List of French monarchs

Last updated

The family tree of Frankish and French monarchs (509-1870) Family tree of French monarchs 509-1870.svg
The family tree of Frankish and French monarchs (509–1870)

France was ruled by monarchs from the establishment of the Kingdom of West Francia in 843 until the end of the Second French Empire in 1870, with several interruptions.


Classical French historiography usually regards Clovis I, king of the Franks (r.507–511), as the first king of France. However, historians today consider that such a kingdom did not begin until the establishment of West Francia, during the dissolution of the Carolingian Empire in the 800s. [1] [2]


The kings used the title "King of the Franks" (Latin : Rex Francorum) until the late twelfth century; the first to adopt the title of "King of France" (Latin: Rex Franciae; French: roi de France) was Philip II in 1190 (r. 1180–1223), after which the title "King of the Franks" gradually lost ground. [3] However, Francorum Rex continued to be sometimes used, for example by Louis XII in 1499, by Francis I in 1515, and by Henry II in about 1550; it was also used on coins up to the eighteenth century. [4]

During the brief period when the French Constitution of 1791 was in effect (1791–1792) and after the July Revolution in 1830, the style "King of the French" (roi des Français) was used instead of "King of France (and Navarre)". It was a constitutional innovation known as popular monarchy which linked the monarch's title to the French people rather than to the possession of the territory of France. [5]

With the House of Bonaparte, the title "Emperor of the French" (Empereur des Français) was used in 19th-century France, during the first and second French Empires, between 1804 and 1814, again in 1815, and between 1852 and 1870. [6]

From the 14th century down to 1801, the English (and later British) monarch claimed the throne of France, though such claim was purely nominal excepting a short period during the Hundred Years' War when Henry VI of England had control over most of Northern France, including Paris. By 1453, the English had been mostly expelled from France and Henry's claim has since been considered illegitimate; French historiography commonly does not recognize Henry VI of England among the kings of France.

Frankish kings

Carolingian dynasty (843–887)

The Carolingians were a Frankish noble family with origins in the Arnulfing and Pippinid clans of the 7th century AD. The family consolidated its power in the 8th century, eventually making the offices of mayor of the palace and dux et princeps Francorum hereditary and becoming the real powers behind the Merovingian kings. The dynasty is named after one of these mayors of the palace, Charles Martel, whose son Pepin the Short dethroned the Merovingians in 751 and, with the consent of the Papacy and the aristocracy, was crowned King of the Franks. [7] Under Charles the Great (r. 768–814), better known as "Charlemagne", the Frankish kingdom expanded deep into Central Europe, conquering Italy and most of modern Germany. He was also crowned "Emperor of the Romans" by the Pope, a title that was eventually carried on by the German rulers of the Holy Roman Empire.

Charlemagne was succeeded by his son Louis the Pious (r. 814–840), who eventually divided the kingdom between his sons. His death, however, was followed by a 3-year-long civil war that ended with the Treaty of Verdun, which divided Francia into three kingdoms, one of which (Middle Francia) was short-lived. Modern France developed from West Francia, while East Francia became the Holy Roman Empire and later Germany. By this time, the eastern and western parts of the land had already developed different languages and cultures. [8] [9]

PortraitNameReignSuccessionLife details
Bibliotheque nationale de France - Bible de Vivien Ms. Latin 1 folio 423r detail Le comte Vivien offre le manuscrit de la Bible faite a l'abbaye de Saint-Martin de Tours a Charles le Chauve.jpg Charles II "the Bald" [lower-alpha 1] c. 10 August 843 [lower-roman 1] – 6 October 877
(34 years and 2 months)
Son of Louis the Pious and grandson of Charlemagne; recognized as king after the Treaty of Verdun 13 June 823 [lower-alpha 2] – 6 October 877
(aged 54)
King of Aquitaine since 838. Crowned "Emperor of the Romans" on Christmas 875. Died of natural causes [12]
Denier sous Louis II dit le Begue.jpg Louis II "the Stammerer" [lower-alpha 3] 6 October 877 [lower-roman 2] – 10 April 879
(1 year, 6 months and 4 days)
Son of Charles the Bald1 November 846 – 10 April 879
(aged 32)
King of Aquitaine since 867. Died of natural causes. [14]
Denier sous Louis III.jpg Louis III 10 April 879 [lower-roman 3] – 5 August 882
(3 years, 3 months and 26 days)
Son of Louis the Stammerer863 – 5 August 882 [lower-alpha 4]
(aged 19)
Ruled the North; died after hitting his head with a lintel while riding his horse. [20]
Denier sous Carloman II.jpg Carloman II 10 April 879 [lower-roman 4] – 6 December 884
(5 years, 7 months and 26 days)
Son of Louis the Stammerer866 – 6 December 884 [lower-alpha 5]
(aged 18)
Ruled the South; died after being accidentally stabbed by his servant. [24]
Sceau de Charles le gros.jpg Charles (III) "the Fat" [lower-alpha 6] 6 December 884 [lower-roman 5] – 11 November 887 [lower-alpha 7]
(2 years, 11 months and 5 days)
Son of Louis II the German, king of East Francia, and grandson of Louis I 839 [lower-alpha 8] – 13 January 888
(aged 48–49)

