King of Jerusalem

Last updated
King of Jerusalem
Arms of the Kingdom of Jerusalem (Strohl).svg
Details
First monarch Godfrey of Bouillon
Last monarch Henry II
Formation1099
Abolition1291
Residence David's Tower
AppointerHereditary
Election
Pretender(s) See Claimant

The King of Jerusalem [1] was the supreme ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, the Crusader state founded by Christian princes in 1099 when the First Crusade took the city.

Kingdom of Jerusalem medieval Christian kingdom in the Middle East

The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a crusader state established in the Southern Levant by Godfrey of Bouillon in 1099 after the First Crusade. The kingdom lasted nearly two hundred years, from 1099 until 1291 when the last remaining possession, Acre, was destroyed by the Mamluks. Its history is divided into two distinct periods. The sometimes so-called First Kingdom of Jerusalem lasted from 1099 to 1187, when it was almost entirely overrun by Saladin. After the subsequent Third Crusade, the kingdom was re-established in Acre in 1192, and lasted until that city's destruction in 1291, except for a brief two decades in which Frederick II of Hohenstaufen reclaimed Jerusalem back into Christian hands after the Sixth Crusade. This second kingdom is sometimes called the Second Kingdom of Jerusalem or the Kingdom of Acre, after its new capital. Most of the crusaders who settled there were of French origin.

First Crusade Crusade from 1095 to 1099 that captured Jerusalem and established the Crusader States

The First Crusade (1095–1099) was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to recapture the Holy Land, called for by Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095. Urban called for a military expedition to aid the Byzantine Empire, which had recently lost most of Anatolia to the Seljuq Turks. The resulting military expedition of primarily Frankish nobles, known as the Princes' Crusade, not only re-captured Anatolia but went on to conquer the Holy Land, which had fallen to Islamic expansion as early as the 7th century, and culminated in July 1099 in the re-conquest of Jerusalem and the establishment of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.

Contents

Godfrey of Bouillon, the first ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, himself refused the title of king, and instead chose the title "Defender of the Holy Sepulchre". Thus, the title of king was only introduced for his successor, King Baldwin I in 1100. The city of Jerusalem was lost in 1187, but the Kingdom of Jerusalem survived, moving its capital to Acre in 1191. The city of Jerusalem was re-captured in the Sixth Crusade, during 1229–39 and 1241–44. The Kingdom of Jerusalem was finally dissolved with the fall of Acre and the end of the Crusades in the Holy Land in 1291.

Godfrey of Bouillon Medieval Frankish knight

Godfrey of Bouillon was a Frankish knight and one of the leaders of the First Crusade from 1096 until its conclusion in 1099. He was the Lord of Bouillon, from which he took his byname, from 1076 and the Duke of Lower Lorraine from 1087. After the successful siege of Jerusalem in 1099, Godfrey became the first ruler of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. He refused the title of King, however, as he believed that the true King of Jerusalem was Jesus Christ, preferring the title of Advocate of the Holy Sepulchre. He is also known as the "Baron of the Holy Sepulchre" and the "Crusader King".

Baldwin I of Jerusalem King of Jerusalem

Baldwin I, also known as Baldwin of Boulogne, was the first count of Edessa from 1098 to 1100, and the second crusader ruler and first king of Jerusalem from 1100 to his death. Being a younger son, he was destined for a church career, but he abandoned it and married a Norman noblewoman, Godehilde of Tosny. He received the County of Verdun in 1096, but he soon joined the crusader army of his brother Godfrey of Bouillon and became one of the most successful commanders of the First Crusade.

Siege of Jerusalem (1187)

The Siege of Jerusalem was a siege on the city of Jerusalem that lasted from September 20 to October 2, 1187, when Balian of Ibelin surrendered the city to Saladin. Though Jerusalem fell, it was not the end of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, as the capital shifted first to Tyre and later to Acre after the Third Crusade. Latin Christians responded in 1189 by launching the Third Crusade led by Richard the Lionheart, Philip Augustus, and Frederick Barbarossa separately.

After the Crusader States ceased to exist, the title of King of Jerusalem was claimed by a number of European noble houses descended from the kings of Cyprus or the kings of Naples. The (purely ceremonial) title of King of Jerusalem is currently used by Felipe VI of Spain. It was claimed by Otto von Habsburg as Habsburg pretender, and by the kings of Italy until 1946.

Otto von Habsburg German politician and last crown prince of Austria-Hungary

Otto von Habsburg, also known by his traditional royal title of Archduke Otto of Austria, was the last Crown Prince of Austria-Hungary from 1916 until the dissolution of the empire in 1919, a realm which comprised modern-day Austria, Hungary, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, and parts of Italy, Montenegro, Poland, Romania, Serbia and Ukraine. He became the pretender to the former thrones, Head of the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, and Sovereign of the Order of the Golden Fleece in 1922, upon the death of his father. He resigned as Sovereign of the Golden Fleece in 2000 and as head of the Imperial House in 2007.

