Philip III of France

Last updated

Philip III
Miniature Philippe III Courronement.jpg
Coronation of King Philip III
King of France (more...)
Reign25 August 1270 – 5 October 1285
Coronation 30 August 1271
Predecessor Louis IX
Successor Philip IV
Born1 May 1245
Poissy
Died5 October 1285(1285-10-05) (aged 40)
Perpignan
Burial
Initially Narbonne, later Saint Denis Basilica
Spouse
Issue
House Capet
Father Louis IX of France
Mother Margaret of Provence

Philip III (1 May 1245 – 5 October 1285), called the Bold [lower-alpha 1] [lower-alpha 2] (French : le Hardi), was king of France from 1270 until his death in 1285. His father, Louis IX, died in Tunis during the Eighth Crusade. Philip, who was accompanying him, returned to France and was anointed king at Reims in 1271.

Contents

Philip inherited numerous territorial lands during his reign, the most notable being the County of Toulouse, which was returned to the royal domain in 1271. With the Treaty of Orléans, he expanded French influence into the Kingdom of Navarre and following the death of his brother Peter during the Sicilian Vespers, the County of Alençon was returned to the crown lands.

Following the Sicilian Vespers, Philip led the Aragonese Crusade in support of his uncle. Initially successful, Philip, his army racked with sickness, was forced to retreat and died from dysentery in Perpignan in 1285. He was succeeded by his son Philip IV.

Early life

Philip was born in Poissy on 1 May 1245, [3] the second son of King Louis IX of France and Margaret of Provence. [4] As a younger son, Philip was not expected to rule France. At the death of his older brother Louis in 1260, he became the heir apparent to the throne. [5]

Philip's mother Margaret made him promise to remain under her tutelage until the age of 30, however Pope Urban IV released him from this oath on 6 June 1263. [6] From that moment on, Pierre de la Broce, a royal favourite and household official of Louis IX, was Philip's mentor. [7] His father, Louis, also provided him with advice, writing in particular the Enseignements, which inculcated the notion of justice as the first duty of a king. [8]

According to the terms of the Treaty of Corbeil (1258), concluded on 11 March 1258 between Louis IX and James I of Aragon, [9] Philip was married in 1262 to Isabella of Aragon in Clermont by the archbishop of Rouen, Eudes Rigaud. [10]

Crusade

Philip (on horseback) has his father's remains returned to France. Late 15th century illuminated manuscript Livre des faiz monseigneur saint Loys - BNF Fr2829 f82r (procession funebre de Louis IX).jpg
Philip (on horseback) has his father's remains returned to France. Late 15th century illuminated manuscript

As Count of Orléans, Philip accompanied his father on the Eighth Crusade to Tunis in 1270. Shortly before his departure, Louis IX had given the regency of the kingdom into the hands of Mathieu de Vendôme and Simon II, Count of Clermont, to whom he had also entrusted the royal seal. [11] After taking Carthage, the army was struck by an epidemic of dysentery, which spared neither Philip nor his family. His brother John Tristan, Count of Valois died first, on 3 August, [12] and on 25 August the King died. [lower-alpha 3] [13] To prevent putrefaction of his remains, it was decided to carry out mos Teutonicus , the process of rendering the flesh from the bones so as to make transporting the remains feasible. [14]

Philip, only 25 years old and stricken with dysentery, was proclaimed king in Tunis. [15] His uncle, Charles I of Naples, negotiated with Muhammad I al-Mustansir, Hafsid Caliph of Tunis. [16] A treaty was concluded 5 November 1270 between the kings of France, Sicily and Navarre and the Caliph of Tunis. [17]

Other deaths followed this debacle. In December, in Trapani, Sicily, Philip's brother-in-law, King Theobald II of Navarre, died. [18] He was followed in February by Philip's wife, Isabella, who fell off her horse while pregnant with their fifth child. [19] She died in Cozenza (Calabria). [19] In April, Theobald's widow and Philip's sister, Isabella, also died. [20]

