Counts and dukes of Anjou

Last updated
County/Dukedom of Anjou
Crown of a Duke of France.svg
Arms of Hercule dAnjou.svg
Coat of arms of the Dukes of Anjou.
Creation date861 (County)
1360 (Dukedom)
Peerage Peerage of France
First holder Robert the Strong (County)
Louis I (Dukedom)
Last holder John the Good (County)
Louis Stanislas Xavier of France (Dukedom)
StatusExtinct
Extinction date1795

The Count of Anjou was the ruler of the County of Anjou, first granted by Charles the Bald in the 9th century to Robert the Strong. Ingelger and his son, Fulk the Red, were viscounts until Fulk assumed the title of Count of Anjou. The Robertians and their Capetian successors were distracted by wars with the Vikings and other concerns and were unable to recover the county until the reign of Philip II Augustus, more than 270 years later.

Contents

Ingelger's male line ended with Geoffrey II. Subsequent counts of Anjou were descended from Geoffrey's sister Ermengarde and Count Geoffrey II of Gâtinais. Their agnatic descendants, who included the Angevin kings of England, continued to hold these titles and property until the French monarchy gained control of the area. In 1360, the Count was raised to a Dukedom becoming known as Duke of Anjou, subsequently leading the Duchy of Anjou.

The title was held by Philip V of Spain before his accession in 1700. Since then, some Spanish legitimist claimants to the French throne have borne the title even to the present day, as does a nephew of the Orléanist pretender.

Counts of Anjou

Robertian dynasty

The Robertians, or Robertian dynasty, comprised:

NamePortraitBirthMarriagesDeath
Robert the Strong
861–866
also: marquis of Neustria, count of Tours
820
?
son of Robert III of Worms and Waldrade
 ?
two sons
866
aged 45
Odo
866-898
also: king of the Franks, marquis of Neustria, count of Paris
Odo of France.PNG 852
La Fère
son of Robert the Strong and Adelaide of Tours
Théodrate of Troyes
two sons
898
aged 46

House of Ingelger

NamePortraitBirthMarriagesDeath
Ingelger
(Viscount of Angers)
845
Rennes
son of Tertullus (Tertulle) and Petronilla
Adelais of Amboise
one son
888
aged 42
Fulk I the Red
929–942
870
son of Ingelger and Resinde "Aelinde" D'Amboise
Rosalie de Loches
one son
942
aged 72
Fulk II the Good
942–958
905
son of Fulk the Red
Gerberge
two children
11 November 960
aged 55 Tours
Geoffrey I Greymantle
960–987
940
son of Fulk II
(1) Adele of Meaux
four children
(2) Adelaise de Chalon
March 979
one son
21 July 987
aged 47
Fulk III the Black
987–1040
Sceau de Foulques Nerra.jpg 972
son of Geoffrey I Greymantle and Adelaide of Vermandois
(1) Elisabeth of Vendôme
one daughter
(2) Hildegard of Sundgau
1001
two children
21 June 1040
Metz
aged 68
Geoffrey II Martel
1040–1060
Geoffrey II.jpg son of Fulk the Black and Hildegard of Sundgau (1) Agnes of Burgundy
1032
no issue
(2) Grécie of Langeais
no issue
(3) Adèle
no issue
(4) Grécie of Langeais
no issue
(5) Adelaide
no issue

