List of French monarchs

Last updated

Monarchs of France
Grand Royal Coat of Arms of France & Navarre.svg
Details
First monarch Clovis I (as King)
Last monarch Napoleon III (as Emperor of the French, Bonapartist Monarchy)
Formation509
Abolition4 September 1870
Residence Palais de la Cité
Louvre Palace
Palace of Versailles
Tuileries Palace
Appointer Hereditary
Pretender(s) Louis Alphonse
(House of Bourbon)
Jean
(House of Orléans)
Jean-Christophe
(House of Bonaparte)

The monarchs of the Kingdom of France and its predecessors (and successor monarchies) ruled from the establishment of the Kingdom of the Franks in 486 until the fall of the Second French Empire in 1870, with several interruptions.

Contents

Sometimes included as 'Kings of France' [1] are the kings of the Franks of the Merovingian dynasty, which ruled from 486 until 751, [2] and of the Carolingians, who ruled until 987 (with some interruptions).

In August 843 the Treaty of Verdun divided the Frankish realm into three kingdoms, one of which was short-lived; the other two evolved into France and, eventually, Germany. By this time the eastern and western parts of the land already had different languages and culture. Accordingly this list of monarchs begins in 843, as this is the earliest date on which France may be said to exist. For the earlier Frankish kings see List of Frankish kings.

The Capetian dynasty, the male-line descendants of Hugh Capet, included the first rulers to adopt the title of 'King of France' for the first time with Philip II (r. 11801223). The Capetians ruled continuously from 987 to 1792 and again from 1814 to 1848. The branches of the dynasty which ruled after 1328, however, are generally given the specific branch names of Valois (until 1589) and Bourbon (until 1848).

During the brief period when the French Constitution of 1791 was in effect (1791–92) and after the July Revolution in 1830, the style of "King of the French" was used instead of "King of France (and Navarre)". It was a constitutional innovation known as popular monarchy, which linked the monarch's title to the French people rather than to the possession of the territory of France. [3]

With the House of Bonaparte, "Emperors of the French" ruled in 19th-century France between 1804 and 1814, again in 1815, and between 1852 and 1870.

Family tree of French monarchs 509-1870. (Errata: Louis XVI died in 1793 and Louis XVII died in 1795. Henri III's reign started in 1574) Family tree of French monarchs 509-1870.svg
Family tree of French monarchs 509–1870. (Errata: Louis XVI died in 1793 and Louis XVII died in 1795. Henri III's reign started in 1574)

Titles

The title "King of the Franks" (Latin : Rex Francorum) gradually lost ground after 1190, during the reign of Philip II (but FRANCORUM REX continued to be used, for example by Louis XII in 1499, by Francis I in 1515, and by Henry II about 1550). It was used on coins up to the eighteenth century. [lower-alpha 1] During the brief period when the French Constitution of 1791 was in effect (1791–92) and after the July Revolution in 1830, the style "King of the French" was used instead of "King of France (and Navarre)". It was a constitutional innovation known as popular monarchy which linked the monarch's title to the French people rather than to the possession of the territory of France. [3]

In addition to the Kingdom of France, there were also two French Empires, the first from 1804 to 1814 and again in 1815, founded and ruled by Napoleon I, and the second from 1852 to 1870, founded and ruled by his nephew Napoleon III (also known as Louis-Napoleon). They used the title "Emperor of the French". [5] [6]

This article lists all rulers to have held the title "King of the Franks", "King of France", "King of the French" or "Emperor of the French". For other Frankish monarchs, see List of Frankish kings. In addition to the monarchs listed below, the Kings of England and Great Britain from 1340–60, 1369-1420, and 1422–1801 also claimed the title of King of France. For a short time, this had some basis in fact under the terms of the 1420 Treaty of Troyes, Charles VI had recognized his son-in-law Henry V of England as regent and heir. Henry V predeceased Charles VI and so Henry V's son, Henry VI, succeeded his grandfather Charles VI as King of France. Most of Northern France was under English control until 1435, but by 1453, the English had been expelled from all of France save Calais (and the Channel Islands), and Calais itself fell in 1558. Nevertheless, English and then British monarchs continued to claim the title for themselves until the creation of the United Kingdom in 1801.

