List of French monarchs

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Monarchy of France
Grand Royal Coat of Arms of France & Navarre.svg
Charles X Roi de France et de Navarre.jpg
King of France
Charles X

16 September 1824 – 2 August 1830
Details
First monarch Clovis I (as King)
Last monarch Napoleon III (as Emperor)
Formation509
Abolition4 September 1870
Residence Palais de la Cité
Louvre Palace
Palace of Versailles
Tuileries Palace
Appointer Hereditary
Pretender(s) Louis Alphonse
(House of Bourbon)
Jean d'Orléans
(House of Orléans)
Jean-Christophe
(House of Bonaparte)

The monarchs of the Kingdom of France and its predecessors (and successor monarchies) ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of the Franks in 486 until the fall of the Second French Empire in 1870, with several interruptions.

Kingdom of France kingdom in Western Europe from 843 to 1791

The Kingdom of France was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe. It was one of the most powerful states in Europe and a great power since the Late Middle Ages and the Hundred Years' War. It was also an early colonial power, with possessions around the world.

Francia territory inhabited and ruled by the Franks during Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages

Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks, or Frankish Empire was the largest post-Roman barbarian kingdom in Western Europe. It was ruled by the Franks during Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages. It is the predecessor of the modern states of France and Germany. After the Treaty of Verdun in 843, West Francia became the predecessor of France, and East Francia became that of Germany. Francia was among the last surviving Germanic kingdoms from the Migration Period era before its partition in 843.

Second French Empire government of France under Napoleon III, from 1852 to 1870

The Second French Empire, officially the French Empire, was the regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870, between the Second Republic and the Third Republic, in France.

Contents

Sometimes included as 'Kings of France' [1] are the kings of the Franks of the Merovingian dynasty, which ruled from 486 until 751, [2] and of the Carolingians, who ruled until 987 (with some interruptions).

The Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that ruled the Franks for three centuries in a region known as Francia in Latin, beginning in the middle of the 5th century. Their territory largely corresponded to ancient Gaul and the Roman provinces of Raetia, Germania Superior and the southern part of Germania. The semi legendary Merovech was supposed to have founded the Merovingian dynasty, but it was his famous grandson Clovis I who united all of Gaul under Merovingian rule.

Carolingian dynasty dynasty

The Carolingian dynasty was a Frankish noble family founded by Charles Martel with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD. The dynasty consolidated its power in the 8th century, eventually making the offices of mayor of the palace and dux et princeps Francorum hereditary, and becoming the de facto rulers of the Franks as the real powers behind the Merovingian throne. In 751 the Merovingian dynasty which had ruled the Germanic Franks was overthrown with the consent of the Papacy and the aristocracy, and a Carolingian Pepin the Short was crowned King of the Franks. The Carolingian dynasty reached its peak in 800 with the crowning of Charlemagne as the first Emperor of Romans in the West in over three centuries. His death in 814 began an extended period of fragmentation of the Carolingian empire and decline that would eventually lead to the evolution of the Kingdom of France and the Holy Roman Empire.

The Capetian dynasty, the male-line descendants of Hugh Capet, included the first rulers to adopt the title of 'King of France' for the first time with Philip II (r. 11801223). The Capetians ruled continuously from 987 to 1792 and again from 1814 to 1848. The branches of the dynasty which ruled after 1328, however, are generally given the specific branch names of Valois (until 1589) and Bourbon (until 1848).

The Capetian dynasty, also known as the House of France, is a dynasty of Frankish origin, founded by Hugh Capet. It is among the largest and oldest royal houses in Europe and the world, and consists of Hugh Capet's male-line descendants. The senior line ruled in France as the House of Capet from the election of Hugh Capet in 987 until the death of Charles IV in 1328. That line was succeeded by cadet branches, the Houses of Valois and then Bourbon, which ruled until the French Revolution.

Hugh Capet King of the Franks

Hugh Capet was the King of the Franks from 987 to 996. He is the founder and first king from the House of Capet. He was elected as the successor of the last Carolingian king, Louis V. Hugh was a descendant in illegitimate descent of Charlemagne through his mother and paternal grandmother.

Philip II of France King of France from 1180 to 1223

Philip II, known as Philip Augustus, was King of France from 1180 to 1223, the seventh from the House of Capet. His predecessors had been known as kings of the Franks, but from 1190 onward, Philip became the first French monarch to style himself "King of France". The son of King Louis VII and his third wife, Adela of Champagne, he was originally nicknamed Dieudonné (God-given) because he was a first son and born late in his father's life. Philip was given the epithet "Augustus" by the chronicler Rigord for having extended the crown lands of France so remarkably.

During the brief period when the French Constitution of 1791 was in effect (1791–92) and after the July Revolution in 1830, the style of "King of the French" was used instead of "King of France (and Navarre)". It was a constitutional innovation known as popular monarchy, which linked the monarch's title to the French people rather than to the possession of the territory of France. [3]

French Constitution of 1791 constitution

The short-lived French Constitution of 1791 was the first written constitution in France, created after the collapse of the absolute monarchy of the Ancien Régime. One of the basic precepts of the revolution was adopting constitutionality and establishing popular sovereignty.

July Revolution July 1830 revolution in France

The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution, Second French Revolution or Trois Glorieuses in French, led to the overthrow of King Charles X, the French Bourbon monarch, and the ascent of his cousin Louis Philippe, Duke of Orléans, who himself, after 18 precarious years on the throne, would be overthrown in 1848. It marked the shift from one constitutional monarchy, under the restored House of Bourbon, to another, the July Monarchy; the transition of power from the House of Bourbon to its cadet branch, the House of Orléans; and the replacement of the principle of hereditary right by popular sovereignty. Supporters of the Bourbon would be called Legitimists, and supporters of Louis Philippe Orléanists.

A style of office, honorific or manner/form of address, is an official or legally recognized form of address, and may often be used in conjunction with a title. A style, by tradition or law, precedes a reference to a person who holds a post or political office, and is sometimes used to refer to the office itself. An honorific can also be awarded to an individual in a personal capacity. Such styles are particularly associated with monarchies, where they may be used by a wife of an office holder or of a prince of the blood, for the duration of their marriage. They are also almost universally used for presidents in republics and in many countries for members of legislative bodies, higher-ranking judges and senior constitutional office holders. Leading religious figures also have styles.