Philip III arrived in Paris on 21 May 1271, and paid tribute to the deceased. [21] The next day the funeral of his father was held. [22] The new sovereign was crowned king of France in Reims on 15 August 1271. [23]

Reign

Philip maintained most of his father's domestic policies. [24] He followed in his father's footsteps concerning Jews in France, [25] claiming piety as his motivation. [26] Upon his return to Paris 23 September 1271, Philip reenacted his father's order that Jews wear badges. [27] His charter in 1283 banned the construction and repair of synagogues and Jewish cemeteries, [28] banned Jews from employing Christians, and sought to restrain Jewish strepiti (chanting too loudly [29] ). [30]

On 21 August 1271, Philip's uncle, Alphonse, Count of Poitiers and Toulouse, died childless in Savona. [31] Philip inherited Alphonse's lands and united them with the royal domain. This inheritance included a portion of Auvergne, later the Duchy of Auvergne and the Agenais. In accordance with the wishes of Alphonse, Philip granted the Comtat Venaissin to Pope Gregory X in 1274. [32] Several years later the Treaty of Amiens (1279) with King Edward I restored Agenais to the English. [32]

On 19 September 1271, Philip commanded the Seneschal of Toulouse to record oaths of loyalty from nobles and town councils. [31] The following year, Roger-Bernard III, Count of Foix, invaded the County of Toulouse, killed several royal officials, [31] and captured the town of Sombuy. [33] Philip's royal seneschal, Eustache de Beaumarchès, led a counter-attack into the County of Foix, until ordered by Philip to withdraw. [31] Philip and his army arrived at Toulouse on 25 May 1272, [31] and on 1 June at Boulbonne met James I of Aragon, who attempted to mediate the issue, but this was rejected by Roger-Bernard. [33] Philip then proceeded on a campaign to devastate and depopulate the County of Foix. [34] By 5 June Roger-Bernard had surrendered, was incarcerated at Carcassone, [33] and placed in chains. [34] Philip imprisoned him for a year, but then freed him and restored his lands. [35]

Treaty with Navarre

Following the death of King Henry I of Navarre in 1274, Alfonso X of Castile attempted to gain the crown of Navarre from Henry's heiress, Joan. [36] Ferdinand de la Cerda, the son of Alfonso X, arrived at Viana with an army. At the same time, Alfonso sought papal approval for a marriage between one of his grandsons and Joan. [36] Henry's widow, Blanche of Artois, was also receiving marriage proposals for Joan from England and Aragon. [36] Faced with an invading army and foreign proposals, Blanche sought assistance from her cousin, Philip. [36] Philip saw a territorial gain, while Joan would have the military assistance to protect her kingdom. [37] The Treaty of Orléans of 1275, between Philip and Blanche, arranged the marriage between a son of Philip (Louis or Philip) and Blanche's daughter, Joan. [37] The treaty indicated that Navarre would be administered from Paris by appointed governors. [37] By May 1276, French governors were traveling throughout Navarre collecting oaths of fealty to the young Queen. [38] The Navarrese populace, unhappy with the pro-French treaty and French governors, formed two rebellious factions, one pro-Castilian, the other pro-Aragonese. [38]

In September 1276, Philip, faced with open rebellion, sent Robert II, Count of Artois to Pamplona with an army. [39] Philip arrived in Bearn in November 1276 with another army, by which time Robert had pacified the situation and extracted oaths of homage from Navarrese nobles and castellans. [40] Despite the revolt being quickly pacified, it was not until the spring of 1277 that the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon renounced their intentions of matrimony. [40]

Sicilian Vespers

In 1282, King Peter III of Aragon invaded Sicily, [41] instigating the Sicilian Vespers rebellion against King Charles I of Naples, [42] Philip's uncle. The success of the rebellion and invasion led to the coronation of Peter as king of Sicily on 4 September 1282. [43] Pope Martin IV excommunicated Peter and declared his kingdom forfeit. [44] Martin then granted Aragon to Philip's son, Charles, Count of Valois. [45] Philip's brother, Peter, Count of Perche, who had joined Charles to suppress the rebellion, was killed in Reggio Calabria. [46] He died without issue and the County of Alençon returned to the royal domain in 1286. [47]