House of Anjou

NamePortraitBirthMarriagesDeath
Geoffrey III the Bearded
1060–1067
Geoffrey3Anjou.jpg 1040
eldest son of Geoffrey II, Count of Gâtinais and Ermengarde of Anjou
(1) Julienne de Langeais
no issue
1096
aged 56
Fulk IV the Ill-Tempered
1067–1109
Fulko4Anjou.jpg 1043
younger son of Geoffrey II, Count of Gâtinais and Ermengarde of Anjou
(1) Hildegarde of Beaugency
one daughter
(2) Ermengarde de Bourbon
1070
one son
(3) Orengarde de Châtellailon
1076
no issue
(4) Mantie of Brienne
1080
no issue
(5) Bertrade de Montfort
1089
one son
14 April 1109
aged 66
Geoffrey IV Martel the Younger
1103–1106
1070
son of Fulk IV and Ermengarde de Bourbon
never married
no issue
19 May 1106
Candé
aged 36
Fulk V the Young
1106–1129
also: king of Jerusalem
Foulque5.jpg 1089
Angers
son of Count Fulk IV, Count of Anjou and Bertrade de Montfort
(1) Ermengarde of Maine
1110
four children
(2) Melisende
2 June 1129
Jerusalem
two children
13 November 1143
Acre, Israel
aged 54
Geoffrey V Plantagenet
1129–1151
also: count of Tours and Maine, duke of Normandy
Geoffrey of Anjou Monument.jpg 24 August 1113
elder son of Fulk V of Anjou and Eremburga de La Flèche
Empress Matilda
17 June 1128
three sons
7 September 1151
Château-du-Loir
aged 38
Henry Curtmantle
1151–1189
also: king of England, count of Maine, duke of Normandy, Aquitaine and Gascony, lord of Ireland
Henry II of England.jpg 5 March 1133
Le Mans
son of Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou and Empress Matilda
Eleanor of Aquitaine
18 May 1152
Poitiers
eight children
6 July 1189
Chinon
aged 56
Richard Lionheart
1189–1199
also: king of England, count of Maine and Nantes, duke of Normandy, Aquitaine and Gascony, lord of Ireland
Richard I of England.png 8 September 1157
Beaumont Palace
son of King Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine
Berengaria of Navarre
12 May 1191
Limassol
No legitimate issue
6 April 1199
Châlus
aged 42
Arthur
1199–1203
also: duke of Brittany
Artur of Brittany.jpg 29 March 1187
son of Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany and Constance of Penthièvre
never married
no issue
April 1203
Rouen
aged 16

In 1204, Anjou was lost to king Philip II of France. It was re-granted as an appanage for Louis VIII's son John, who died in 1232 at the age of thirteen, and then to Louis's youngest son, Charles, later the first Angevin king of Sicily.

Capetian dynasty

House of Anjou

NamePortraitBirthMarriagesDeath
John I Tristan
1219–1232
Charles I
1246–1285
also: king of Sicily, of Albania, of Jerusalem, count of Maine, of Provence, of Forcalquier
Palazzo Reale di Napoli - Carlo I d'Angio.jpg 21 March 1226
youngest son of Louis VIII of France and Blanche of Castile
(1) Beatrice of Provence
31 January 1246
Aix-en-Provence
seven children
(2) Margaret of Burgundy
1268
one daughter
7 January 1285
Foggia
aged 58
Charles II
1285–1290
also: king of Naples, of Albania, prince of Salerno, of Achaea
Charles 2 of Naples.jpg 1254
son of Charles I of Anjou and Beatrice of Provence
Maria of Hungary
1270
14 children
5 May 1309
Naples
aged 55
Margaret
1290–1299
Marie karel2 (cropped, five daughters).jpg 1272
daughter of Charles II of Naples and Mary of Hungary
Charles of Valois
16 August 1290
Corbeil
six children
31 December 1299
aged 26

In 1290, Margaret married Charles of Valois, the younger brother of king Philip IV of France. He became Count of Anjou in her right.