King of Italy ruler who ruled part or all of the Italian Peninsula after the fall of the Western Roman Empire

King of Italy was the title given to the ruler of the Kingdom of Italy after the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The first to take the title was Odoacer, a "barbarian" military leader, in the late 5th century, followed by the Ostrogothic kings up to the mid-6th century. With the Frankish conquest of Italy in the 8th century, the Carolingians assumed the title, which was maintained by subsequent Holy Roman Emperors throughout the Middle Ages. The last Emperor to claim the title was Charles V in the 16th century. During this period, the holders of the title were crowned with the Iron Crown of Lombardy.

Kings of Jerusalem (1099–1291)

The Kingdom of Jerusalem had its origins in the First Crusade, when Godfrey of Bouillon, after refusing a crown and the title of King "upon the plea that he would never wear a crown of gold where his Saviour had worn a crown of thorns", [2] took the title Advocatus Sancti Sepulchri (Protector of the Holy Sepulcher) in 1099 and was inaugurated as ruler of Jerusalem in the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem.

Crown of thorns symbol and artifact in Christianity; one of the instruments of the passion

According to three of the Gospels, a woven crown of thorns was placed on the head of Jesus during the events leading up to the crucifixion of Jesus. It was one of the instruments of the Passion, employed by Jesus' captors both to cause him pain and to mock his claim of authority. It is mentioned in the gospels of Matthew, Mark (15:17) and John and is often alluded to by the early Church Fathers, such as Clement of Alexandria, Origen and others.

Church of the Holy Sepulchre Church in Jerusalem, Israel

The Church of the Holy Sepulchre is a church in the Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem. The church contains, according to traditions dating back to at least the fourth century, the two holiest sites in Christianity: the site where Jesus of Nazareth was crucified, at a place known as "Calvary" or "Golgotha", and Jesus' empty tomb, where he is said to have been buried and resurrected. The tomb is enclosed by a 19th-century shrine called the Aedicula. The Status Quo, a 260-year-old understanding between religious communities, applies to the site.

Church of the Nativity basilica in Bethlehem

The Church of the Nativity, also Basilica of the Nativity is a basilica located in Bethlehem in the Palestinian West Bank. The grotto it contains holds a prominent religious significance to Christians of various denominations as the birthplace of Jesus. The grotto is the oldest site continuously used as a place of worship in Christianity, and the basilica is the oldest major church in the Holy Land.

The following year, his brother Baldwin I was the first to use the title king and the first to be crowned king in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem itself.

A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy. A monarch may exercise the highest authority and power in the state, or others may wield that power on behalf of the monarch. Typically a monarch either personally inherits the lawful right to exercise the state's sovereign rights or is selected by an established process from a family or cohort eligible to provide the nation's monarch. Alternatively, an individual may become monarch by conquest, acclamation or a combination of means. A monarch usually reigns for life or until abdication.

Jerusalem City in the Middle East

Jerusalem is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea. It is one of the oldest cities in the world, and is considered holy to the three major Abrahamic religions—Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Both Israel and the Palestinian Authority claim Jerusalem as their capital, as Israel maintains its primary governmental institutions there and the State of Palestine ultimately foresees it as its seat of power; however, neither claim is widely recognized internationally.

The kingship of Jerusalem was partially elected and partially hereditary. During the height of the kingdom in the mid-12th century there was a royal family and a relatively clear line of succession. Nevertheless, the king was elected, or at least recognized, by the Haute Cour. Here the king was considered a primus inter pares (first among equals), and in his absence his duties were performed by his seneschal.

Haute Cour of Jerusalem

The Haute Cour was the feudal council of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. It was sometimes also called the curia generalis, the curia regis, or, rarely, the parlement.

Primus inter pares is a Latin phrase meaning first among equals. It is typically used as an honorary title for someone who is formally equal to other members of their group but is accorded unofficial respect, traditionally owing to their seniority in office. Historically, the princeps senatus of the Roman Senate was such a figure and initially bore only the distinction that he was allowed to speak first during debate. Also, Constantine the Great was given the role of primus inter pares. However, the term is also often used ironically or self-deprecatingly by leaders with much higher status as a form of respect, camaraderie, or propaganda. After the fall of the Republic, Roman emperors initially referred to themselves only as princeps despite having power of life and death over their "fellow citizens". Various modern figures such as the Chair of the Federal Reserve, the prime minister of parliamentary countries, the Federal President of Switzerland, the Chief Justice of the United States, the Chief Justice of the Philippines, the Archbishop of Canterbury of the Anglican Communion and the Ecumenical Patriarch of the Eastern Orthodox Church fall under both senses: bearing higher status and various additional powers while remaining still merely equal to their peers in important senses.

Officers of the Kingdom of Jerusalem Wikimedia list article

There were six major officers of the kingdom of Jerusalem: the constable, the marshal, the seneschal, the chamberlain, the butler and the chancellor. At certain times there were also bailiffs, viscounts and castellans.

The purpose-built royal palace used from the 1160s onwards was located south of Jerusalem's citadel. [3] The Kingdom of Jerusalem introduced French feudal structures to the Levant. The king personally held several fiefs incorporated into the royal domain, that varied from king to king. He was also responsible for leading the kingdom into battle, although this duty could be passed to a constable.