Frankish Empire

Carolingian dynasty (to 888)

The Carolingian dynasty was a Frankish noble family with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD. The family consolidated its power in the 8th century, eventually making the offices of mayor of the palace and dux et princeps Francorum hereditary and becoming the real powers behind the Merovingian kings. The dynasty is named after one of these mayors of the palace, Charles Martel, whose son Pepin the Short dethroned the Merovingians in 751, and with the consent of the Papacy and the aristocracy, was crowned King of the Franks. [7] Pepin's great-grandson Charles the Bald was king at the time of the Treaty of Verdun (843). (For earlier rulers, see List of Frankish kings.)

NameKing fromKing untilRelationship with predecessor(s)Title
Charles the Bald August 843
(King of the Franks from 20 June 840)
6 October 877 Son of Louis the Pious King of the Franks
Emperor of the Romans (875–77)
Louis the Stammerer 6 October 87710 April 879 Son of Charles the Fat King of the Franks
Louis III 10 April 8795 August 882 Son of Louis the Stammerer King of the Franks
Carloman II 5 August 8826 December 884 Son of Louis the Stammerer

 Younger brother of Louis III

King of the Franks
Charles the Fat 20 May 88513 January 888 Son of Louis the German
 Cousin of Louis II and Carloman II
 Grandson of Louis the Pious
King of the Franks
Emperor of the Romans (881–88)

Robertian dynasty (888–898)

The Robertians were Frankish noblemen owing fealty to the Carolingians, and ancestors of the subsequent Capetian dynasty. Odo, Count of Paris, was chosen by the western Franks to be their king following the removal of emperor Charles the Fat. He was crowned at Compiègne in February 888 by Walter, Archbishop of Sens. [8]

NameKing fromKing untilRelationship with predecessor(s)Title
Odo of Paris
(Eudes)
29 February 8881 January 898 Son of Robert the Strong (Robertians)
 Elected king against young Charles III.
  Third Cousin of Louis II
King of the Franks

Carolingian dynasty (898–922)

Charles, the posthumous son of Louis II, was crowned by a faction opposed to the Robertian Odo at Reims Cathedral in 893, though he only became the effectual monarch with the death of Odo in 898. [9] He was deposed and died in captivity.

NameKing fromKing untilRelationship with predecessor(s)Title
Charles the Simple 28 January 89830 June 922 Posthumous son of Louis II
 Younger half-brother of Louis III and Carloman II
King of the Franks

Robertian dynasty (922–923)

NameKing fromKing untilRelationship with predecessor(s)Title
Robert I 30 June 92215 June 923 Son of Robert the Strong (Robertians)
 Younger brother of Odo
  Third cousin of Louis the Stammerer
King of the Franks

Bosonid dynasty (923–936)

The Bosonids were a noble family descended from Boso the Elder, their member, Rudolph (Raoul), was elected "King of the Franks" in 923.

NameKing fromKing untilRelationship with predecessor(s)Title
Rudolph
(Raoul)
13 July 92314 January 936 Son of Richard, Duke of Burgundy (Bosonids)
 Son-in-law of Robert I
King of the Franks

Carolingian dynasty (936–987)

NameKing fromKing untilRelationship with predecessor(s)Title
Louis IV of Outremer19 June 93610 September 954 Son of Charles III the SimpleKing of the Franks
Lothair 12 November 9542 March 986 Son of Louis IVKing of the Franks
Louis V 8 June 98622 May 987 Son of LothairKing of the Franks

Capetian dynasty (987–1792)

After the death of Louis V, Hugh Capet, the son of Hugh the Great and grandson of Robert I, was elected by the nobility as king of France. The Capetian Dynasty, the male-line descendants of Hugh Capet, ruled France continuously from 987 to 1792 and again from 1814 to 1848. They were direct descendants of the Robertian kings. The cadet branches of the dynasty which ruled after 1328, however, are generally given the specific branch names of Valois and Bourbon.

Not listed below are Hugh Magnus, eldest son of Robert II, and Philip of France, eldest son of Louis VI; both were co-kings with their fathers (in accordance with the early Capetian practice whereby kings would crown their heirs in their own lifetimes and share power with the co-king), but predeceased them. Because neither Hugh nor Philip were sole or senior king in their own lifetimes, they are not traditionally listed as Kings of France, and are not given ordinals.