House of Valois

NamePortraitBirthMarriagesDeath
Charles III
1290–1325
also: count of Valois
Karel Valois.jpg 12 March 1270
fourth son of Philip III of France and Isabella of Aragon
(1) Margaret of Naples
1290
six children
(2) Catherine of Courtenay
1302
four children
(3) Mahaut of Châtillon
1308
four children
16 December 1325
Nogent-le-Roi
aged 55
Philip
1293–1328
also: Philip the Fortunate, count of Maine, of Valois
Phil6france.jpg 1293
son of Charles of Valois and Margaret of Naples
(1) Joan the Lame
July 1313
seven children
(2) Blanche of Navarre
11 January 1350
one daughter
22 August 1350
Nogent-le-Roi
aged 57

In 1328, Philip of Valois ascended the French throne and became King Philip VI. At this time, the counties of Anjou, Maine, and Valois returned to the royal domain. On 26 April 1332, Philip granted the county to his eldest son, John:

NamePortraitBirthMarriagesDeath
John
1332–1350
also: John the Good, count of Maine, of Poitiers, duke of Normandy, and Aquitaine
JeanIIdFrance.jpg 16 April 1319
son of Philip VI and Joan the Lame
(1) Bonne of Bohemia
28 July 1332
Church of Notre-Dame, Melun
nine children
(2) Joanna I of Auvergne
19 February 1350
Nanterre
two children
8 April 1364
Savoy
aged 44

Following John's ascension to the throne as John II in 1350, the title again returned to the royal domain.

Dukes of Anjou

The dukes contributed greatly to social reform in the 1300s and 1400s. [1]

First creation: 13601481 – House of Valois-Anjou

NamePortraitBirthMarriagesDeath
Louis I
1370–1384
also: count of Maine, de Provence and Touraine, king of Naples
Loisd'Anjau.jpg 23 July 1339
Château de Vincennes
second son of King John II of France and Bonne of Luxembourg
Marie of Blois
1360
three children
20 September 1384
Bisceglie
aged 45
Louis II
1384–1417
also: king of Naples
Luigi II d'Angio.jpg 1377
Toulouse
son of Louis I of Anjou
Yolande of Aragon
Arles
1400
five children
29 April 1417
Angers
aged 40
Louis III
1417–1434
also: count of Provence, Forcalquier, Piedmont and Maine, duke of Calabria, king of Naples
Armorial de Gilles le Bouvier BNF Fr4985 f74.jpg 25 September 1403
eldest son of Louis II of Anjou and Yolande of Aragon
Margaret of Savoy, Duchess of Anjou
Cosenza
1432
no issue
12 November 1434
Cosenza
aged 31
René
1434–1480
also: count of Provence, Piedmont, duke of Bar, Lorraine, king of Naples
Renedesanjou.jpg 16 January 1409
Château d'Angers
second son of Louis II of Anjou and Yolande of Aragon
(1) Isabella, Duchess of Lorraine
1420
10 children
(2) Jeanne de Laval
10 September 1454
Abbey of St. Nicholas, Angers
no issue
10 July 1480
Aix-en-Provence
aged 71
Charles IV
1480–1481
also: Count of Maine, Guise and Provence
Charles III de Provence roi de Sicile duc dAnjou comte du Maine.jpg 1446
son of Charles of Maine, grandson of Louis II of Anjou
Joan of Lorraine
1474
no issue
1481
aged 35

On the death of Charles IV, Anjou returned to the royal domain.

Second creation: 15151531 – House of Savoy

NamePortraitBirthMarriagesDeath
Louise
1515–1531
also: duchess of Auvergne, of Bourbon, of Nemours
Bemberg fondation Toulouse - Portrait de Louise de Savoie, mere de Francois Ier - Ecole De Jean Clouet (1475;1485-1540) 22x17 Inv.1013.jpg 11 September 1476
Pont-d'Ain
eldest daughter of Philip II, Duke of Savoy and Margaret of Bourbon
Charles of Orléans
16 February 1488
Paris
one daughter, one son
22 September 1531
Gretz-sur-Loing
aged 55

Third creation: 15661576 – House of Valois-Angoulême

NamePortraitBirthMarriagesDeath
Henry III
15661576
also: dauphin of France, duke of Angoulême, duke of Orléans
Anjou 1570louvre.jpg
19 September 1551
Palace of Fontainebleau
fourth son of Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici
Louise of Lorraine
13 February 1575
Notre-Dame de Reims
no issue
2 August 1589
Saint-Cloud
aged 37