While several contemporary European states were moving towards centralized monarchies, the king of Jerusalem was continually losing power to the strongest of his barons. This was partially due to the young age of many of the kings, and the frequency of regents from the ranks of the nobles.

After the fall of Jerusalem in 1187, the capital of the kingdom was moved to Acre, where it remained until 1291, although coronations took place in Tyre.

In this period the kingship was often simply a nominal position, held by a European ruler who never actually lived in Acre. When young Conrad III was king and living in Southern Germany, his father's second cousin, Hugh of Brienne, claimed the regency of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and, indirectly, his place in the succession. The claim was made in 1264 as senior descendant and rightful heir of Alice of Champagne, second daughter of Queen Isabella I, Hugh being the son of their eldest daughter. But was passed over by the Haute Cour in favour of his cousin, Hugh of Antioch, the future Hugh III of Cyprus and Hugh I of Jerusalem.

After Conrad III's execution by Charles I of Sicily in 1268, the kingship was held by the Lusignan family, who were simultaneously kings of Cyprus. However, Charles I of Sicily purchased the rights of one of the heirs of the kingdom in 1277.

In that year, he sent Roger of Sanseverino to the East as his bailiff. Roger captured Acre and obtained a forced homage from the barons. Roger was recalled in 1282 due to the Sicilian Vespers and left Odo Poilechien in his place to rule. His resources and authority was minimal, and he was ejected by Henry II of Cyprus when he arrived from Cyprus for his coronation as King of Jerusalem.

Acre was captured by the Mamluks in 1291, eliminating the crusader presence on the mainland.

Kings

House of Boulogne (1099-1118)

MonarchImageBirthMarriagesDeath
Godfrey
(Protector of the Holy Sepulchre, but not King) [2]
1099–1100
Godfroy.jpg c. 1060
Boulogne-sur-Mer, France or Baisy, Brabant
son of Eustace II, Count of Boulogne and Ida of Lorraine
never married18 July 1100
aged about 40
Baldwin I
1100–1118
Baldwin 1 of Jerusalem.jpg c. 1058
Lorraine, France
son of Eustace II, Count of Boulogne and Ida of Lorraine
Godehilde de Toeni
no children

Arda of Armenia
1097
no children

Adelaide del Vasto
1112
no children
2 April 1118
Al-Arish, Egypt
aged about 60

House of Rethel (1118-1153)

MonarchImageBirthMarriagesDeath
Baldwin II
1118–1131
Balduin2.jpg ??
France
son of Hugh I, Count of Rethel and Melisende of Montlhéry
Morphia of Melitene
1101
four daughters
21 August 1131
Jerusalem
Melisende
1131–1153
with Fulk until 1143
with Baldwin III from 1143
Melisende and Fulk of Jerusalem.jpg 1105
Jerusalem
daughter of King Baldwin II and Morphia of Melitene
Fulk V, Count of Anjou
2 June 1129
2 sons
11 September 1161
Jerusalem
aged 56

House of Anjou (1153-1205)

In 1127 Fulk V, Count of Anjou received an embassy from King Baldwin II of Jerusalem. Baldwin II had no male heirs but had already designated his daughter Melisende to succeed him. Baldwin II wanted to safeguard his daughter's inheritance by marrying her to a powerful lord. Fulk was a wealthy crusader and experienced military commander, and a widower. His experience in the field would prove invaluable in a frontier state always in the grip of war.

However, Fulk held out for better terms than mere consort of the Queen; he wanted to be king alongside Melisende. Baldwin II, reflecting on Fulk's fortune and military exploits, acquiesced. Fulk then resigned his titles to Geoffrey and sailed to become King of Jerusalem, where he married Melisende on 2 June 1129. Later Baldwin II bolstered Melisende's position in the kingdom by making her sole guardian of her son by Fulk, Baldwin III, born in 1130.

Fulk and Melisende became joint rulers of Jerusalem in 1131 with Baldwin II's death. From the start Fulk assumed sole control of the government, excluding Melisende altogether. He favored fellow countrymen from Anjou to the native nobility. The other crusader states to the north feared that Fulk would attempt to impose the suzerainty of Jerusalem over them, as Baldwin II had done; but as Fulk was far less powerful than his deceased father-in-law, the northern states rejected his authority.

The death of Fulk, as depicted in MS of William of Tyre'sHistoria andOld French Continuation, painted in Acre, 13C. Bib. Nat. Francaise. FoulquesofAnjou-death.jpg
The death of Fulk, as depicted in MS of William of Tyre'sHistoria andOld French Continuation, painted in Acre, 13C. Bib. Nat. Française.

In Jerusalem as well, Fulk was resented by the second generation of Jerusalem Christians who had grown up there since the First Crusade. These "natives" focused on Melisende's cousin, the popular Hugh II of Le Puiset, count of Jaffa, who was devotedly loyal to the Queen. Fulk saw Hugh as a rival, and in 1134, in order to expose Hugh, accused him of infidelity with Melisende. Hugh rebelled in protest and secured himself to Jaffa, allying himself with the Muslims of Ascalon. He was able to defeat the army set against him by Fulk, but this situation could not hold. The Patriarch interceded in the conflict, perhaps at the behest of Melisende. Fulk agreed to peace and Hugh was exiled from the kingdom for three years, a lenient sentence.