Henry VI of England, son of Catherine of Valois, became titular King of France upon his grandfather Charles VI's death in accordance with the Treaty of Troyes of 1420; however this was disputed and he is not always regarded as a legitimate king of France. English claims to the French throne actually date from 1328, when Edward III claimed the throne after the death of Charles IV. Other than Henry VI, none had ever had their claim backed by treaty, and his title became contested after 1429, when Charles VII was crowned. Henry himself was crowned by a different faction in 1431, though at the age of 10, he had yet to come of age. The final phase of the Hundred Years War was fought between these competing factions, resulting in a Valois victory at the Battle of Castillon in 1453, putting an end to any meaningful claims of the English monarchs over the throne of France, though English (and later British) monarchs would continue to use the title "King of France" until 1801.

From 21 January 1793 to 8 June 1795, Louis XVI's son Louis-Charles was the titular King of France as Louis XVII; in reality, however, he was imprisoned in the Temple throughout this duration, and power was held by the leaders of the Republic. Upon Louis XVII's death, his uncle (Louis XVI's brother) Louis-Stanislas claimed the throne, as Louis XVIII, but only became de facto King of France in 1814.

House of Capet (987–1328)

The main line of descent from Hugh Capet is known as the House of Capet. That line became extinct in 1328, creating a succession crisis known as the Hundred Years War. While there were numerous claimants to succeed, the two best claimants were the House of Valois and the House of Plantagenet and then later the House of Lancaster.

PortraitCoat of armsNameKing fromKing untilRelationship with predecessor(s)Title
Hugh Capet 3 July 98724 October 996 Grandson of Robert IKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
Sceau de Robert II le pieux.jpg Robert II the Pious, the Wise24 October 99620 July 1031 Son of Hugh Capet
Henry1 1035.jpg Henry I
(Henri)
20 July 10314 August 1060 Son of Robert II
Sceau du roi Philippe Ier.jpg Philip I the Amorous
(Philippe)
4 August 106029 July 1108 Son of Henry I
Louis VI of France.jpg Louis VI the Fat 29 July 11081 August 1137 Son of Philip I
Louis VII SCeau 17058.jpg Louis VII the Young 1 August 113718 September 1180 Son of Louis VI
Sceau de Philippe Auguste. - Archives Nationales - SC-D157.jpg Arms of the Kingdom of France (Ancien).svg Philip II Augustus
(Philippe Auguste)
18 September 118014 July 1223 Son of Louis VIIKing of the Franks
(Roi des Francs)
King of France
(Roi de France)
Louis8.jpg Arms of the Kingdom of France (Ancien).svg Louis VIII the Lion 14 July 12238 November 1226 Son of Philip II AugustusKing of France
(Roi de France)
Saintlouis.jpg Arms of the Kingdom of France (Ancien).svg Louis IX the Saint
(Saint Louis)
8 November 122625 August 1270 Son of Louis VIII
Miniature Philippe III Courronement.jpg Arms of the Kingdom of France (Ancien).svg Philip III the Bold
(Philippe)
25 August 12705 October 1285 Son of Louis IX
Filippoilbello.gif Arms of the Kingdom of France & Navarre (Ancien).svg Philip IV the Fair, the Iron King
(Philippe)
5 October 128529 November 1314 Son of Philip IIIKing of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
Ludvik X.png Arms of the Kingdom of France & Navarre (Ancien).svg Louis X the Quarreller 29 November 13145 June 1316 Son of Philip IV
John I of France.jpg Arms of the Kingdom of France & Navarre (Ancien).svg John I the Posthumous
(Jean)
15 November 131620 November 1316 Son of Louis X
Philip V of France.jpg Arms of the Kingdom of France & Navarre (Ancien).svg Philip V the Tall
(Philippe)
20 November 13163 January 1322 Son of Philip IV
 Younger brother of Louis X
Charles4 mini.jpg Arms of the Kingdom of France & Navarre (Ancien).svg Charles IV the Fair 3 January 13221 February 1328 Son of Philip IV
 Younger brother of Louis X and Philip V

House of Valois (1328–1589)

The death of Charles IV started the Hundred Years' War between the House of Valois and the House of Plantagenet later the House of Lancaster over control of the French throne. [10] The Valois claimed the right to the succession by male-only primogeniture, having the closest all-male line of descent from a recent French king. They were descended from the third son of Philip III, Charles, Count of Valois. The Plantagenets based their claim on being closer to a more recent French king, Edward III of England being a grandson of Philip IV through his mother, Isabella. The two houses fought the Hundred Years War to enforce their claims; the Valois were ultimately successful, and French historiography counts their leaders as rightful kings. One Plantagenet, Henry VI of England, did enjoy de jure control of the French throne under the terms of the Treaty of Troyes, which formed the basis for continued English claims to the throne of France until the 19th century. The Valois line would rule France until the line became extinct in 1589, in the backdrop of the French Wars of Religion. As Navarre did not have a tradition of male-only primogeniture, the Navarrese monarchy became distinct from the French, with Joan II, a daughter of Louis X, inheriting there.