Fourth creation: 15761584 – House of Valois-Angoulême

NamePortraitBirthMarriagesDeath
Francis III
15761584
also: duke of Berry, of Touraine, of Alençon, Château-Thierry, of Évreux, Count of Perche, of Meulan, of Mantes
Nicholas Hilliard 002.jpg
18 March 1555
Palace of Fontainebleau
fifth son of Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici
never married19 June 1584
Château-Thierry
aged 29

Fifth creation: 16081626 – House of Bourbon

NamePortraitBirthMarriagesDeath
Gaston I
16081626
also: duke of Orléans, duke of Chartres, count of Blois, duke of Alençon
Gaston, Duke of Orleans, Chateau de Blois.jpg
25 April 1608
Palace of Fontainebleau
third son of Henry IV of France and Marie de' Medici
(1) Marie de Bourbon, Duchess of Montpensier
6 August 1626
Nantes
one daughter
(2) Marguerite of Lorraine
31 January 1632
Nancy
five children
2 February 1660
Château de Blois
aged 51

Sixth creation: 16401660 – House of Orléans

NamePortraitBirthMarriagesDeath
Philip I
16401660
also: duke of Orléans, duke of Chartres, of Valois, of Nemours, of Montpensier, of Châtellerault, of Saint-Fargeau, of Beaupréau, prince of Joinville, count of Dourdan, Romorantin, of Mortain, of Bar-sur-Seine, viscount of Auge and of Domfront, marquis of Coucy and of Folembray, marquis of Mézières, baron of Beaujolais, seigneur of Montargis
Philippe de France wearing coronation clothes for his brother, Ecole francaise.jpg
21 September 1640
Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye
second son of Louis XIII of France and Anne of Austria
(1) Princess Henrietta of England
31 March 1661
Palais-Royal
three children
(2) Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate
16 November 1671
Châlons-sur-Marne
three children
9 June 1701
Château de Saint-Cloud
aged 60

Seventh creation: 16681671 – House of Bourbon

NamePortraitBirthMarriagesDeath
Philippe Charles
16681671
Filip Karol Burbon.jpg
5 August 1668
Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye
second son of Louis XIV of France and Maria Theresa of Spain
never married10 July 1671
Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye
aged 2

8th creation: 1672 – House of Bourbon

NamePortraitBirthMarriagesDeath
Louis Francis
1672
Grand Royal Coat of Arms of France.svg
14 June 1672
Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye
third son of Louis XIV of France and Maria Theresa of Spain
never married4 November 1672
Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye

9th creation: 16831700 – House of Bourbon

NamePortraitBirthMarriagesDeath
Philip II
16831700
Miguel Jacinto Melendez - Felipe V, duque de Anjou (Museo del Prado) 2.jpg
19 December 1683
Palace of Versailles
second son of Louis, le Grand Dauphin and Duchess Maria Anna Victoria of Bavaria
(1) Maria Luisa of Savoy
2 November 1701
Figueres
four children
(2) Elisabeth of Parma
24 December 1714
Guadalajara
seven children
9 July 1746
Madrid
aged 62

10th creation: 17101715 – House of Bourbon

NamePortraitBirthMarriagesDeath
Louis the Beloved
17101715
also: dauphin of France
Gobert - Louis XV as child, Fundacion Jakober.jpg
15 February 1710
Palace of Versailles
third son of Louis, le Petit Dauphin and Princess Marie Adélaïde of Savoy
Marie Leszczyńska
4 September 1725
Palace of Fontainebleau
eleven children
10 May 1774
Palace of Versailles
aged 64

11th creation: 17301733 – House of Bourbon

NamePortraitBirthMarriagesDeath
Philip
17301733
Philippe de France by Barriere.jpg
30 August 1730
Palace of Versailles
fourth son of Louis XV of France and Marie Leszczyńska
never married17 April 1733
Palace of Versailles
aged 2