However, an assassination attempt was made against Hugh. Fulk, or his supporters, were commonly believed responsible, though direct proof never surfaced. The scandal was all that was needed for the queen's party to take over the government in what amounted to a palace coup. Author and historian Bernard Hamilton wrote that the Fulk's supporters "went in terror of their lives" in the palace. Contemporary author and historian William of Tyre wrote of Fulk "he never attempted to take the initiative, even in trivial matters, without (Melisende's) consent". The result was that Melisende held direct and unquestioned control over the government from 1136 onwards. Sometime before 1136 Fulk reconciled with his wife, and a second son, Amalric was born.

In 1143, while the king and queen were on holiday in Acre, Fulk was killed in a hunting accident. His horse stumbled, fell, and Fulk's skull was crushed by the saddle, "and his brains gushed forth from both ears and nostrils", as William of Tyre describes. He was carried back to Acre, where he lay unconscious for three days before he died. He was buried in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. Though their marriage started in conflict, Melisende mourned for him privately as well as publicly. Fulk was survived by his son Geoffrey of Anjou by his first wife, and Baldwin III and Amalric I by Melisende.

Baldwin III ascended the throne with his mother as co-ruler, in 1143. His early reign was laced with squabbles with his mother over the possession of Jerusalem, till 1153, when he took personal hold of the government. He died in 1163, without heirs, and the kingdom passed to his brother, Amalric I, although there was some opposition among the nobility to Amalric's wife Agnes; they were willing to accept the marriage in 1157 when Baldwin III was still capable of siring an heir, but now the Haute Cour refused to endorse Amalric as king unless his marriage to Agnes was annulled. The hostility to Agnes, it must be admitted, may be exaggerated by the chronicler William of Tyre, whom she prevented from becoming Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem decades later, as well as from William's continuators like Ernoul, who hints at a slight on her moral character: "car telle n'est que roine doie iestre di si haute cite comme de Jherusalem" ("there should not be such a queen for so holy a city as Jerusalem").

Nevertheless, consanguinity was enough for the opposition. Amalric agreed and ascended the throne without a wife, although Agnes continued to hold the title Countess of Jaffa and Ascalon and received a pension from that fief's income. The church ruled that Amalric and Agnes' children were legitimate and preserved their place in the order of succession. Through her children Agnes would exert much influence in Jerusalem for almost 20 years. Almaric was succeeded by his son by Agnes, Baldwin IV.

The marriage of Amalric I of Jerusalem and Maria Comnena at Tyre Maria Comnena and Amalric I of Jerusalem.jpg
The marriage of Amalric I of Jerusalem and Maria Comnena at Tyre

Almaric's wives, Agnes of Courtenay, now married to Reginald of Sidon, and Maria Comnena, the dowager Queen, who had married Balian of Ibelin in 1177. His daughter by Agnes, Sibylla, was already of age, the mother of a son, and was clearly in a strong position to succeed her brother, but Maria's daughter Isabella had the support of her stepfather's family, the Ibelins.

In 1179, Baldwin began planning to marry Sibylla to Hugh III of Burgundy, but by spring 1180 this was still unresolved. Raymond III of Tripoli attempted a coup, and began to march on Jerusalem with Bohemund III, to force the king to marry his sister to a local candidate of his own choosing, probably Baldwin of Ibelin, Balian's older brother. To counter this, the king hastily arranged her marriage to Guy of Lusignan, younger brother of Amalric, the constable of the kingdom. A foreign match was essential to bring the possibility of external military aid to the kingdom. With the new French king Philip II a minor, Guy's status as a vassal of the King and Sibylla's first cousin Henry II of England – who owed the Pope a penitential pilgrimage – was useful.

William of Tyre discovers Baldwin's first symptoms of leprosy (MS ofL'Estoire d'Eracles (French translation of William of Tyre's Historia), painted in France, 1250s.British Library, London.) BaldwinIV.jpg
William of Tyre discovers Baldwin's first symptoms of leprosy (MS ofL'Estoire d'Eracles (French translation of William of Tyre's Historia), painted in France, 1250s. British Library, London.)

By 1182, Baldwin IV, increasingly incapacitated by his leprosy, named Guy as bailli. Raymond contested this, but when Guy fell out of favour with Baldwin the following year, he was re-appointed bailli and was given possession of Beirut. Baldwin came to an agreement with Raymond and the Haute Cour to make Baldwin of Montferrat, Sibylla's son by her first marriage, his heir, before Sibylla and Guy. The child was crowned co-king as Baldwin V in 1183 in a ceremony presided by Raymond. It was agreed that, should the boy die during his minority, the regency would pass to "the most rightful heirs" until his kinsmen – the Kings of England and France and Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor – and the Pope were able to adjudicate between the claims of Sibylla and Isabella. These "most rightful heirs" were not named.