PortraitCoat of armsNameKing fromKing untilRelationship with predecessor(s)Title
Phil6france.jpg Arms of the Kingdom of France (Ancien).svg Philip VI the Fortunate
(Philippe)
1 April 132822 August 1350 Grandson of Philip III of France King of France
(Roi de France)
JeanIIdFrance.jpg Arms of the Kingdom of France (Ancien).svg John II the Good
(Jean)
22 August 13508 April 1364 Son of Philip VIKing of France
(Roi de France)
Charles V France.jpg Arms of Charles V of France (counter-seal).svg Charles V the Wise 8 April 136416 September 1380 Son of John IIKing of France
(Roi de France)
Charles VI de France - Dialogues de Pierre Salmon - Bib de Geneve MsFr165f4.jpg Arms of Charles VI of France (counter-seal).svg Charles VI the Beloved, the Mad16 September 138021 October 1422 Son of Charles VKing of France
(Roi de France)

House of Lancaster (1422–1453) (disputed)

PortraitCoat of armsNameKing fromKing untilClaimTitle
King Henry VI from NPG (2).jpg Royal Arms of England (1470-1471).svg Henry VI of England
(Henri VI d'Angleterre)
21 October 142219 October 1453By right of his father Henry V of England, who by conquest forced the French to sign the Treaty of Troyes became heir and regent of France. Grandson of Charles VI of France.King of France
(Roi de France)

House of Valois (1328–1589)

PortraitCoat of armsNameKing fromKing untilRelationship with predecessorTitle
Charles VII by Jean Fouquet 1445 1450.jpg Coat of Arms of Charles VII of France (counterseal).svg Charles VII the Victorious, the Well-Served21 October 142222 July 1461 Son of Charles VI
 Uncle of Henry VI of England
King of France.
(Roi de France)
Louis-XI.jpg Royal Coat of Arms of Valois France.svg Louis XI the Prudent, the Cunning, the Universal Spider22 July 146130 August 1483 Son of Charles VIIKing of France
(Roi de France)
Charles VIII Ecole Francaise 16th century Musee de Conde Chantilly.jpg Coat of Arms of Charles VIII of France.svg Charles VIII the Affable 30 August 14837 April 1498 Son of Louis XIKing of France
(Roi de France)
Louis-xii-roi-de-france.jpg Royal Coat of Arms of Valois France.svg Louis XII Father of the People7 April 14981 January 1515 Great-grandson of Charles V
 Second cousin, and by first marriage son-in-law of Louis XI
 By second marriage husband of Anne of Brittany, widow of Charles VIII
King of France
(Roi de France)
Francois Ier Louvre.jpg Coat of arms of France 1515-1578.svg Francis I the Father and Restorer of Letters
(François)
1 January 151531 March 1547 Great-great-grandson of Charles V
 First cousin once removed, and by first marriage son-in-law of Louis XII
King of France
(Roi de France)
Henry II of France..jpg Coat of arms of France 1515-1578.svg Henry II
(Henri)
31 March 154710 July 1559 Son of Francis I/Maternal grandson of Louis XIIKing of France
(Roi de France)
FrancoisII.jpg Coat of arms of France 1515-1578.svg Francis II
(François)
10 July 15595 December 1560 Son of Henry IIKing of France
(Roi de France)

King of Scots
(1558–1560)
with Mary I (1542–1567)
CharlesIX.jpg Coat of arms of France 1515-1578.svg Charles IX 5 December 156030 May 1574 Son of Henry IIKing of France
(Roi de France)
Anjou 1570louvre.jpg Royal Coat of Arms of France.svg Henry III
(Henri)
30 May 15742 August 1589 Son of Henry IIKing of France
(Roi de France)

King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania
(1573–1575)