With the House of Bonaparte, "Emperors of the French" ruled in 19th-century France between 1804 and 1814, again in 1815, and between 1852 and 1870.

House of Bonaparte imperial and royal European dynasty

The House of Bonaparte was an imperial and royal European dynasty of Italian origin. It was founded in 1804 by Napoleon I, the son of Genoese nobleman Carlo Buonaparte. Napoleon was a French military leader who had risen to power during the French Revolution and who in 1804 transformed the First French Republic into the First French Empire, five years after his coup d'état of November 1799. Napoleon turned the Grande Armée against every major European power and dominated continental Europe through a series of military victories during the Napoleonic Wars. He installed members of his family on the thrones of client states, extending the power of the dynasty.

Emperor of the French title used by the House of Bonaparte

Emperor of the French was the monarch of the First French Empire and the Second French Empire.

The history of France from 1789 to 1914 extends from the French Revolution to World War I and includes:

Family tree of French monarchs 509-1870 Family tree of French monarchs 509-1870.svg
Family tree of French monarchs 509–1870

Titles

The title "King of the Franks" (Latin : Rex Francorum) gradually lost ground after 1190, during the reign of Philip II (but FRANCORUM REX continued to be used, for example by Louis XII in 1499, by Francis I in 1515, and by Henry II about 1550). It was used on coins up to the eighteenth century. [n 1] During the brief period when the French Constitution of 1791 was in effect (1791–92) and after the July Revolution in 1830, the style "King of the French" was used instead of "King of France (and Navarre)". It was a constitutional innovation known as popular monarchy which linked the monarch's title to the French people rather than to the possession of the territory of France. [5]

Louis XII of France King of France

Louis XII was King of France from 1498 to 1515 and King of Naples from 1501 to 1504. The son of Charles, Duke of Orléans, and Maria of Cleves, he succeeded his cousin Charles VIII, who died without a closer heir in 1498. Louis was the eighth French king from the House of Valois, and the first from the Orléans branch of that dynasty.

Francis I of France King of France

Francis I was King of France from 1515 until his death in 1547. He was the son of Charles, Count of Angoulême, and Louise of Savoy. He succeeded his cousin and father-in-law Louis XII, who died without a son. Francis was the ninth king from the House of Valois, the second from the Valois-Orléans branch, and the first from the Valois-Orléans-Angoulême branch.

Henry II of France 16th-century King of France

Henry II was King of France from 31 March 1547 until his death in 1559. The second son of Francis I, he became Dauphin of France upon the death of his elder brother Francis III, Duke of Brittany, in 1536. Henry was the tenth king from the House of Valois, the third from the Valois-Orléans branch, and the second from the Valois-Orléans-Angoulême branch.

In addition to the Kingdom of France, there were also two French Empires, the first from 1804 to 1814 and again in 1815, founded and ruled by Napoleon I, and the second from 1852 to 1870, founded and ruled by his nephew Napoleon III (also known as Louis-Napoleon). They used the title "Emperor of the French". [6] [7]

This article lists all rulers to have held the title "King of the Franks", "King of France", "King of the French" or "Emperor of the French". For other Frankish monarchs, see List of Frankish kings. In addition to the monarchs listed below, the Kings of England and Great Britain from 1340–60, 1369-1420, and 1422–1801 also claimed the title of King of France. For a short time, this had some basis in fact under the terms of the 1420 Treaty of Troyes, Charles VI had recognized his son-in-law Henry V of England as regent and heir. Henry V predeceased Charles VI and so Henry V's son, Henry VI, succeeded his grandfather Charles VI as King of France. Most of Northern France was under English control until 1435, but by 1453, the English had been expelled from all of France save Calais (and the Channel Islands), and Calais itself fell in 1558. Nevertheless, English and then British monarchs continued to claim the title for themselves until the creation of the United Kingdom in 1801.

Frankish Empire

Merovingian dynasty (509–751)

The Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that ruled the Franks for nearly 300 years in a region known as Francia in Latin, beginning in the middle of the 5th century. Their territory largely corresponded to ancient Gaul as well as the Roman provinces of Raetia, Germania Superior and the southern part of Germania. The Merovingian dynasty was supposedly founded by Merovech, son of Chlodio, leader of the Salian Franks. But it rose to historical prominence with the reign of his supposed son Childeric I (c. 458-481) and supposed grandson Clovis I (481–511), who united all of Gaul under Merovingian rule. [8]