Baldwin IV died in spring 1185, and was succeeded by his nephew. Raymond was bailli, but he had passed Baldwin V's personal guardianship to Joscelin III of Edessa, his maternal great-uncle, claiming that he did not wish to attract suspicion if the child, who does not seem to have been robust, were to die. Baldwin V died during the summer of 1186, at Acre. Neither side paid any heed to Baldwin IV's will.

After the funeral, Joscelin had Sibylla named as her brother's successor, although she had to agree to divorce Guy, just as her father had divorced her mother, with the guarantee that she would be allowed to choose a new consort. Once crowned, she immediately crowned Guy. Meanwhile, Raymond had gone to Nablus, home of Balian and Maria, and summoned all those nobles loyal to Princess Isabella and the Ibelins. Raymond wanted instead to have her and her husband Humphrey IV of Toron crowned. However, Humphrey, whose stepfather Raynald of Châtillon was an ally of Guy, deserted him and swore allegiance to Guy and Sibylla.

MonarchImageBirthMarriagesDeath
Fulk
1131–1143
with Melisende
Melisende and Fulk of Jerusalem.jpg 1089/1092
Angers, France
son of Fulk IV, Count of Anjou and Bertrade de Montfort
Ermengarde of Maine
1109
4 children

Melisende of Jerusalem
2 June 1129
2 sons
13 November 1143
Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem
aged about 52
Baldwin III
1143–1163
with Melisende until 1153
Balduin3 big.jpg 1130
son of King Fulk and Queen Melisende
Theodora Komnene
1158
no children
10 February 1163
Beirut, Kingdom of Jerusalem
aged 33
Amalric I
1163–1174
Maria Comnena and Amalric I of Jerusalem.jpg 1136
son of King Fulk and Queen Melisende
Agnes of Courtenay
1157
3 children

Maria Komnene
29 August 1167
2 children
11 July 1174
Jerusalem
aged 38
Baldwin IV the Leprous
1174–1185
with Baldwin V from 1183
Balduin4.jpg 1161
Jerusalem
son of King Amalric and Agnes of Courtenay
never married16 March 1185
Jerusalem
aged 24
Baldwin V
1183–1186
with Baldwin IV until 1185
BaldwinIVdeath-BaldwinVcrowned.jpg 1177
son of William of Montferrat and Sibylla of Jerusalem
never marriedAugust 1186
Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem
aged 9
Sibylla
1186–1190
with Guy
Lettrine-Sibylle guy.jpg c. 1157
daughter of King Amalric and Agnes of Courtenay
William of Montferrat, Count of Jaffa and Ascalon
1176
one son

Guy of Lusignan
April 1180
2 daughters
25 July (probable), 1190
Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem
aged about 40
Guy of Lusignan
1186–1190/1192
with Sibylla until 1190
Jan Lievens- King Guy of Lusignan and King Saladin.tif c. 1150 or 1159/1160
son of Hugh VIII of Lusignan and Bourgogne de Rançon
Sibylla of Jerusalem
April 1180
2 daughters
18 July 1194
Nicosia, Cyprus
aged about 45
Isabella I
1190/1192-1205
with Conrad until 1192
with Henry I 1192–1197
with Amalric II from 1198
IsabelaKOnrad.jpg 1172
Nablus, Kingdom of Jerusalem
daughter of King Amalric I and Maria Komnene
Humphrey IV of Toron
November 1183
no children

Conrad of Montferrat
24 November 1190
one daughter

Henry II, Count of Champagne
6 May 1192
2 daughters

Amalric of Lusignan
January 1198
3 children
5 April 1205
Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem
aged 33
Conrad I of Montferrat
1190/1192–1192
with Isabella I
mid-1140s
Montferrat, Holy Roman Empire
son of William V, Marquess of Montferrat and Judith of Babenberg
unidentified woman
before 1179
no children

Theodora Angelina
1186/1187
no children

Isabella I of Jerusalem
24 November 1190
one daughter
28 April 1192 (murdered)
Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem
aged mid-40s
Henry I of Champagne
1192–1197
with Isabella I
Henry II of Champagne.jpg 29 July 1166
Champagne
son of Henry I, Count of Champagne and Marie of France
Isabella I of Jerusalem
6 May 1192
2 daughters
10 September 1197
Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem
aged 31
Amalric II of Lusignan
1198–1205
with Isabella I
Amaury II.png 1145
son of Hugh VIII of Lusignan and Bourgogne de Rançon
Éschive d'Ibelin
before 29 October 1174
6 children

Isabella I of Jerusalem
January 1198
3 children
1 April 1205
Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem
aged 60

Houses of Aleramici and Brienne (1205-1228)

MonarchImageBirthMarriagesDeath
Maria
1205–1212
with John I from 1210
JanBrienne.jpg 1192
daughter of Conrad of Montferrat and Queen Isabella
John of Brienne
14 September 1210
one daughter
1212
aged 20
John I
1210–1212
with Maria
c. 1170
son of Erard II of Brienne and Agnes de Montfaucon
Maria of Jerusalem
14 September 1210
one daughter