House of Bourbon (1589–1792)

The Valois line looked strong on the death of Henry II, who left four male heirs. His first son, Francis II, died in his minority. His second son, Charles IX, had no legitimate sons to inherit. Following the assassination of his third son, the childless Henry III, and the premature death of his fourth son Hercule François, France was plunged into a succession crisis over which distant cousin of the king would inherit the throne. The best claimant, King Henry III of Navarre, was a Protestant, and thus unacceptable to much of the French nobility. Ultimately, after winning numerous battles in defence of his claim, Henry converted to Catholicism and was crowned king, founding the House of Bourbon. This marked the second time the thrones of Navarre and France were united under one monarch; as different inheritance laws had caused them to become separated during the events of the Hundred Years Wars. The House of Bourbon would be overthrown during the French Revolution, replaced by a short-lived republic.

PortraitCoat of armsNameKing fromKing untilRelationship with predecessor(s)Title
Henri-Pourbus.jpg Grand Royal Coat of Arms of France & Navarre.svg Henry IV the Green Gallant Good King Henry
(Henri)
2 August 158914 May 1610 Tenth generation descendant of Louis IX in the male line
 By first marriage son in law of Henry II, Brother in law of Francis II, Charles IX and Henry III
King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
Luis XIII, rey de Francia (Philippe de Champaigne).jpg Grand Royal Coat of Arms of France & Navarre.svg Louis XIII the Just 14 May 161014 May 1643 Son of Henry IVKing of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
Louis XIV of France.jpg Grand Royal Coat of Arms of France & Navarre.svg Louis XIV the Great the Sun King14 May 16431 September 1715 Son of Louis XIIIKing of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
Louis XV by Maurice-Quentin de La Tour.jpg Grand Royal Coat of Arms of France & Navarre.svg Louis XV the Beloved
1 September 171510 May 1774 Great-grandson of Louis XIVKing of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
Antoine-Francois Callet - Louis XVI, roi de France et de Navarre (1754-1793), revetu du grand costume royal en 1779 - Google Art Project.jpg Grand Royal Coat of Arms of France & Navarre.svg Louis XVI the Restorer of French Liberty 10 May 177421 September 1792 Grandson of Louis XVKing of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
(1774–1791)

King of the French
(Roi des Français)
(1791–1792)
Louis Charles of France6.jpg Grand Royal Coat of Arms of France & Navarre.svg Louis XVII
(Claimant)
21 January 17938 June 1795 Son of Louis XVI(Disputed) King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)

House of Bonaparte, First Empire (1804–1814)

The French First Republic lasted from 1792 to 1804, after which its popular First Consul, Napoléon Bonaparte, decided to make France a monarchy again. He took the popular title Emperor of the French instead of King of France and Navarre or King of the French to avoid all titles of the Kingdom of France making France's second popular monarchy.

PortraitCoat of armsNameEmperor fromEmperor untilRelationship with predecessor(s)Title
Jacques-Louis David - The Emperor Napoleon in His Study at the Tuileries - Google Art Project.jpg Grandes Armes Imperiales (1804-1815)2.svg Napoleon I
(Napoléon)
18 May 180411 April 1814
  • Founder of the Bonaparte dynasty
Emperor of the French
(Empereur des Français)

Capetian Dynasty (1814–1815)

Following the first defeat of Napoleon and his exile to Elba, the Bourbon monarchy was restored, with Louis XVI's younger brother Louis Stanislas being crowned as Louis XVIII. Louis XVI's son had been considered by monarchists as Louis XVII but he was never crowned and never ruled in his own right before his own death; he is not usually counted among French monarchs, creating a gap in numbering on most traditional lists of French kings. Napoleon would briefly regain control of the country during his Hundred Days rule in 1815. After his final defeat at the Battle of Waterloo, Napoleon attempted to abdicate in favour of his son, but the Bourbon Monarchy was re-established yet again, and would continue to rule France until the July Revolution of 1830 replaced it with a cadet branch, the House of Orleans.