PortraitNameKing fromKing untilDeathRelationship with predecessor(s)Title
Clovis 1er.jpg Clovis I
 509511Died of natural causes aged 45. Buried at Abbey of St Genevieve until 18th century. Remains relocated to Basilica of St Denis. Son of Childeric I King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
After Clovis's death, his kingdom was divided among his four sons, who took up residences in different cities. The number and extent of the parts of the kingdom varied over time. Clothar I, the youngest son, eventually reunited the kingdom.
Theuderic, eldest son of Clovis, became king at Reims. His line ended in 555, after which its lands passed to his youngest brother Chlothar.
Portrait Roi de france Thierri Ier.jpg Theuderic I
(Thierry)
511533 or 534Died aged 48. Eldest son of Clovis IKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
at Reims
Theodebert I 534 548 king of Metz.jpg Theudebert I
(Thibert)
533 or 534547 or 548Killed in a hunting accident, aged 47. Son of Theuderic IKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
at Reims
Theudebald
(Thibaut)
547 or 548555Died aged 20. Son of Theudebert IKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
at Reims
Chlodomer, Clovis' second son, became king at Orléans. His sons were murdered and he died shortly afterwards; his realm was divided between his two younger brothers, Childebert and Chlothar.
Clodomir supervise l'execution de Sigismond.jpg Chlodomer
(Chlodomir)
51125 June 524Killed in the Battle of Vézeronce, aged 29. Second (surviving) son of Clovis IKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
at Orléans
Childebert, third son of Clovis, became king at Paris. He died in 558 and his lands passed to his youngest brother Chlothar.
Tiers de sou d'or de Childebert Ier.png Childebert I
51113 December 558Died aged 62. Buried at Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés. Third (surviving) son of Clovis IKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
at Paris
Chlothar, fourth and youngest son of Clovis, became king at Soissons. By 558 he had inherited the lands of his older brothers and thus reunited all of the Frankish territories that had been held by his father.
Monnaie d'argent de Clotaire Ier.png Chlothar the Old
(Clotaire)
51129 November 561Died aged 64. Buried at Abbey of St. Medard, Soissons. Youngest son of Clovis IKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
at Soissons
After Clothar's death, the kingdom was divided among his four sons. The parts of the kingdom varied over time and eventually developed into three distinct realms. Neustria, centred at Soisson and Paris, Austrasia, centered at Metz, and Burgundy, centered at Orléans. Clothar II, grandson of Clothar I, eventually reunited the kingdom.
Charibert, Chlothar's eldest surviving son, became king of the Franks at Paris. He died without issue in 567 and his realm was partitioned between his younger brothers.
Tiers de sou de Caribert Ier frappe a Aire.png Charibert I
(Caribert)
29 November 561567Died aged 50. Buried at Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés. Eldest son of Chlothar IKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
at Paris
Guntram, Chlothar's second surviving son, became king of Burgundy (king of the Franks at Orléans). At his death he was succeeded by his nephew Childebert II of the Franks, who was the son of Guntram's younger brother Sigebert.
Tiers de sou de Gontran frappe a Chalon-sur-Saone.jpeg Guntram
(Gontran)
29 November 561592Died aged 60. Buried at Saint Marcellus, Chalon-sur-Saône. Second son of Chlothar IKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
at Orléans
Sigebert, Chlothar's third surviving son, became king of Austrasia (king of the Franks at Reims/Metz).
Sigebert I
29 November 561575Murdered at Vitry-en-Artois, aged 40. Third son of Chlothar IKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
at Metz
Childebert II, Sigebert's son, inherited Austrasia from his father and Burgundy from his uncle. He was succeeded in Austrasia by his eldest son Theudebert II and in Burgundy by his younger son Theuderic II.
Childebert II.png Childebert II
575595Died aged 24. Son of Sigebert I

 Adopted son of Guntram

King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
King of Austrasia and (after 592) Burgundy
Theudebert II, Childebert II's eldest son, reigned as king in Austrasia but he and his son were murdered. His lands passed to his younger brother Theuderic II, who reunited the realms of Austrasia and Burgundy (which had been both held by their father Childebert II).
Tiers de sou de Theodebert II frappe a Clermont.png Theudebert II
(Thibert)
595612Murdered, aged 26. Older son of Childebert IIKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
King of Austrasia
Theuderic II, Childebert II's youngest son, inherited Burgundy from his father and later Austrasia from his older brother Theudebert II. He was succeeded by his son Sigebert II.
Theuderic II
(Thierry)
595613Died, aged 26. Younger son of Childebert IIKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
King of Burgundy (595-613) and Austrasia (612-613)
Sigebert II
613613Executed, aged 12. Son of Theuderic IIKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
King of Austrasia and Burgundy
Chilperic, youngest son of Chlothar I, reigned as king of Neustria (Soissons). The deaths of his older brothers and their descendants resulted in his son and successor Chlothar II once again reuniting the Frankish realms.
Portrait Roi de france Chilperic roy de France.jpg Chilperic I
(Chilpéric)
29 November 561584Died aged 45. Buried at Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés. Youngest son of Chlothar IKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
at Soissons
Clothaire II 584 628.jpg Chlothar II the Great, the Young
(Clotaire)
58418 October 629Died aged 45. Buried at Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés. Son of Chilperic IKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
at Soissons
King of Neustria (595-639)
King of Burgundy (613-629)
King of Austrasia (613-623)
Following the reunification of the kingdom, Neustria and Burgundy remained under the direct rule of the King of the Franks, while Austrasia was soon put under the rule of a junior king. The following list restricts itself to the kings ruling in Neustria and Burgundy.
Tiers de sou or Dagobert Ier.jpg Dagobert I 18 October 62919 January 639Died aged 36. Buried at Basilica of St Denis. Son of Chlothar IIKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Tiers de sous d'or de Clovis II.jpg Clovis II the Lazyc. 63431 October 657Died aged 23. Buried at Basilica of St Denis. Son of Dagobert IKing of Neustria and Burgundy
(Roi de Neustrie et de Bourgogne)
Clothar III.jpg Chlothar III
(Clotaire)
31 October 657673Died aged 24. Buried at Basilica of St Denis. Son of Clovis IIKing of Neustria and Burgundy
(Roi de Neustrie et de Bourgogne)
King of Austrasia
(661–662)
Portrait Roi de france Childeric II.jpg Childeric II
(Childéric)
673675Died aged 22. Buried at Abbey of Saint-Germain-des-Prés. Son of Clovis II
 Younger brother of Chlothar III
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Theuderic III.jpg Theuderic III
(Thierry)
675691Died aged 37. Son of Clovis II
 Younger brother of Childeric II
King of Neustria
(Roi de Neustrie)

King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
(687–691)
Clovis IV 691694Died aged 17. Son of Theuderic IIIKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Childebert III 694 711.jpg Childebert III the Just69423 April 711Died aged 33. Buried at Church of St Stephen at Choisy-au-Bac, near Compiègne. Son of Theuderic III
 Younger brother of Clovis IV
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Portrait Roi de france Dagobert II (i.e III).jpg Dagobert III 23 April 711715Died aged 17. Son of Childebert IIIKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Portrait Roy de france Chilperic II.jpg Chilperic II
(Chilpéric II)
71513 February 721Died aged 49. Buried at Noyon. Probably son of Childeric IIKing of Neustria and Burgundy
(Roi de Neustrie et de Bourgogne)