Stephanie of Armenia
one son

Berengaria of León
1224
4 children
27 March 1237
aged about 67
Isabella II
also called Yolande
1212–1228
with Frederick from 1225
DeathofYolande-Isabella.jpg 1212
daughter of John of Brienne and Queen Maria
Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor
9 November 1225
2 children
25 April 1228
Andria, Holy Roman Empire
aged 16
Frederick
1225–1228
with Isabella II
Frederick II and eagle.jpg 1194
son of Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor and Constance of Sicily
Constance of Aragon
15 August 1209
one son

Isabella II of Jerusalem
9 November 1225
2 children

Isabella of England
15 July 1235
4 children
13 December 1250
Apulia, Holy Roman Empire
aged 55

House of Hohenstaufen (1228-1268)

MonarchImageBirthMarriagesDeath
Conrad II
1228–1254
Conrad IV of Germany.jpg 25 April 1228
Andria, Holy Roman Empire
son of Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor and Queen Isabella II
Elisabeth of Bavaria
1 September 1246
one son
21 May 1254
Lavello, Holy Roman Empire
aged 26
Conrad III
1254–1268
Konradin.jpg 25 March 1252
Wolfstein Castle, Landshut, Bavaria
son of King Conrad II and Elisabeth of Bavaria
never married29 October 1268
Castel dell'Ovo, Naples
aged 16

House of Lusignan (1268-1291)

MonarchImageBirthMarriagesDeath
Hugh
1268–1284
1235
son of Henry of Antioch and Isabella of Cyprus, a granddaughter of Queen Isabella I
Isabella of Ibelin
after 25 January 1255
11 children
24 March 1284
Nicosia, Cyprus
aged 49
John II
1284–1285
1259/1267
son of King Hugh and Isabella of Ibelin
never married20 May 1285
Nicosia, Cyprus
aged 17 or 26
Henry II
1285–1324
in title only after 1291
1271
son of King Hugh and Isabella of Ibelin
Constance of Sicily
16 October 1317
no children
31 August 1324
Strovolos, Cyprus
aged 53

Regents

The frequent absence or minority of monarchs required regents to be appointed many times throughout the Kingdom's existence.

RegentRegent forRelation to the monarchBecame regentRegency ended
Eustace Grenier, Constable of the Kingdom Baldwin II 1123
King held captive by the Ortoqids
1123
death
William I of Bures, Prince of Galilee 1123
King held captive by the Ortoqids
1124
return of the King from captivity
Queen Melisende Baldwin III mother1154
as the King's advisor
1161
death
Raymond III, Count of Tripoli Baldwin IV cousin1174
minority of the King
1176
majority of the King
Guy of Lusignan brother-in-law1182
appointed by the King in his illness
1184
deposed by the King
Raymond III, Count of Tripoli Baldwin V first cousin once removed1185
minority of the King
1186
death of the King
John of Ibelin, the Old Lord of Beirut Maria half-uncle1205
minority of the Queen
1210
majority of the Queen
King John I Isabella II father1212
minority of the Queen
1225
the Queen's marriage
Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor Conrad II father1228
minority of the King
1243
majority of the king
Alice of Champagne, Queen of Cyprushalf-aunt1243
absence of the king
1246
death
Henry I of Cyprus half-cousin; son of Alice and Hugh I 1246
absence of the King
1253
death
Plaisance of Antioch, dowager Queen of Cyprushalf-cousin-in-law1253
absence/minority of the King
1261
death
Conrad III half-cousin-in-law once removed
Isabelle de Lusignan half-cousin once removed; daughter of Alice1261
minority of the King
1264
death
Hugh of Antioch half-second cousin; son of Isabelle1264
minority of the King
1268
death of the King, ascension to the throne

Claimant kings of Jerusalem (1291 until today)

Origins of the claims

Over the years, many European rulers claimed to be the rightful heirs to one of these claims. None of these claimants, however, has actually ruled over any part of the kingdom:

Potential claimants today

There are several potential claimants of the title today.:

Lines of succession in several claims

Italics indicate individuals who did not themselves use the title of king of Jerusalem.

Cypriot claimants

House of Lusignan

House of Savoy : Savoyard claimants, heirs of Charlotte

House of Lusignan : Lusignan claimants and kings of Cyprus descended in the male line:

  • James II 1460–1473 (illegitimate son of John III, usurped Cyprus from his half-sister Charlotte)
  • James III 1473–1474
  • Catherine 1474–1489 (wife and widow of James II)
  • Catherine surrendered her rights to the Republic of Venice in 1489.

On the death of Charles II of Savoy, the Duchy of Savoy passed to his grand uncle and heir-male Philip (brother of Amadeus IX of Savoy). Although Charles II's sister Yolande Louise of Savoy did not succeed in Savoy because of her gender, she was the heir general of his brother and as such might be regarded to have succeeded him in claims to Cyprus and Jerusalem.

The Dukes of Savoy continued to claim Jerusalem. However, to avoid conflicts with claims of the major European houses as the Habsburg and Bourbons, the Savoyard claim appears hidden in the list of titles with the elliptical "&c." [4]

Issue of Philip II of Savoy

House of Savoy :

Issue of Amadeus IX of Savoy

Neapolitan claimants

Mary of Antioch claimed the throne of Jerusalem from 1269 to 1277. She was the daughter of Prince Bohemond IV of Antioch and his second wife Melisende of Cyprus. Melisende was the youngest daughter of Isabella, Queen of Jerusalem and her fourth husband, Amalric II of Jerusalem, king of Cyprus.