House of Bourbon, Bourbon Restoration (1814–1815)

PortraitCoat of armsNameKing fromKing untilRelationship with predecessor(s)Title
Gerard - Louis XVIII of France in Coronation Robes.jpg Coat of Arms of the Bourbon Restoration (1815-30).svg Louis XVIII the Desired 11 April 181420 March 1815 Grandson of Louis XV   Younger Brother of Louis XVIKing of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)

House of Bonaparte, First Empire (Hundred Days, 1815)

PortraitCoat of armsNameEmperor fromEmperor untilRelationship with predecessor(s)Title
Jacques-Louis David - The Emperor Napoleon in His Study at the Tuileries - Google Art Project.jpg Grandes Armes Imperiales (1804-1815)2.svg Napoleon I
(Napoléon)
20 March 181522 June 1815
  • Founder of the Bonaparte dynasty
Emperor of the French
(Empereur des Français)
Le duc de Reichstadt.jpg Grandes Armes Imperiales (1804-1815)2.svg Napoleon II the Eaglet
(Napoléon)
[lower-alpha 2]
22 June 18157 July 1815 Son of Napoleon I(Disputed) Emperor of the French
(Empereur des Français)

Capetian dynasty (1815–1848)

House of Bourbon (1815–1830)

PortraitCoat of armsNameKing fromKing untilRelationship with predecessor(s)Title
Gerard - Louis XVIII of France in Coronation Robes.jpg Coat of Arms of the Bourbon Restoration (1815-30).svg Louis XVIII the Desired 7 July 181516 September 1824 Grandson of Louis XV  Younger Brother of Louis XVIKing of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
Carlos X de Francia (Francois Gerard).jpg Coat of Arms of the Bourbon Restoration (1815-30).svg Charles X 16 September 18242 August 1830 Grandson of Louis XV  Younger Brother of Louis XVI and Louis XVIIIKing of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
Louis Antoine d'Artois.jpg Coat of Arms of the Bourbon Restoration (1815-30).svg Louis XIX Antoine 2 August 18302 August 1830
(20 minutes)
 Son of Charles X(Disputed) King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)
Comte-de-chambord.jpg Coat of Arms of the Bourbon Restoration (1815-30).svg Henry V
(Henri)
2 August 18309 August 1830
(7 days)
 Grandson of Charles X
 Nephew of Louis Antoine
(Disputed) King of France and of Navarre
(Roi de France et de Navarre)

The Bourbon Restoration came to an end with the July Revolution of 1830, which deposed Charles X and replaced him with Louis-Philippe I, a distant cousin with more liberal politics. Charles X's son Louis signed a document renouncing his own right to the throne only after a 20-minute argument with his father; because he was never crowned he is disputed as a genuine king of France. [11] Louis's nephew Henry was likewise considered by some to be Henry V, but the new regime did not recognise his claim and he never ruled.

House of Orléans, July Monarchy (1830–1848)

Under Louis-Philippe, the popular monarchy of France changed the styles and forms of the ancien régime , replacing them with more populist forms like replacing "King of France" with "King of the French").

PortraitCoat of armsNameKing fromKing untilRelationship with predecessor(s)Title
Louis-Philippe de Bourbon.jpg Coat of Arms of the July Monarchy (1830-31).svg Louis-Philippe I the Citizen King 9 August 183024 February 1848 Sixth generation descendant of Louis XIII in the male line
 Fifth cousin of Louis XVI, Louis XVIII and Charles X
King of the French
(Roi des Français)

Over the years Louis-Philippe grew more Conservative. When a revolution broke out he fled to Great Britain leaving his grandson Prince Philippe, Count of Paris as King of the French. Two days later the Second French Republic was declared. He was never crowned, making him disputed as a genuine monarch.[ citation needed ]

House of Bonaparte, Second Empire (1852–1870)

The French Second Republic lasted from 1848 to 1852, when its president, Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, was declared Emperor of the French. He took the regnal name of Napoleon III, after his uncle (Napoleon I) and his cousin (Napoleon II, who was declared but uncrowned as heir to the Imperial throne).

Napoleon III would later be overthrown during the events of the Franco-Prussian War. He was the last monarch to rule France; thereafter, the country was ruled by a succession of republican governments (see French Third Republic).