King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
(719–721)
Theuderic IV.jpg Theuderic IV 721737Died aged 23. Son of Dagobert IIIKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
The last Merovingian kings, known as the lazy kings (rois fainéants), did not hold any real political power, while the Mayor of the Palace governed instead. When Theuderic IV died in 737, Mayor of the Palace Charles Martel left the throne vacant and continued to rule until his own death in 741. His sons Pepin and Carloman briefly restored the Merovingian dynasty by raising Childeric III to the throne in 743. In 751, Pepin deposed Childeric and became King in his place.
Jean Dassier (1676-1763) - Childeric III roy de France (754).jpg Childeric III
(Childéric)
743November 751Died aged 37. Son of Chilperic II or of Theuderic IV.King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)

Carolingian dynasty (751–888)

The Carolingian dynasty was a Frankish noble family with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD. The family consolidated its power in the 8th century, eventually making the offices of mayor of the palace and dux et princeps Francorum hereditary and becoming the real powers behind the Merovingian kings. In 751, a Carolingian, Pepin the Younger, dethroned the Merovingians and with the consent of the Papacy and the aristocracy, was crowned King of the Franks. [9]

PortraitNameKing fromKing untilDeathRelationship with predecessor(s)Title
Pepin the younger.jpg Pepin the Short 75124 September 768 Son of Charles Martel and Rotrude of Hesbaye, a maternal granddaughter of Theuderic III King of the Franks
Carloman1.jpg Carloman I 24 September 7684 December 771 Son of Pepin King of the Franks
Louis-Felix Amiel - Charlemagne empereur d'Occident (742-814).jpg Charlemagne
Charlemagne
24 September 76828 January 814 Son of Pepin King of the Franks
Emperor of the Romans from 800
Jean-Joseph Dassy (1796-1865) - Louis Ier dit le Pieux (778-840), empereur d'Occident.jpg Louis I the Pious 28 January 81420 June 840 Son of Charlemagne King of the Franks
Emperor of the Romans
Steuben - Charles the Bald.jpg Charles I the Bald 20 June 8406 October 877 Son of Louis I King of the Franks
Emperor of the Romans (875–77)
Amiel - Louis the Stammerer.jpg Louis II the Stammerer 6 October 87710 April 879 Son of Charles II King of the Franks
King Louis III.jpg Louis III 10 April 8795 August 882 Son of Louis II King of the Franks
Carloman II of France.jpg Carloman II 5 August 8826 December 884 Son of Louis II King of the Franks
Amiel - Charles the Fat.jpg Charles II the Fat 20 May 88513 January 888 Son of Louis the German
 Cousin of Louis II and Carloman II
 Grandson of Louis I
King of the Franks
Emperor of the Romans (881–88)

Robertian dynasty (888–898)

The Robertians were Frankish noblemen owing fealty to the Carolingians, and ancestors of the subsequent Capetian dynasty. Odo, Count of Paris, was chosen by the western Franks to be their king following the removal of emperor Charles the Fat. He was crowned at Compiègne in February 888 by Walter, Archbishop of Sens. [10]

PortraitNameKing fromKing untilRelationship with predecessor(s)Title
Odo of France.PNG Odo of Paris
(Eudes)
29 February 8881 January 898 Son of Robert the Strong (Robertians)
 Elected king against young Charles III.
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)

Carolingian dynasty (898–922)

Charles, the posthumous son of Louis II, was crowned by a faction opposed to the Robertian Odo at Reims Cathedral, though he only became the effectual monarch with the death of Odo in 898. [11]

PortraitNameKing fromKing untilRelationship with predecessor(s)Title
Georges Rouget (1783-1869) - Charles III, dit le simple, roi de France en 896 (879-929).jpg Charles III the Simple 28 January 89830 June 922 Posthumous son of Louis II
 Younger half-brother of Louis III and Carloman II
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)

Robertian dynasty (922–923)

PortraitNameKing fromKing untilRelationship with predecessor(s)Title
Robert Ier roi des Francs.jpg Robert I 30 June 92215 June 923 Son of Robert the Strong (Robertians)
 Younger brother of Odo
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)

Bosonid dynasty (923–936)

The Bosonids were a noble family descended from Boso the Elder, their member, Rudolph (Raoul), was elected "King of the Franks" in 923.

PortraitNameKing fromKing untilRelationship with predecessor(s)Title
Dejuinne - Rudolph of France.jpg Rudolph
(Raoul)
13 July 92314 January 936 Son of Richard, Duke of Burgundy (Bosonids)
 Son-in-law of Robert I
King of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)

Carolingian dynasty (936–987)

PortraitNameKing fromKing untilRelationship with predecessor(s)Title
Steuben - Louis IV of France.png Louis IV of Outremer19 June 93610 September 954 Son of Charles III the SimpleKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Monvoisin - Lothair of France.jpg Lothair 12 November 9542 March 986 Son of Louis IVKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Louis V.jpg Louis V 8 June 98622 May 987 Son of LothairKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)

Capetian dynasty (987–1792)

After the death of Louis V, the son of Hugh the Great and grandson of Robert I, Hugh Capet, was elected by the nobility as king of France. The Capetian Dynasty, the male-line descendants of Hugh Capet, ruled France continuously from 987 to 1792 and again from 1814 to 1848. They were direct descendants of the Robertian kings. The cadet branches of the dynasty which ruled after 1328, however, are generally given the specific branch names of Valois and Bourbon.

Not listed below are Hugh Magnus, eldest son of Robert II, and Philip of France, eldest son of Louis VI; both were co-kings with their fathers (in accordance with the early Capetian practice whereby kings would crown their heirs in their own lifetimes and share power with the co-king), but predeceased them. Because neither Hugh nor Philip were sole or senior king in their own lifetimes, they are not traditionally listed as Kings of France, and are not given ordinals.