Marriage of Philip and Marie of Brabant, Queen of France MariaofBrabantMarriage.jpg
Marriage of Philip and Marie of Brabant, Queen of France

Aragonese Crusade and death

Philip, at the urging of his wife, Marie of Brabant, and his uncle, Charles of Naples, launched a war against the Kingdom of Aragon. [48] The war took the name "Aragonese Crusade" from its papal sanction; nevertheless, one historian labelled it "perhaps the most unjust, unnecessary and calamitous enterprise ever undertaken by the Capetian monarchy." [49] Philip, accompanied by his sons, entered Roussillon at the head of a large army. [50] By 26 June 1285, he had entrenched his army before Girona and besieged the city. [50] Despite strong resistance, Philip took Girona on 7 September 1285. [50] Philip quickly experienced a reversal, as an epidemic of dysentery hit the French camp [50] and afflicted Philip personally. The French had started a withdrawal when the Aragonese attacked and easily defeated the former at the Battle of the Col de Panissars on 1 October. [51] Philip died of dysentery in Perpignan on 5 October 1285. [48] His son, Philip the Fair, succeeded him as king of France. Following the mos Teutonicus custom, his body was divided in several parts, each buried in different places; the flesh was sent to the Narbonne Cathedral, the entrails to La Noë Abbey in Normandy, his heart to the now-demolished Church of the Couvent des Jacobins in Paris and his bones to Basilica of St Denis, at the time north of Paris. [52]

Marriage and children

On 28 May 1262, Philip married Isabella, daughter of King James I of Aragon and his second wife Yolande of Hungary. [53] They had the following children:

  1. Louis (1264 - May 1276). [54]
  2. Philip IV of France (1268 – 29 November 1314), his successor, married Joan I of Navarre [55]
  3. Robert (1269–1271) [56]
  4. Charles, Count of Valois (12 March 1270 – 16 December 1325), [57] Count of Valois from 1284, married first to Margaret of Anjou in 1290, second to Catherine I of Courtenay in 1302, and last to Mahaut of Chatillon in 1308
  5. Stillborn son (1271) [58]

After the death of Queen Isabella, he married on 21 August 1274 Marie, [53] daughter of the late Henry III, Duke of Brabant, and Adelaide of Burgundy, Duchess of Brabant. [59] Their children were:

  1. Louis, Count of Évreux (May 1276 – 19 May 1319), Count of Évreux from 1298, [57] married Margaret of Artois [60]
  2. Blanche of France, Duchess of Austria (1278 – 19 March 1305, Vienna), married Duke, the future king Rudolf I of Bohemia and Poland, on 25 May 1300. [60]
  3. Margaret of France, Queen of England (1282 – 14 February 1318), married King Edward I of England on 8 September 1299 [61]

Legacy

During Philip's reign the royal domain expanded, acquiring the County of Guînes in 1281 [62] , the County of Toulouse in 1271, the County of Alençon in 1286, the Duchy of Auvergne in 1271, and through the marriage of his son Philip, the Kingdom of Navarre. [37] He largely continued his father's policies and left his father's administrators in place. His attempt to conquer Aragon nearly bankrupted the French monarchy, causing financial challenges for his successor. [63]

Review from Dante

In the Divine Comedy , the Italian poet Dante envisions the spirit of Philip outside the gates of Purgatory with a number of other contemporary European rulers. Dante does not name Philip directly, but refers to him as "the small-nosed" [64] and "the father of the Pest of France," a reference to King Philip IV of France. [65]

Notes

  1. Hallam states Philip gained his nickname sometime before 1300, due to his prowess in Tunis or Spain. [1]
  2. Bradbury states it was Philip's distinct policies and how he implemented them that gained him his nickname [2]
  3. The disease in question was either dysentery or typhus. [13]

Related Research Articles

Alphonse, Count of Poitiers

Alphonse or Alfonso was the Count of Poitou from 1225 and Count of Toulouse from 1249. As count of Toulouse, he also governed the Marquisate of Provence.