PortraitCoat of armsNameEmperor fromEmperor untilRelationship with predecessor(s)Title
Franz Xaver Winterhalter Napoleon III.jpg Coat of Arms Second French Empire (1852-1870)-2.svg Napoleon III
(Napoléon)
2 December 18524 September 1870 Nephew of Napoleon IEmperor of the French
(Empereur des Français)

Later pretenders

Various pretenders descended from the preceding monarchs have claimed to be the legitimate monarch of France, rejecting the claims of the president of France, and of each other. These groups are:

See also

Notes

  1. 'Louis XII, 1499 [...] LVDOVIVS XII FRANCORUM REX MEDILANI DUX [...] Francis I, 1515 [...] FRANCISCUS REX FRANCORUM PRIMUS DOMINATOR ELVETIORUM [...] Henri II, 1550? [...] HENRICVS II FRANCORVM REX' [4]
  2. From 22 June to 7 July 1815, Bonapartists considered Napoleon II as the legitimate heir to the throne, his father having abdicated in his favor. However, throughout this period he resided in Austria, with his mother. Louis XVIII was reinstalled as king on 7 July.

Related Research Articles

The Capetian dynasty, also known as the House of France, is a dynasty of Frankish origin, and a branch of the Robertians. It is among the largest and oldest royal houses in Europe and the world, and consists of Hugh Capet, the founder of the dynasty, and his male-line descendants, who ruled in France without interruption from 987 to 1792, and again from 1814 to 1848. The senior line ruled in France as the House of Capet from the election of Hugh Capet in 987 until the death of Charles IV in 1328. That line was succeeded by cadet branches, the Houses of Valois and then Bourbon, which ruled without interruption until the French Revolution abolished the monarchy in 1792. The Bourbons were restored in 1814 in the aftermath of Napoleon's defeat, but had to vacate the throne again in 1830 in favor of the last Capetian monarch of France, Louis Philippe I, who belonged to the House of Orléans.

House of Bourbon European royal house of French origin

The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty, the royal House of France. Bourbon kings first ruled France and Navarre in the 16th century. By the 18th century, members of the Spanish Bourbon dynasty held thrones in Spain, Naples, Sicily, and Parma. Spain and Luxembourg currently have monarchs of the House of Bourbon.

House of Valois cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty

The House of Valois was a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty. They succeeded the House of Capet to the French throne, and were the royal house of France from 1328 to 1589. Junior members of the family founded cadet branches in Orléans, Anjou, Burgundy, and Alençon.

Hugh Capet King of the Franks

Hugh Capet was the King of the Franks from 987 to 996. He is the founder and first king from the House of Capet. The son of the powerful duke Hugh the Great and his wife Hedwige of Saxony, he was elected as the successor of the last Carolingian king, Louis V. Hugh was descended from Charlemagne's sons Louis the Pious and Pepin of Italy through his mother and paternal grandmother, respectively, and was also a nephew of Otto the Great.

An appanage, or apanage, is the grant of an estate, title, office or other thing of value to a younger child of a sovereign, who would otherwise have no inheritance under the system of primogeniture. It was common in much of Europe.

Duke of Burgundy was a title used by the rulers of the Duchy of Burgundy, from its establishment in 843 to its annexation by France in 1477, and later by Habsburg sovereigns of the Low Countries (1482-1556).

France in the Middle Ages History of France during the Middle Ages

The Kingdom of France in the Middle Ages was marked by the fragmentation of the Carolingian Empire and West Francia (843–987); the expansion of royal control by the House of Capet (987–1328), including their struggles with the virtually independent principalities that had developed following the Viking invasions and through the piecemeal dismantling of the Carolingian Empire and the creation and extension of administrative/state control in the 13th century; and the rise of the House of Valois (1328–1589), including the protracted dynastic crisis of the Hundred Years' War with the Kingdom of England (1337–1453) compounded by the catastrophic Black Death epidemic (1348), which laid the seeds for a more centralized and expanded state in the early modern period and the creation of a sense of French identity.

English claims to the French throne Wikimedia list article

From the 1340s to the 19th century, excluding two brief intervals in the 1360s and the 1420s, the kings and queens of England also claimed the throne of France. The claim dates from Edward III, who claimed the French throne in 1340 as the sororal nephew of the last direct Capetian, Charles IV. Edward and his heirs fought the Hundred Years' War to enforce this claim, and were briefly successful in the 1420s under Henry V and Henry VI, but the House of Valois, a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty, was ultimately victorious and retained control of France. Despite this, English and British monarchs continued to prominently call themselves kings of France, and the French fleur-de-lis was included in the royal arms. This continued until 1801, by which time France no longer had any monarch, having become a republic. The Jacobite claimants, however, did not explicitly relinquish the claim.