Henry VI of England, son of Catherine of Valois, became titular King of France upon his grandfather Charles VI's death in accordance with the Treaty of Troyes of 1420; however this was disputed and he is not always regarded as a legitimate king of France. English claims to the French throne actually date from 1328, when Edward III claimed the throne after the death of Charles IV. Other than Henry VI, none had ever had their claim backed by treaty, and his title became contested after 1429, when Charles VII was crowned. Henry himself was crowned by a different faction in 1431, though at the age of 10, he had yet to come of age. The final phase of the Hundred Years War was fought between these competing factions, resulting in a Valois victory at the Battle of Castillon in 1453, putting an end to any meaningful claims of the English monarchs over the throne of France, though English (and later British) monarchs would continue to use the title "King of France" until 1801.

From 21 January 1793 to 8 June 1795, Louis XVI's son Louis-Charles was the titular King of France as Louis XVII; in reality, however, he was imprisoned in the Temple throughout this duration, and power was held by the leaders of the Republic. Upon Louis XVII's death, his uncle (Louis XVI's brother) Louis-Stanislas claimed the throne, as Louis XVIII, but only became de facto King of France in 1814.

House of Capet (987–1328)

The main line of descent from Hugh Capet is known as the House of Capet. That line became extinct in 1328, creating a succession crisis known as the Hundred Years War. While there were numerous claimants to succeed, the two best claimants were the House of Valois and the House of Plantagenet and then later the House of Lancaster.

PortraitCoat of armsNameKing fromKing untilRelationship with predecessor(s)Title
King Hugh Capet.jpg Hugh Capet 3 July 98724 October 996 Grandson of Robert IKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Blondel - Robert II of France.jpg Robert II the Pious, the Wise24 October 99620 July 1031 Son of Hugh Capet
Blondel - Henry I of France.jpg Henry I
(Henri)
20 July 10314 August 1060 Son of Robert II
Saint-Evre - Philip I of France.jpg Philip I the Amorous
(Philippe)
4 August 106029 July 1108 Son of Henry I
Blondel - Louis VI of France.jpg Louis VI the Fat 29 July 11081 August 1137 Son of Philip I
Decaisne - Louis VII of France.jpg Arms of the Kingdom of France (Ancien).svg Louis VII the Young 1 August 113718 September 1180 Son of Louis VI
Louis-Felix Amiel-Philippe II dit Philippe-Auguste Roi de France (1165-1223).jpg Arms of the Kingdom of France (Ancien).svg Philip II Augustus
(Philippe Auguste)
18 September 118014 July 1223 Son of Louis VIIKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
King of France
(Roi de France)
Louis8lelion.jpg Arms of the Kingdom of France (Ancien).svg Louis VIII the Lion 14 July 12238 November 1226 Son of Philip II AugustusKing of France
(Roi de France)
Louis-ix.jpg Arms of the Kingdom of France (Ancien).svg Louis IX the Saint
(Saint Louis)
8 November 122625 August 1270 Son of Louis VIII
Jollivet - Philip III of France.jpg Arms of the Kingdom of France (Ancien).svg Philip III the Bold
(Philippe)
25 August 12705 October 1285 Son of Louis IX
Philippe IV le bel.jpg Arms of the Kingdom of France & Navarre (Ancien).svg Philip IV the Fair, the Iron King
(Philippe)
5 October 128529 November 1314 Son of Philip IIIKing of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
Tassaert - Louis X of France.jpg Arms of the Kingdom of France & Navarre (Ancien).svg Louis X the Quarreller 29 November 13145 June 1316 Son of Philip IV
John I of France.jpg Arms of the Kingdom of France & Navarre (Ancien).svg John I the Posthumous
(Jean)
15 November 131620 November 1316 Son of Louis X
Debacq - Philip V of France.jpg Arms of the Kingdom of France & Navarre (Ancien).svg Philip V the Tall
(Philippe)
20 November 13163 January 1322 Son of Philip IV
 Younger brother of Louis X
Deherain - Charles IV of France.jpg Arms of the Kingdom of France & Navarre (Ancien).svg Charles IV the Fair 3 January 13221 February 1328 Son of Philip IV
 Younger brother of Louis X and Philip V

House of Valois (1328–1589)

The death of Charles IV started the Hundred Years' War between the House of Valois and the House of Plantagenet later the House of Lancaster over control of the French throne. [12] The Valois claimed the right to the succession by male-only primogeniture, having the closest all-male line of descent from a recent French king. They were descended from the third son of Philip III, Charles, Count of Valois. The Plantagenets based their claim on being closer to a more recent French King, Edward III of England being a grandson of Philip IV through his mother, Isabella. The two houses fought the Hundred Years War to enforce their claims; the Valois were ultimately successful, and French historiography counts their leaders as rightful kings. One Plantagenet, Henry VI of England, did enjoy de jure control of the French throne under the terms of the Treaty of Troyes, which formed the basis for continued English claims to the throne of France until the 19th century. The Valois line would rule France until the line became extinct in 1589, in the backdrop of the French Wars of Religion. As Navarre did not have a tradition of male-only primogeniture, the Navarrese monarchy became distinct from the French, with Joan II, a daughter of Louis X, inheriting there.

PortraitCoat of armsNameKing fromKing untilRelationship with predecessor(s)Title
Phil6france.jpg Arms of the Kingdom of France (Ancien).svg Philip VI the Fortunate
(Philippe)
1 April 132822 August 1350 Grandson of Philip III of France King of France
(Roi de France)
JeanIIdFrance.jpg Arms of the Kingdom of France (Ancien).svg John II the Good
(Jean)
22 August 13508 April 1364 Son of Philip VIKing of France
(Roi de France)
Charles5lesage.jpg Arms of the Kingdom of France (Ancien).svg Arms of the Kingdom of France (Moderne).svg Charles V the Wise 8 April 136416 September 1380 Son of John IIKing of France
(Roi de France)
Charles VI de France - Dialogues de Pierre Salmon - Bib de Geneve MsFr165f4.jpg Arms of the Kingdom of France (Moderne).svg Charles VI the Beloved, the Mad16 September 138021 October 1422 Son of Charles VKing of France
(Roi de France)

House of Lancaster (1422–1453) (disputed)

PortraitCoat of armsNameKing fromKing untilClaimTitle
King Henry VI from NPG (2).jpg Coat of Arms of Henry VI of England (1422-1471).svg Henry VI of England
(Henri VI d'Angleterre)
21 October 142219 October 1453By right of his father Henry V of England, who by the Treaty of Troyes became heir and regent of France. Grandson of Charles VI of France.King of France
(Roi de France)