Since Mary was, at the time of the death of Conrad III (Conradin), the only living grandchild of queen Isabella, she claimed the throne on basis of proximity in blood to the kings of Jerusalem. Denied by the Haute Cour , she went to Rome and sold her rights, with papal blessing and confirmation, to Charles of Anjou in 1277.

Thereafter, this claim to the kingdom of Jerusalem was treated also as tributary to the crown of Naples, which often changed hands by testament or conquest rather than direct inheritance.

House of Anjou-Sicily

House of Anjou-Sicily : Senior Angevin claimants :

House of Valois-Anjou : Junior Angevin claimants :

House of Anjou-Hungary : Senior Angevin claimant :

House of Valois-Anjou

  • René I 1434–1480. René I united the claims of junior and senior lines. However, in 1441, control of the Kingdom of Naples was lost to Alfonso V of Aragon, who also claimed the kingdom of Jerusalem thereby.
While René was succeeded in Bar by his grandson René of Vaudemont, René's nephew and heir male Charles IV of Anjou claimed the kingdoms of Sicily and Jerusalem, and he then testamented them to his cousin Louis XI of France.

Aragonese claimants:

Angevin-Lorraine claimants : House of Valois-Anjou

House of Lorraine

House of Habsburg-Lorraine

French claimants: House of Valois-Anjou

  • Charles IV 1480–1481, heir male of René, Titular King of Jerusalem and Sicily

House of Valois

  • Louis 1481–1483, first cousin, by testament
  • Charles V 1483–1498 — In 1494 Charles VIII of France claimed the Kingdom of Naples and Jerusalem as the great-grandson of Louis II of Anjou and launched his conquest. In 1495, he had conquered Naples and was crowned as king.

House of Valois-Orléans

  • Louis V 1498–1515. He took up the claim, although he lacked close descent from the main Neapolitan lines (he was a descendant of the eldest daughter of Charles II of Naples). He succeeded in conquering part of Naples 1500–1504. No other French king has adopted the title. .

Spanish Bourbon claimant :

Habsburg claimant :

  • Charles VI 1702–1740, who claimed the Spanish possessions in opposition to Philip V; he renounced lost the Kingdom of Naples in 1734 to a Bourbon prince, the future Charles III of Spain, and renounced his claims, retaining his titles to Naples and Jerusalem during his lifetime.

Two Sicilies claimants:

Senior line:

Junior line:

Brienne claims

  • Hugh of Brienne and his heirs represent the senior heirs-general to the Kingdom, although they never pressed the claim after Hugh's rejection by the Haute Cour. In 1672, the succession of Brienne and of Cyprus to the crown of Jerusalem united.

Other historic claims

See also

Related Research Articles

Amalric of Jerusalem King of Jerusalem

Amalric was King of Jerusalem from 1163, and Count of Jaffa and Ascalon before his accession. He was the second son of Melisende and Fulk of Jerusalem, and succeeded his older brother Baldwin III. During his reign, Jerusalem became more closely allied with the Byzantine Empire, and the two states launched an unsuccessful invasion of Egypt. Meanwhile, the Muslim territories surrounding Jerusalem began to be united under Nur ad-Din and later Saladin. He was the father of three future rulers of Jerusalem, Sibylla, Baldwin IV, and Isabella I.

Melisende, Queen of Jerusalem Queen of Jerusalem

Melisende was Queen of Jerusalem from 1131 to 1153, and regent for her son between 1153 and 1161 while he was on campaign. She was the eldest daughter of King Baldwin II of Jerusalem, and the Armenian princess Morphia of Melitene.

Baldwin III of Jerusalem king of Jerusalem

Baldwin III was King of Jerusalem from 1143 to 1163. He was the eldest son of Melisende and Fulk of Jerusalem. He became king while still a child, and was at first overshadowed by his mother Melisende, whom he eventually defeated in a civil war. During his reign Jerusalem became more closely allied with the Byzantine Empire, and the Second Crusade tried and failed to conquer Damascus. Baldwin captured the important Egyptian fortress of Ascalon, but also had to deal with the increasing power of Nur ad-Din in Syria. He died childless and was succeeded by his brother Amalric.

Baldwin IV of Jerusalem King of Jerusalem

Baldwin IV, called the Leper, or The Leper King, reigned as King of Jerusalem from 1174 until his death. He was the son of Amalric I of Jerusalem and his first wife, Agnes of Courtenay.

Baldwin V of Jerusalem King of Jerusalem

Baldwin V was crowned co-King of Jerusalem with his uncle, Baldwin IV in 1183, and once his uncle died, reigned alone from 1185 to 1186 under the regency of Count Raymond III of Tripoli. He was succeeded by his mother Sibylla and stepfather Guy.