King of East Francia since 876; crowned Emperor in 881. Last ruler to control all Frankish territories. Deposed by the nobility, later dying of natural causes [30]

Robertian dynasty (888–898)

PortraitNameReignSuccessionLife details
Denier de Blois sous Eudes de France.jpg Odo
Eudes or Odon
29 February 888 [lower-roman 6] – 3 January 898
(9 years, 10 months and 15 days)
Son of Robert the Strong; elected king by the French nobles following the deposition of Charles. Initially rivaled by Guy III of Spoleto and Ranulf II of Aquitaine c. 858 – 3 January 898 [lower-alpha 9]
(aged approx. 40)
Defended Paris from the Vikings; died of natural causes [35]

Carolingian dynasty (898–922)

PortraitNameReignSuccessionLife details
Denier sous Charles III le Simple.jpg Charles III "the Simple" 3 January 898 [lower-roman 7] – 29 June 922
(24 years, 5 months and 26 days)
Posthumous son of Louis II the Stammerer; proclaimed king in opposition to Odo in January 89317 September 879 – 7 October 929
(aged 50)
Deposed by Robert's followers; later captured by Herbert II, Count of Vermandois. Died in captivity [36]

Robertian dynasty (922–923)

PortraitNameReignSuccessionLife details
Robert Ier roi des Francs.jpg Robert I 29 June 922 [lower-roman 8] – 15 June 923
(11 months and 17 days)
Son of Robert the Strong and younger brother of Odo865 – 15 June 923
(aged 58)
Killed at the Battle of Soissons against Charles III. Sole king to die in battle [38]

Bosonid dynasty (923–936)

PortraitNameReignSuccessionLife details
Denier sous Raoul de France.jpg Rudolph
Rodolphe or Raoul
15 June 923 [lower-roman 9] – 14 January 936
(12 years, 6 months and 30 days)
Son of Richard, Duke of Burgundy and son-in-law of Robert I Duke of Burgundy since 921. Died of illness after a reign of constant civil war and viking raids. Lost Lotharingia (Lorraine) to Henry I of Germany [39]

Carolingian dynasty (936–987)

PortraitNameReignSuccessionLife details
Denier Chinon 954, obverse.jpg Louis IV "from Overseas" 19 June 936 [lower-roman 10] – 10 September 954
(18 years, 2 months and 22 days)
Son of Charles the Simple, recalled to France after being exiled to England 921 – 10 September 954
(aged 33)
Died after falling off his horse [40]
Tete de la statue du roi Lothaire fab en 1140 (cropped).JPG Lothair
10 September 954 [lower-roman 11] – 2 March 986
(31 years, 5 months and 20 days)
Son of Louis IV941 – 2 March 986
(aged 44)
Died of natural causes [41]
Louis V of France.jpg Louis V "the Do-Nothing" 2 March 986 [lower-roman 12] – 22 May 987
(1 year, 2 months and 20 days)
Son of Lothair967 – 22 May 987 [lower-alpha 11]
(aged 20)
Died in a hunting accident [43]

Capetian dynasty (987–1792)

The Capetian dynasty is named for Hugh Capet, a Robertian who served as Duke of the Franks and was elected King in 987. Except for the Bonaparte-led Empires, every monarch of France was a male-line descendant of Hugh Capet. The kingship passed through patrilineally from father to son until the 14th century, a period known as Direct Capetian rule. Afterwards, it passed to the House of Valois, a cadet branch that descended from Philip III. The Valois claim was disputed by Edward III, the Plantagenet king of England who claimed himself as the rightful king of France through his French mother Isabella. The two houses fought the Hundred Years' War over the issue, and with Henry VI of England being for a time partially recognized as King of France.

