101,997 as of 2015. Ancona is the capital of the province of Ancona and of the region. The city is located 280 km (170 mi) northeast of Rome, on the Adriatic Sea, between the slopes of the two extremities of the promontory of Monte Conero, Monte Astagno and Monte Guasco.

Ancona is now a province of Italy, in the central part of the country on the Adriatic Sea.

Province of Ancona Province of Italy

The province of Ancona is a province in the Marche region of central Italy. Its capital is the city of Ancona, and the province borders the Adriatic Sea. The city of Ancona is also the capital of Marche.

Adriatic Sea Body of water between the Italian Peninsula and the Balkan Peninsula

The Adriatic Sea is a body of water separating the Italian Peninsula from the Balkan peninsula. The Adriatic is the northernmost arm of the Mediterranean Sea, extending from the Strait of Otranto to the northwest and the Po Valley. The countries with coasts on the Adriatic are Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Italy, Montenegro and Slovenia. The Adriatic contains over 1,300 islands, mostly located along its eastern, Croatian coast. It is divided into three basins, the northern being the shallowest and the southern being the deepest, with a maximum depth of 1,233 metres (4,045 ft). The Otranto Sill, an underwater ridge, is located at the border between the Adriatic and Ionian Seas. The prevailing currents flow counterclockwise from the Strait of Otranto, along the eastern coast and back to the strait along the western (Italian) coast. Tidal movements in the Adriatic are slight, although larger amplitudes are known to occur occasionally. The Adriatic's salinity is lower than the Mediterranean's because the Adriatic collects a third of the fresh water flowing into the Mediterranean, acting as a dilution basin. The surface water temperatures generally range from 30 °C (86 °F) in summer to 12 °C (54 °F) in winter, significantly moderating the Adriatic Basin's climate.

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Papal States territories in the Appenine Peninsula under the sovereign direct rule of the pope between 752–1870

The Papal States, officially the State of the Church, were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870. They were among the major states of Italy from roughly the 8th century until the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia unified the Italian Peninsula by conquest in a campaign virtually concluded in 1861 and definitively in 1870. At their zenith, the Papal States covered most of the modern Italian regions of Lazio, Marche, Umbria and Romagna, and portions of Emilia. These holdings were considered to be a manifestation of the temporal power of the pope, as opposed to his ecclesiastical primacy.

Marche Region of Italy

Marche, or the Marches, is one of the twenty regions of Italy. The name of the region derives from the plural name of marca, originally referring to the medieval March of Ancona and nearby marches of Camerino and Fermo. Marche is well known for its shoemaking tradition, with the finest and most luxurious Italian footwear being manufactured in this region.

Roman Republic (18th century) republic at the Apennine Peninsula between 1798-1799

The Roman Republic was proclaimed on 15 February 1798 after Louis Alexandre Berthier, a general of Napoleon, had invaded the city of Rome on 10 February. The Roman Republic was a client republic under the French Directory composed of territory conquered from the Papal States. Pope Pius VI was exiled to France and died there in 1799. It immediately took the control of the other two former-papal revolutionary administrations, the Tiberina Republic and the Anconine Republic. The Roman Republic was short-lived, as the Papal States were restored in October 1799.

1799–1800 papal conclave

The papal conclave of 1799–1800 followed the death of Pope Pius VI on 29 August 1799 and led to the selection as pope of Gregorio Barnaba Luigi Chiaramonti, who took the name Pius VII, on 14 March 1800. This conclave was held in Venice and was the last to take place outside Rome. This period was marked by uncertainty for the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church following the invasion of the Papal States and abduction of Pius VI under the French Directory.

Tiberina Republic

The so-called Tiberina Republic was a revolutionary municipality proclaimed on 4 February 1798, when republicans took power in the city of Perugia. It was an occupation zone that took its name from the river Tiber. A month later, the government of all the Papal States was changed into a republic: the Roman Republic, which Perugia belonged to. Its head was a consul and it used a tricolor similar to the French flag.

Sister republic

A sister republic was a republic established by French armies or by local revolutionaries and assisted by the First French Republic during the French Revolutionary Wars.

Roman scudo currency of the Papal States until 1866

The Roman scudo was the currency of the Papal States until 1866. It was subdivided into 100 baiocchi, each of 5 quattrini. Other denominations included the grosso of 5 baiocchi, the carlino of 7½ baiocchi, the giulio and paoli both of 10 baiocchi, the testone of 30 baiocchi and the doppia of 3 scudi.

The Treaty of Tolentino was a peace treaty between Revolutionary France and the Papal States, signed on 19 February 1797 and imposing terms of surrender on the Papal side. The signatories for France were the French Directory's Ambassador to the Holy See, François Cacault, and the rising General Napoleon Bonaparte and opposite them four representatives of Pius VI's Curia.

March of Ancona

The March of Ancona was a frontier march centred on the city of Ancona and, then, Macerata in the Middle Ages. Its name is preserved as an Italian region today, the Marches, and it corresponds to almost the entire modern region and not just the Province of Ancona.

Arcevia Comune in Marche, Italy

Arcevia is a comune in the province of Ancona of the region of Marche, central-eastern Italy.

Rosora Comune in Marche, Italy

Rosora is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Ancona in the Italian region Marche, located about 40 kilometres (25 mi) southwest of Ancona.

The Republic of Bergamo was an ephemeral revolutionary client republic, created on 13 March 1797 by the French army to rule the local administration of Bergamo and its province, during the dissolution of the Republic of Venice. With the Preliminary of Leoben, France and Austria agreed the end of the multi-centennial Venetian rule over the territory between Adda River and Oglio River, together with the Austrian occupation of Istria and Dalmatia.

The modern history of the papacy is shaped by the two largest dispossessions of papal property in its history, stemming from the French and its spread to Europe, including Italy.

The Battle of Faenza or Battle of Castel Bolognese on 3 or 4 February 1797 saw a 7,000-man force from the Papal States commanded by Michelangelo Alessandro Colli-Marchi who faced a 9,000-strong French corps under Claude Victor-Perrin. The veteran French troops decisively defeated the Papal army, inflicting disproportionate casualties. The town of Castel Bolognese is located on the banks of the Senio River 40 kilometres (25 mi) southeast of Bologna. The city of Faenza is also nearby. The action took place during the War of the First Coalition, part of the French Revolutionary Wars.

The Armistice of Bologna was a treaty signed between the Papal States and the French First Republic on 23 June 1796. It resulted in a ceasefire between the two parties that was intended to last until a permanent peace treaty could be signed. The terms of the armistice included the payment of 15 million livres in cash in addition to goods and works of art to the French and significant territorial reductions. A temporary Austrian victory against the French at the Siege of Mantua persuaded Pope Pius VI to renounce the armistice in September 1796. The French subsequently invaded the Papal States and enforced the terms of the armistice.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Ancona in the Marche region of Italy.

Fall of the Republic of Venice

The Fall of the Republic of Venice was a series of events in 1797 that led to the dissolution and dismemberment of the Republic of Venice at the hands of Napoleon Bonaparte and Habsburg Austria.

References

  1. Philip's Atlas of World History