The Capetian dynasty, also known as the House of France, is a dynasty of Frankish origin, and a branch of the Robertians. It is among the largest and oldest royal houses in Europe and the world, and consists of Hugh Capet, the founder of the dynasty, and his male-line descendants, who ruled in France without interruption from 987 to 1792, and again from 1814 to 1848. The senior line ruled in France as the House of Capet from the election of Hugh Capet in 987 until the death of Charles IV in 1328. That line was succeeded by cadet branches, the Houses of Valois and then Bourbon, which ruled without interruption until the French Revolution abolished the monarchy in 1792. The Bourbons were restored in 1814 in the aftermath of Napoleon's defeat, but had to vacate the throne again in 1830 in favor of the last Capetian monarch of France, Louis Philippe I, who belonged to the House of Orléans.

Philip IV of France King of France (1268-1314) (ruled 1285–1314)

Philip IV, called Philip the Fair, was King of France from 1285 to 1314. By virtue of his marriage with Joan I of Navarre, he was also King of Navarre as Philip I from 1284 to 1305, as well as Count of Champagne. Although Philip was known as handsome, hence the epithet le Bel, his rigid and inflexible personality gained him other nicknames, such as the Iron King. His fierce opponent Bernard Saisset, bishop of Pamiers, said of him: "he is neither man nor beast. He is a statue."

Louis X of France King of France

Louis X, called the Quarrelsome, the Headstrong, or the Stubborn, was King of France from 1314 to 1316, succeeding his father Philip IV. After the death of his mother, Joan I of Navarre, he was also King of Navarre as Louis I from 1305 until his death in 1316.

Louis VIII of France King of France

Louis VIII, nicknamed The Lion, was King of France from 1223 to 1226. From 1216 to 1217, he also claimed the Kingdom of England. Louis was the only surviving son of King Philip II of France by his first wife, Isabelle of Hainaut, from whom he inherited the County of Artois.

Eighth Crusade Crusade against Ifriqiya in 1270

The Eighth Crusade was a crusade launched by Louis IX of France against the Hafsid dynasty in 1270. The Eighth Crusade is sometimes counted as the Seventh, if the Fifth and Sixth Crusades of Frederick II are counted as a single crusade. The Ninth Crusade is sometimes also counted as part of the Eighth. The crusade is considered a failure after Louis died shortly after arriving on the shores of Tunisia, with his disease-ridden army dispersing back to Europe shortly afterwards.

France in the Middle Ages History of France during the Middle Ages

The Kingdom of France in the Middle Ages was marked by the fragmentation of the Carolingian Empire and West Francia (843–987); the expansion of royal control by the House of Capet (987–1328), including their struggles with the virtually independent principalities that had developed following the Viking invasions and through the piecemeal dismantling of the Carolingian Empire and the creation and extension of administrative/state control in the 13th century; and the rise of the House of Valois (1328–1589), including the protracted dynastic crisis of the Hundred Years' War with the Kingdom of England (1337–1453) compounded by the catastrophic Black Death epidemic (1348), which laid the seeds for a more centralized and expanded state in the early modern period and the creation of a sense of French identity.

Theobald II of Navarre King of Navarre

Theobald II was King of Navarre and also, as Theobald V, Count of Champagne and Brie, from 1253 until his death. He was the son and successor of Theobald I and the second Navarrese monarch of the House of Blois. After he died childless, the throne of Navarre passed to his younger brother, Henry I.

Charles, Count of Valois Emperor of Constantinople

Charles of Valois, the third son of Philip III of France and Isabella of Aragon, was a member of the House of Capet and founder of the House of Valois, whose rule over France would start in 1328.