12th creation: 1755–1795 – House of Bourbon

NamePortraitBirthMarriagesDeath
Louis the Desired
17551795
also: comte de Provence, comte du Maine, comte de Perche and comte de Senoches
Louis Stanislas Young.jpg
17 November 1755
Palace of Versailles
fourth son of Louis, Dauphin of France and Princess Maria Josepha of Saxony
Princess Marie Joséphine of Savoy
14 May 1771
Palace of Versailles
no issue
16 September 1824
Paris
aged 68

1883–present – House of Bourbon

After the death of Henry, Count of Chambord, only the descendants of Philip V of Spain remained of the male line of Louis XIV. The most senior of these, the Carlist claimant to the Spanish throne, became the eldest of the Capetians. Some of them used the courtesy title of Duke of Anjou, as shown below:

NamePortraitBirthMarriagesDeath
Jaime
19091931
also: duque de Madrid
Don Jaime de Borbon.jpg
27 June 1870
Vevey
third son of Carlos, Duke of Madrid and Princess Margherita of Bourbon-Parma
never married2 October 1931
Paris
aged 60
Alfonso Carlos
19311936
also: duque de San Jaime
Alfonso Carlos of Bourbon, Duke of San Jaime.JPG 12 September 1849
London
second son of Juan, Count of Montizón and Archduchess Maria Beatrix of Austria-Este
Infanta Maria das Neves of Portugal
26 April 1871
Kleinheubach
no issue
29 September 1936
Vienna
aged 87

At the death of Alfonso Carlos in 1936, the Capetian seniority passed to the exiled King of Spain, Alfonso XIII. In 1941, Infante Jaime, Duke of Segovia, succeeded his father Alfonso XIII (Alphonse I of France according to the Legitimists) as the heir male of Louis XIV and therefore as the Legitimist claimant to the French throne. He then adopted the title of Duke of Anjou.

NamePortraitBirthMarriagesDeath
Jaime
19411975
also: duque de Segovia, duque de Madrid
Jaime Enrique de Borbon.jpg
23 June 1908
Royal Palace of La Granja de San Ildefonso
second son of King Alfonso XIII of Spain and Princess Victoria Eugenie of Battenberg
(1) Emmanuelle de Dampierre
4 March 1935
Church of San Ignacio de Loyola, Rome
two children
(2) Charlotte Tiedemann
3 August 1949
Innsbruck
no issue
20 March 1975
St. Gallen
aged 66
Alfonso
19751989
also: duque de Cadiz, duc de Bourbon, duc de Bourgogne
Duke Alfonso 1963b.jpg
20 April 1936
Rome
eldest son of Jaime and Emmanuelle de Dampierre
María del Carmen Martínez-Bordiú y Franco
8 March 1972
Royal Palace of El Pardo
two sons
30 January 1989
Beaver Creek Resort
aged 52
Louis Alphonse
1989present
also: duc de Touraine, duc de Bourbon
Louis de Bourbon.jpg
25 April 1974
Madrid
second son of Alfonso and María del Carmen Martínez-Bordiú y Franco
María Margarita Vargas Santaella
6 November 2004
La Romana
four children
living

2004–present – House of Bourbon-Orléans

On December 8, 2004, Henry, Count of Paris, Duke of France, Orléanist Pretender to the French throne, granted the title Duke of Anjou to his nephew Charles-Philippe. Because he doesn't recognize his cousin's courtesy title, in his view the title was available since 1824.

NamePortraitBirthMarriagesDeath
Charles-Philippe
2004present
3 March 1973
Paris
eldest son of Michel, Count of Évreux and Beatrice Pasquier de Franclieu
Diana Álvares Pereira de Melo, 11th Duchess of Cadaval
21 June 2008
Cathedral of Évora
living

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References

  1. Jones, Colin (1994). The Cambridge Illustrated History of France (1st ed.). Cambridge University Press. p.  124. ISBN   0-521-43294-4.