House of Valois (1328–1589)

PortraitCoat of armsNameKing fromKing untilRelationship with predecessorTitle
Charles VII by Jean Fouquet 1445 1450.jpg Arms of the Kingdom of France (Moderne).svg Charles VII the Victorious, the Well-Served21 October 142222 July 1461 Son of Charles VI
 Uncle of Henry VI of England
King of France.
(Roi de France)
Louis-XI.jpg Arms of the Kingdom of France (Moderne).svg Louis XI the Prudent, the Cunning, the Universal Spider22 July 146130 August 1483 Son of Charles VIIKing of France
(Roi de France)
Charles VIII Ecole Francaise 16th century Musee de Conde Chantilly.jpg Coat of Arms of Charles VIII of France.svg Charles VIII the Affable 30 August 14837 April 1498 Son of Louis XIKing of France
(Roi de France)
Louis-xii-roi-de-france.jpg Arms of the Kingdom of France (Moderne).svg Louis XII Father of the People7 April 14981 January 1515 Great-grandson of Charles V
 Second cousin, and by first marriage son-in-law of Louis XI
 By second marriage husband of Anne of Brittany, widow of Charles VIII
King of France
(Roi de France)
Jean Clouet 001.jpg Coat of arms of France 1515-1578.svg Francis I the Father and Restorer of Letters
(François)
1 January 151531 March 1547 Great-great-grandson of Charles V
 First cousin once removed, and by
first marriage son-in-law of Louis XII
King of France
(Roi de France)
Henry II of France..jpg Coat of arms of France 1515-1578.svg Henry II
(Henri)
31 March 154710 July 1559 Son of Francis I/Maternal grandson of Louis XIIKing of France
(Roi de France)
FrancoisII.jpg Coat of arms of France 1515-1578.svg Francis II
(François)
10 July 15595 December 1560 Son of Henry IIKing of France
(Roi de France)

King of Scots
(1558–1560)
Bemberg Fondation Toulouse - Portrait de Charles IX - Francois Clouet - Inv.1012.jpg Coat of arms of France 1515-1578.svg Charles IX 5 December 156030 May 1574 Son of Henry IIKing of France
(Roi de France)
Anjou 1570louvre.jpg Coat of arms of France 1515-1578.svg Henry III
(Henri)
30 May 15742 August 1589 Son of Henry IIKing of France
(Roi de France)

King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania
(1573–1575)

House of Bourbon (1589–1792)

The Valois line looked strong on the death of Henry II, who left four male heirs. His first son, Francis II, died in his minority. His second son, Charles IX, had no legitimate sons to inherit. Following the premature death of his fourth son Hercule François, and the assassination of his third son, the childless Henry III, France was plunged into a succession crisis over which distant cousin of the king would inherit the throne. The best claimant, King Henry III of Navarre, was a Protestant, and thus unacceptable to much of the French nobility. Ultimately, after winning numerous battles in defence of his claim, Henry converted to Catholicism and was crowned king, founding the House of Bourbon. This marked the second time the thrones of Navarre and France were united under one monarch; as different inheritance laws had caused them to become separated during the events of the Hundred Years Wars. The House of Bourbon would be overthrown during the French Revolution, replaced by a short-lived republic.

PortraitCoat of armsNameKing fromKing untilRelationship with predecessor(s)Title
Augustins - Henri IV, roi de France et de Navarre - Jacques Boulbene.jpg Grand Royal Coat of Arms of France & Navarre.svg Henry IV the Green Gallant Good King Henry
(Henri)
2 August 158914 May 1610 Tenth generation descendant of Louis IX in the male line
 By first marriage son in law of Henry II, Brother in law of Francis II, Charles IX and Henry III
King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
LouisXIII.jpg Grand Royal Coat of Arms of France & Navarre.svg Louis XIII the Just 14 May 161014 May 1643 Son of Henry IVKing of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
Hyacinthe Rigaud - Louis XIV, roi de France (1638-1715) - Google Art Project.jpg Grand Royal Coat of Arms of France & Navarre.svg Louis XIV the Great the Sun King14 May 16431 September 1715 Son of Louis XIIIKing of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
LouisXV-Rigaud1.jpg Grand Royal Coat of Arms of France & Navarre.svg Louis XV the Beloved
1 September 171510 May 1774 Great-grandson of Louis XIVKing of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
Antoine-Francois Callet - Louis XVI, roi de France et de Navarre (1754-1793), revetu du grand costume royal en 1779 - Google Art Project.jpg Grand Royal Coat of Arms of France & Navarre.svg Louis XVI the Restorer of French Liberty 10 May 177421 September 1792 Grandson of Louis XVKing of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
(1774–1791)

King of the French
(Roi des Français)
(1791–1792)
Louis XVII coll Ulysse Moussali.jpg Grand Royal Coat of Arms of France & Navarre.svg Louis XVII
(Claimant)
21 January 17938 June 1795 Son of Louis XVI(Disputed) King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)

House of Bonaparte, First Empire (1804–1814)

The French First Republic lasted from 1792 to 1804, after which its popular First Consul, Napoléon Bonaparte, decided to make France a monarchy again. He took the popular title Emperor of the French instead of King of France and Navarre or King of the French to avoid all titles of the Kingdom of France making France's second popular monarchy.

PortraitCoat of armsNameEmperor fromEmperor untilRelationship with predecessor(s)Title
Napoleon I (by Anne Louis Girodet de Roucy-Trioson).jpg Grandes Armes Imperiales (1804-1815)2.svg Napoleon I
(Napoléon)
18 May 180411 April 1814Founder of the Bonaparte dynastyEmperor of the French
(Empereur des Français)

Capetian Dynasty (1814–1815)

Following the first defeat of Napoleon and his exile to Elba, the Bourbon monarchy was restored, with Louis XVI's younger brother Louis Stanislas being crowned as Louis XVIII. Louis XVI's son had been considered by monarchists as Louis XVII but he was never crowned and never ruled in his own right before his own death; he is not usually counted among French monarchs, creating a gap in numbering on most traditional lists of French kings. Napoleon would briefly regain control of the country during his Hundred Days rule in 1815. After his final defeat at the Battle of Waterloo, Napoleon attempted to abdicate in favour of his son, but the Bourbon Monarchy was re-established yet again, and would continue to rule France until the July Revolution of 1830 replaced it with a cadet branch, the House of Orleans.