Joan II of Navarre Queen of Navarre

Joan II was Queen of Navarre from 1328 until her death. She was the only surviving child of Louis X of France, King of France and Navarre, and Margaret of Burgundy. Joan's paternity was dubious because her mother was involved in a scandal, but Louis X declared her his legitimate daughter before he died in 1316. However, the French lords were opposed to the idea of a female monarch and elected Louis X's brother, Philip V, king. The Navarrese noblemen also paid homage to Philip. Joan's maternal grandmother, Agnes of France, Duchess of Burgundy, and uncle, Odo IV of Burgundy, made attempts to secure the counties of Champagne and Brie to Joan, but the French royal troops defeated her supporters. After Philip V married his daughter to Odo and granted him two counties as her dowry, Odo renounced Joan's claim to Champagne and Brie in exchange for a compensation in March 1318. Joan married Philip of Évreux, who was also a member of the French royal family.

Isabella of Aragon, Queen of France Queen consort of France

Isabella of Aragon, was Queen of France from 1270 to 1271 by marriage to Philip III of France.

Marie of Brabant, Queen of France Queen consort of France

Marie of Brabant was Queen of France from 1274 until 1285 as the second wife of King Philip III. Born in Leuven, Brabant, she was a daughter of Henry III, Duke of Brabant, and Adelaide of Burgundy.

Philip III of Navarre King of Navarre

Philip III, called the Noble or the Wise, was King of Navarre from 1328 until his death. He was born a minor member of the French royal family but gained prominence when the Capetian main line went extinct, as he and his wife and cousin, Joan II of Navarre, acquired the Iberian kingdom and a number of French fiefs.

House of Capet Rulers of the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328

The House of Capet or the Direct Capetians, also called the House of France, or simply the Capets, ruled the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328. It was the most senior line of the Capetian dynasty – itself a derivative dynasty from the Robertians. Historians in the 19th century came to apply the name "Capetian" to both the ruling house of France and to the wider-spread male-line descendants of Hugh Capet. Contemporaries did not use the name "Capetian". The Capets were sometimes called "the third race of kings". The name "Capet" derives from the nickname given to Hugh, the first Capetian King, who became known as Hugh Capet.

Aragonese Crusade 13th-century military campaign

The Aragonese Crusade or Crusade of Aragon, a part of the larger War of the Sicilian Vespers, was declared by Pope Martin IV against King Peter III of Aragon in 1284 and 1285. Because of the recent conquest of Sicily by Peter, Martin declared a crusade against him and officially deposed him as king, on the grounds that Aragon was a papal fief: Peter's grandfather and namesake, Peter II, had surrendered the kingdom as a fief to the Holy See. Martin bestowed Aragon on Peter's nephew Count Charles of Valois, son of King Philip III of France.

The crown lands, crown estate, royal domain or domaine royal of France were the lands, fiefs and rights directly possessed by the kings of France. While the term eventually came to refer to a territorial unit, the royal domain originally referred to the network of "castles, villages and estates, forests, towns, religious houses and bishoprics, and the rights of justice, tolls and taxes" effectively held by the king or under his domination. In terms of territory, before the reign of Henry IV, the domaine royal did not encompass the entirety of the territory of the kingdom of France and for much of the Middle Ages significant portions of the kingdom were the direct possessions of other feudal lords.

Isabella of France, Queen of Navarre Queen consort of Navarre

Isabella of France was a daughter of Louis IX of France and Margaret of Provence. She was married to Theobald II of Navarre, eldest son of Theobald I of Navarre and Margaret of Navarre on 6 April 1255. Isabelle became Queen consort of Navarre.

Louis of France, was heir apparent to the French throne. He was the eldest son of King Philip III of France and his first wife, Isabella of Aragon.

Treaty of Orléans

The Treaty of Orléans was a marriage treaty signed in 1275, that led to a short-lived personal union between the kingdoms of Navarre and France. It was signed by Philip III of France and his cousin Blanche of Artois, mother and regent to the two-year-old Joan I of Navarre. The original intent of the treaty was not to create a personal union, however, but to enable Philip to administer Navarre in Joan's name. Joan was also to marry either Philip's firstborn and heir apparent, Louis, or his second son, Philip. Pope Gregory X explicitly stated that he preferred a match with the younger son, as he probably wished to avoid merging Navarre with France. Louis died in 1276, however, leaving Philip as the only choice per the terms of the treaty.