House of Capet Rulers of the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328

The House of Capet or the Direct Capetians, also called the House of France, or simply the Capets, ruled the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328. It was the most senior line of the Capetian dynasty – itself a derivative dynasty from the Robertians. Historians in the 19th century came to apply the name "Capetian" to both the ruling house of France and to the wider-spread male-line descendants of Hugh Capet. Contemporaries did not use the name "Capetian". The Capets were sometimes called "the third race of kings". The name "Capet" derives from the nickname given to Hugh, the first Capetian King, who became known as Hugh Capet.

Kingdom of France kingdom in Western Europe from 843 to 1791

The Kingdom of France was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe. It was among the most powerful states in Europe and a great power since the Late Middle Ages. It was also an early colonial power, with possessions around the world.

The Robertians, or Robertines, as they are known in modern scholarship, are the proposed Frankish family which was ancestral to the Capetian dynasty, and thus to the royal families of France and many other countries. The Capetians appear first in the records as powerful nobles serving under the Carolingian dynasty in West Francia, which later became France. As their power increased they came into conflict with the older royal family and attained the crown several times before the eventual start of the continuous rule of the descendants the Capetians, the descendants of Hugh Capet.

Robert II was a Frankish nobleman who was count of Worms and of Rheingau and Count of Hesbaye around the year 800. He is the earliest-known male-line ancestor of the French royal family called the Capetians, and of other royal families which ruled in Portugal, Spain, Luxembourg, Parma, Brazil and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies.

House of France family

The term House of France refers to the branch of the Capetian dynasty which provided the Kings of France following the election of Hugh Capet. The House of France consists of a number of branches and their sub-branches. Some of its branches have acceded to the Crown, while others remained cadets.

Monarchism in France is the advocacy of restoring the monarchy in France, which was abolished after the 1870 defeat by Prussia, arguably before that in 1848 with the establishment of the French Second Republic. The French monarchist movements are roughly divided today in three groups: the Legitimists for the royal House of Bourbon, the Orléanists for the cadet branch of the House of Orléans and the Bonapartists for the imperial House of Bonaparte.

This is a simplified family tree of all Frankish and French monarchs, from Childeric I to Napoleon III.

This article covers the mechanism by which the French throne passed from the establishment of the Frankish Kingdom in 486 to the fall of the Second French Empire in 1870.

References

Citations

  1. Sullivan, William. Historical causes and effects, from the fall of the Roman empire, 476, to the reformation, 1517. p. 213. Grimshaw, William. The history of France from the foundation of the monarchy to the death of Louis XVI. p. 11
  2. Claudio Rendina & Paul McCusker, The Popes: Histories and Secrets, (New York : 2002), p. 145.
  3. 1 2 Deploige, Jeroen; Deneckere, Gita, eds. (2006). Mystifying the Monarch: Studies on Discourse, Power, and History. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Amsterdam University Press. p. 182. ISBN   9789053567678.
  4. Potter, David (2008). Renaissance France at War: Armies, Culture and Society, C.1480–1560. Warfare in History Series. 28. Boydell & Brewer Ltd. p. viii. ISBN   9781843834052 . Retrieved 27 November 2012.
  5. Le Couronnement de Napoléon Premier, Empereur des Français. Paris, France: Guerin. 1806. p.  1.
  6. Pascal, Adrien (1853). Histoire de Napoléon III, Empereur des Français. Paris, France: Barbier. p. 359.
  7. Babcock, Philip (1993). Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged. MA, USA: Merriam-Webster. p. 341.
  8. Gwatking, H. M.; Whitney, J. P.; et al. (1930). Cambridge Medieval History: Germany and the Western Empire. Volume III. London: Cambridge University Press.
  9. Parisse, Michael (2005). "Lotharingia". In Reuter, T. (ed.). The New Cambridge Medieval History: c. 900–c. 1024. III. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 313–315.
  10. Knecht, Robert (2004). The Valois: Kings of France 1328–1422 . NY, USA: Hambledon Continuum. pp. ix–xii. ISBN   1852854200.
  11. "Shortest reign of a monarch". guinnessworldrecords.com. Retrieved 12 April 2017.

Sources

  • Hansen, M.H., ed. (1967). Kings, Rulers, and Statesmen. NY, USA: Sterling Publishing Co., Inc. pp. 103–107.[ unreliable source? ]