House of Bourbon, Bourbon Restoration (1814–1815)

PortraitCoat of armsNameKing fromKing untilRelationship with predecessor(s)Title
Guerin - Louis XVIII of France in Coronation Robes.jpg Coat of Arms of the Bourbon Restoration (1815-30).svg Louis XVIII the Desired 11 April 181420 March 1815 Grandson of Louis XV   Younger Brother of Louis XVIKing of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)

House of Bonaparte, First Empire (Hundred Days, 1815)

PortraitCoat of armsNameEmperor fromEmperor untilRelationship with predecessor(s)Title
Napoleon I (by Anne Louis Girodet de Roucy-Trioson).jpg Grandes Armes Imperiales (1804-1815)2.svg Napoleon I
(Napoléon)
20 March 181522 June 1815Founder of the Bonaparte dynastyEmperor of the French
(Empereur des Français)
80 Napoleon II.jpg Grandes Armes Imperiales (1804-1815)2.svg Napoleon II the Eaglet
(Napoléon)
[n 2]
22 June 18157 July 1815 Son of Napoleon I(Disputed) Emperor of the French
(Empereur des Français)

Capetian dynasty (1815–1848)

House of Bourbon (1815–1830)

PortraitCoat of armsNameKing fromKing untilRelationship with predecessor(s)Title
Guerin - Louis XVIII of France in Coronation Robes.jpg Coat of Arms of the Bourbon Restoration (1815-30).svg Louis XVIII the Desired 7 July 181516 September 1824 Grandson of Louis XV  Younger Brother of Louis XVIKing of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
Charles X Roi de France et de Navarre.jpg Coat of Arms of the Bourbon Restoration (1815-30).svg Charles X 16 September 18242 August 1830 Grandson of Louis XV  Younger Brother of Louis XVI and Louis XVIIIKing of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
Louis antoine d'artois, duc d'angouleme.jpg Coat of Arms of the Bourbon Restoration (1815-30).svg Louis XIX Antoine 2 August 18302 August 1830
(20 minutes)
 Son of Charles X(Disputed) King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
Henri dArtois by Adeodata Malatesta.jpg Coat of Arms of the Bourbon Restoration (1815-30).svg Henry V
(Henri)
2 August 18309 August 1830
(7 days)
 Grandson of Charles X
 Nephew of Louis Antoine
(Disputed) King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)

The Bourbon Restoration came to an end with the July Revolution of 1830, which deposed Charles X and replaced him with Louis-Philippe I, a distant cousin with more liberal politics. Charles X's son Louis signed a document renouncing his own right to the throne only after a 20-minute argument with his father; because he was never crowned he is disputed as a genuine king of France. [13] Louis's nephew Henry was likewise considered by some to be Henry V, but the new regime did not recognise his claim and he never ruled.

House of Orléans, July Monarchy (1830–1848)

Under Louis-Philippe, the popular monarchy of France changed the styles and forms of the ancien régime , replacing them with more populist forms like replacing "King of France" with "King of the French").

PortraitCoat of armsNameKing fromKing untilRelationship with predecessor(s)Title
Louis-Philippe de Bourbon.jpg Coat of Arms of the July Monarchy (1830-31).svg Louis-Philippe I the Citizen King 9 August 183024 February 1848 Sixth generation descendant of Louis XIII in the male line
 Fifth cousin of Louis XVI, Louis XVIII and Charles X
King of the French
(Roi des Français)

Over the years Louis-Philippe grew more Conservative. When a revolution broke out he fled to Great Britain leaving his grandson Prince Philippe, Count of Paris as King of the French. Two days later the Second French Republic was declared. He was never crowned making him disputed as a genuine monarch.

House of Bonaparte, Second Empire (1852–1870)

The French Second Republic lasted from 1848 to 1852, when its president, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, was declared Emperor of the French. He took the regnal name of Napoleon III, after his uncle (Napoleon I) and his cousin (Napoleon II, who was declared but uncrowned as heir to the Imperial throne).

Napoleon III would later be overthrown during the events of the Franco-Prussian War. He was the last monarch to rule France; thereafter, the country was ruled by a succession of republican governments (see French Third Republic).

PortraitCoat of armsNameEmperor fromEmperor untilRelationship with predecessor(s)Title
Franz Xaver Winterhalter Napoleon III.jpg Coat of Arms Second French Empire (1852-1870)-2.svg Napoleon III
(Napoléon)
2 December 18524 September 1870 Nephew of Napoleon IEmperor of the French
(Empereur des Français)

Later pretenders

Various pretenders descended from the preceding monarchs have claimed to be the legitimate monarch of France, rejecting the claims of the President of France, and of each other. These groups are:

See also

Notes

  1. 'Louis XII, 1499 [...] LVDOVIVS XII FRANCORUM REX MEDILANI DUX [...] Francis I, 1515 [...] FRANCISCUS REX FRANCORUM PRIMUS DOMINATOR ELVETIORUM [...] Henri II, 1550? [...] HENRICVS II FRANCORVM REX' [4]
  2. From 22 June to 7 July 1815, Bonapartists considered Napoleon II as the legitimate heir to the throne, his father having abdicated in his favor. However, throughout this period he resided in Austria, with his mother. Louis XVIII was reinstalled as king on 7 July.

Related Research Articles

House of Bourbon European royal house of French origin

The Capetian House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. Bourbon kings first ruled France and Navarre in the 16th century. By the 18th century, members of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty held thrones in Spain, Naples, Sicily, and Parma. Spain and Luxembourg currently have monarchs of the House of Bourbon.