Eustache de Beaumarchais

Eustache de Beaumarchais was a French baron and military leader who served as seneschal of the County of Poitou (1268–76) and the County of Toulouse (1272–94). He took part in the War of the Navarrería in 1276–77 and in the Aragonese Crusade in 1284–85.

References

  1. Hallam 1980, p. 275.
  2. Bradbury 2007, p. 237.
  3. Richard 1992, p. 65.
  4. Richard 1992, p. xxiv.
  5. Field 2019, p. 77.
  6. Hallam 1980, p. 223.
  7. Gil 2006, p. 88.
  8. Le Goff 2009, p. 330.
  9. Sivery 2003, p. 35.
  10. Ward 2016, p. 132.
  11. Richard 1992, p. 327.
  12. Richard 1992, p. 325.
  13. 1 2 Riley-Smith 2005, pp. 210211.
  14. Westerhof 2008, p. 79.
  15. Giesey 2004, p. 242.
  16. Tyerman 2019, p. 368.
  17. Lower 2018, pp. 134135.
  18. Peter of Ickham 2012, p. 296.
  19. 1 2 Brown 1978, p. 149.
  20. Evergates 1999, p. 86.
  21. Bradbury 2007, p. 235.
  22. Sivery 2003, p. 74.
  23. Sivery 2003, pp. 109110.
  24. Fawtier 1989, p. 34.
  25. Stow 2006, p. 95.
  26. Chazan 1980, p. 185.
  27. Chazan 2019, p. 155.
  28. Chazan 1980, p. 186.
  29. Chazan 2019, p. 169.
  30. Stow 2006, p. 94.
  31. 1 2 3 4 5 Biller, Bruschi & Sneddon 2011, p. 42.
  32. 1 2 Sivery 2003, p. 106.
  33. 1 2 3 Sibley & Sibley 2003, p. 123.
  34. 1 2 Biller, Bruschi & Sneddon 2011, pp. 4243.
  35. Sibley & Sibley 2003, p. 6.
  36. 1 2 3 4 Woodacre 2013, p. 28.
  37. 1 2 3 4 Woodacre 2013, p. 29.
  38. 1 2 Woodacre 2013, p. 30.
  39. Woodacre 2013, pp. 3031.
  40. 1 2 Woodacre 2013, p. 31.
  41. Sammartino & Roberts 1992, p. 71.
  42. Runciman 2000, pp. 205209.
  43. Aurell 2020, p. 246.
  44. Bradbury 2007, p. 239.
  45. Runciman 2000, p. 243.
  46. Runciman 2000, p. 232.
  47. Wood 1966, p. 30.
  48. 1 2 Fawtier 1989, p. 35.
  49. Chaytor 1933, p. 105.
  50. 1 2 3 4 Hallam 1980, p. 356.
  51. Sivery 2003, p. 279.
  52. Jordan 2009, p. 213.
  53. 1 2 Earenfight 2013, p. 158.
  54. Bradbury 2007, p. 238.
  55. Woodacre 2013, p. xviii.
  56. Field 2019, p. 78.
  57. 1 2 Henneman 1971, p. xvii.
  58. Brown 1978, p. 179.
  59. Dunbabin 2011, p. xiv.
  60. 1 2 Morrison & Hedeman 2010, p. 4.
  61. Prestwich 2007, p. 27.
  62. Hallam 1980, p. 384.
  63. Sumption 1990, p. 24.
  64. de Pontfarcy 2010, p. 691.
  65. Alighieri 1920, pp. 5253.

Sources

Philip III of France
Born: 1 May 1245 Died: 5 October 1285
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Louis IX
King of France
25 August 1270 – 5 October 1285
Succeeded by
Philip IV