Guy of Lusignan King of Jerusalem

Guy of Lusignan was a French Poitevin knight, son of Hugh VIII of the Lusignan dynasty. He was king of the crusader state of Jerusalem from 1186 to 1192 by right of marriage to Sibylla of Jerusalem, and of Cyprus from 1192 to 1194. Having arrived in the Holy Land at an unknown date, Guy was hastily married to Sibylla in 1180 to prevent a political incident within the kingdom. As the health of his brother-in-law, Baldwin IV, deteriorated, Guy was appointed regent for his stepson by Sibylla, Baldwin V. Baldwin IV died in 1185, followed shortly by Baldwin V in 1186, leading to the succession of Sibylla and Guy to the throne. Guy's reign was marked by increased hostilities with the Ayyubids ruled by Saladin, culminating in the Battle of Hattin in July 1187—during which Guy was captured—and the fall of Jerusalem itself three months later.

Fulk, King of Jerusalem King of Jerusalem

Fulk, also known as Fulk the Younger, was the Count of Anjou from 1109 to 1129 and the King of Jerusalem from 1131 to his death. During his reign, the Kingdom of Jerusalem reached its largest territorial extent.

Sibylla was the Countess of Jaffa and Ascalon from 1176 and Queen of Jerusalem from 1186 to 1190. She was the eldest daughter of Amalric I of Jerusalem and Agnes of Courtenay, sister of Baldwin IV and half-sister of Isabella I of Jerusalem, and mother of Baldwin V of Jerusalem. Her grandmother Melisende had provided an example of successful rule by a queen regnant earlier in the century.

Agnes of Courtenay Queens consort of Jerusalem

Agnes of Courtenay was Queen of Jerusalem as the wife of King Amalric I of Jerusalem. She was the daughter of Joscelin II of Courtenay by his wife Beatrice of Saone, and the mother of King Baldwin IV and Queen Sibylla of Jerusalem.

House of Lusignan dynasty

The House of Lusignan was a royal house of French origin, which at various times ruled several principalities in Europe and the Levant, including the kingdoms of Jerusalem, Cyprus, and Armenia, from the 12th through the 15th centuries during the Middle Ages. It also had great influence in England and France.

House of Ibelin noble family

The House of Ibelin was a noble family in the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem in the 12th century. They rose from humble beginnings to become one of the most important families in the kingdom, holding various high offices and with extensive holdings in the Holy Land and Cyprus. The family disappeared after the fall of the Kingdom of Cyprus in the 15th century.

Baldwin of Ibelin, also known as Baldwin II of Ramla, was an important noble of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem in the 12th century. He was the second son of Barisan of Ibelin, and was the younger brother of Hugh of Ibelin and older brother of Balian of Ibelin. He first appears in the historical record as a witness to charters in 1148.

Morphia of Melitene, or Morfia, or Moraphia was queen of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem as the wife Baldwin II.

Ioveta, was a princess of Jerusalem and a Abbess of Bethany. Her name appears in various forms, including Joveta, Jovita, Jowita, Yvette, Iveta, Ivetta, and even Juditta.

Maria of Antioch was the pretender to the throne of Jerusalem from 1269 to 1277. She was the daughter of Prince Bohemond IV of Antioch and his second wife Melisende de Lusignan. By her mother, she was the granddaughter of Queen Isabella I and King Amalric II of Jerusalem.

Hugh, Count of Brienne Count of Brienne

Hugh, Count of Brienne and Lecce was the second surviving son of Count Walter IV of Brienne and Marie de Lusignan of Cyprus.

The double County of Jaffa and Ascalon was one of the four major seigneuries comprising the major crusader state, the Kingdom of Jerusalem, according to 13th-century commentator John of Ibelin.

Sibylla of Anjou Countess of Flanders

Sibylla of Anjou was a countess consort of Flanders. She was the daughter of Fulk V of Anjou and Ermengarde of Maine, and wife of William Clito and Thierry, Count of Flanders. She was the regent of Flanders in 1147-1149.

References

  1. Guy. 2012. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 27 August 2012, from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/249989/Guy
  2. 1 2 Whitworth Porter (2013). A History of the Knights of Malta. Cambridge Library Collection - European History. Cambridge University Press. p. 18. ISBN   9781108066228 . Retrieved 20 May 2014. Refusing the title of King and the diadem which were offered him, upon the plea that he would never wear a crown of gold where his Saviour had worn a crown of thorns, he modestly contented him with the title of Defender and Advocate of the Holy Sepulchre.
  3. Adrian J. Boas. Jerusalem in the Time of the Crusades: Society, Landscape and Art in the Holy City under Frankish Rule. Pages 79-82. Routledge 2009. ISBN   9780415488754.
  4. Scott, John Beldon (2003) Architecture for the shroud: relic and ritual in Turin, University of Chicago Press
  5. Catalogue of additions to the manuscripts - British Museum. Dept. of Manuscripts - Google Libros. Books.google.es. Retrieved 27 November 2012.
  6. The ... history of the feats, gests, and prowesses of the chevalier Bayard ... - Jacques de Mailles - Google Libros. Books.google.es. Retrieved 27 November 2012.

Further reading