House of Valois cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty

The House of Valois was a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty. They succeeded the House of Capet to the French throne, and were the royal house of France from 1328 to 1589. Junior members of the family founded cadet branches in Orléans, Anjou, Burgundy, and Alençon.

The Count of Anjou was the ruler of the county of Anjou, first granted by Charles the Bald in the 9th century to Robert the Strong. Ingelger and his son were viscounts of Angers until Ingelger's son Fulk the Red assumed the title of Count of Anjou. The Robertians and their Capetian successors were distracted by wars with the Vikings and other concerns and were unable to recover the county until the reign of Philip II Augustus, more than 270 years later.

Duke of Burgundy was a title borne by the rulers of the Duchy of Burgundy, a small portion of traditional lands of Burgundians west of river Saône which in 843 was allotted to Charles the Bald's kingdom of West Franks. Under the Ancien Régime, the Duke of Burgundy was the premier lay peer of the kingdom of France.

Charles, Count of Valois Emperor of Constantinople

Charles of Valois, the third son of Philip III of France and Isabella of Aragon, was a member of the House of Capet and founder of the House of Valois, whose rule over France would start in 1328.

English claims to the French throne Wikimedia list article

From the 1340s to the 19th century, excluding two brief intervals in the 1360s and the 1420s, the kings and queens of England also claimed the throne of France. The claim dates from Edward III, who claimed the French throne in 1340 as the sororal nephew of the last direct Capetian, Charles IV. Edward and his heirs fought the Hundred Years' War to enforce this claim, and were briefly successful in the 1420s under Henry V and Henry VI, but the House of Valois, a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty, was ultimately victorious and retained control of France. Despite this, English and British monarchs continued to prominently call themselves kings of France, and the French fleur-de-lis was included in the royal arms. This continued until 1801, by which time France no longer had any monarch, having become a republic. The Jacobite claimants, however, did not explicitly relinquish the claim.

House of Capet Rulers of the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328

The House of Capet or the Direct Capetians and, also called the House of France, or simply the Capets, ruled the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328. It was the most senior line of the Capetian dynasty – itself a derivative dynasty from the Robertians. Historians in the 19th century came to apply the name "Capetian" to both the ruling house of France and to the wider-spread male-line descendants of Hugh Capet. Contemporaries did not use the name "Capetian". The Capets were sometimes called "the third race of kings". The name "Capet" derives from the nickname given to Hugh, the first Capetian King, who became known as Hugh Capet.

The Robertians, or Robertines, was the Frankish predecessor family of origin to the ruling houses of France; it emerged to prominence in the ancient Frankish kingdom of Austrasia as early as the eighth century—in roughly the same region as present-day Belgium—and later emigrated to West Francia, between the Seine and the Loire rivers. The members were ‘forefathers’ of the Capetian dynasty. With fealty to the Carolingians, they held the power of West Francia through the whole period of the Carolingian Empire; and from 888 to 987 theirs was the last extant kingdom of that house until they were succeeded by their own (Robertian) lineage, the house of Capet.

House of France

The term House of France refers to the branch of the Capetian dynasty which provided the Kings of France following the election of Hugh Capet. The House of France consists of a number of branches and their sub-branches. Some of its branches have acceded to the Crown, while others remained cadets.

Monarchism in France is the advocacy of restoring the monarchy in France, which was abolished after the 1870 defeat by Prussia, arguably before that in 1848 with the establishment of the French Second Republic. The French monarchist movements are roughly divided today in three groups: the Legitimists for the royal House of Bourbon, the Orléanists for the cadet branch of the House of Orleans and the Bonapartists for the imperial House of Bonaparte.

This is a simplified family tree of all Frankish and French monarchs, from Chlodio to Napoleon III.

This article covers the mechanism by which the French throne passed from the establishment of the Frankish Kingdom in 486 to the fall of the Second French Empire in 1870.

References

Citations

  1. Sullivan, William. Historical causes and effects, from the fall of the Roman empire, 476, to the reformation, 1517. p. 213. Grimshaw, William. The history of France from the foundation of the monarchy to the death of Louis XVI. p. 11
  2. Claudio Rendina & Paul McCusker, The Popes: Histories and Secrets, (New York : 2002), p. 145.
  3. Deploige, Jeroen; Deneckere, Gita, eds. (2006). Mystifying the Monarch: Studies on Discourse, Power, and History. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Amsterdam University Press. p. 182. ISBN   9789053567678.
  4. Potter, David (2008). Renaissance France at War: Armies, Culture and Society, C.1480–1560. Warfare in History Series. 28. Boydell & Brewer Ltd. p. viii. ISBN   9781843834052 . Retrieved 27 November 2012.
  5. Deploige, Jeroen; Deneckere, Gita, eds. (2006). Mystifying the Monarch: Studies on Discourse, Power, and History. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Amsterdam University Press. p. 182. ISBN   9789053567678.
  6. Le Couronnement de Napoléon Premier, Empereur des Français. Paris, France: Guerin. 1806. p. 1.
  7. Pascal, Adrien (1853). Histoire de Napoléon III, Empereur des Français. Paris, France: Barbier. p. 359.
  8. Brown, Peter (2003). The Rise of Western Christendom. Malden, MA, USA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. p. 137.
  9. Babcock, Philip (1993). Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged. MA, USA: Merriam-Webster. p. 341.
  10. Gwatking, H. M.; Whitney, J. P.; et al. (1930). Cambridge Medieval History: Germany and the Western Empire. Volume III. London: Cambridge University Press.
  11. Parisse, Michael (2005). "Lotharingia". In Reuter, T. (ed.). The New Cambridge Medieval History: c. 900–c. 1024. III. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 313–315.
  12. Knecht, Robert (2004). The Valois: Kings of France 1328–1422. NY, USA: Hambledon Continuum. pp. ix–xii. ISBN   1852854200.
  13. "Shortest reign of a monarch". guinnessworldrecords.com. Retrieved 12 April 2017.

Sources

  • Hansen, M.H., ed. (1967). Kings, Rulers, and Statesmen. NY, USA: Sterling Publishing Co., Inc. pp. 103–107.[ unreliable source? ]