The Valois line died out in the late 16th century, during the French Wars of Religion, to be replaced by the distantly related House of Bourbon, which descended through the Direct Capetian Louis IX. The Bourbons ruled France until deposed in the French Revolution, though they were restored to the throne after the fall of Napoleon. The last Capetian to rule was Louis Philippe I, king of the July Monarchy (1830–1848), a member of the cadet House of Bourbon-Orléans.

House of Capet (987–1328)

The House of Capet are also commonly known as the "Direct Capetians".

PortraitNameArmsReignSuccessionLife details
SceauHuguesCapet (cropped).PNG Hugh "Capet"
Hugues [lower-alpha 12]
1 June 987 [lower-roman 13] – 24 October 996
(9 years, 4 months and 23 days)
Elected king by the French nobles. Son of Hugh the Great and grandson of Robert I [lower-alpha 13] c. 940 – 24 October 996
(aged approx. 55)
Duke of the Franks since 956. Died of natural causes. [47]
Sceau de Robert II le pieux.jpg Robert II "the Pious" 24 October 996 [lower-roman 14] – 20 July 1031
(34 years, 8 months and 26 days)
Only son of Hugh Capetc. 970 – 20 July 1031
(aged approx. 60)
Married thrice, getting excommunicated by the Catholic Church. Incorporated the Duchy of Burgundy [48]
(junior king)
[lower-alpha 14]
19 June 1017 – 17 September 1025
(under Robert II)
Son of Robert IIc. 1007 – 17 September 1025
(aged approx. 18) [49]
Sceau du roi Henri Ier.jpg Henry I
20 July 1031 [lower-roman 15] – 4 August 1060
(29 years and 15 days)
Son of Robert IIc. 1005 – 4 August 1060
(aged approx. 55)
His reign was marked with internal struggle against feudal lords [50]
Sceau du roi Philippe Ier.jpg Philip I "the Amorous"
4 August 1060 [lower-roman 16] – 29 July 1108
(47 years, 11 months and 25 days)
Son of Henry I1052 – 29 July 1108
(aged 56)
Ruled under the regency of Anne of Kiev and Count Baldwin V until 1066 [51]
Louis VI of France.jpg Louis VI "the Fat" 29 July 1108 [lower-roman 17] – 1 August 1137
(29 years and 3 days)
Son of Philip I1081 – 1 August 1137
(aged 56)
His reign contributed to the centralization of royal power. First king to wage war against the English [52]
(junior king)
[lower-alpha 14]
14 April 1129 – 13 October 1131
(under Louis VI)
Son of Louis VI29 August 1116 – 13 October 1131
(aged 15) [53]
Louis 7.jpg Louis VII "the Young" 1 August 1137 [lower-roman 18] – 18 September 1180
(43 years, 1 month and 17 days)
Son of Louis VI1120 – 18 September 1180
(aged 60)
Known for his rivalry with Henry II of England and his military campaigns during the Second Crusade [54]
Sceau de Philippe Auguste. - Archives Nationales - SC-D157.jpg Philip II "Augustus"
Philippe Auguste
Arms of the Kingdom of France (Ancien).svg 18 September 1180 [lower-roman 19] – 14 July 1223
(42 years, 9 months and 26 days)
Son of Louis VII21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223
(aged 57)
Regarded as one of the greatest French rulers. First monarch to style himself as "King of France" [55]
Louis8.jpg Louis VIII "the Lion" 14 July 1223 [lower-roman 20] – 8 November 1226
(3 years, 3 months and 25 days)
Son of Philip II5 September 1187 – 8 November 1226
(aged 39)
Proclaimed king of England in 1216, after which he led an unsuccessful invasion [56]
Saintlouis (cropped).jpg Louis IX "the Saint" 8 November 1226 [lower-roman 21] – 25 August 1270
(43 years, 9 months and 17 days)
Son of Louis VIII25 April 1214 – 25 August 1270
(aged 56)
Ruled under the regency of Blanche of Castile until 1234. Died during the 8th Crusade; only king to be venerated by the Catholic Church [57]
Coronation Philip III 02 (cropped).jpg Philip III "the Bold"
25 August 1270 [lower-roman 22] – 5 October 1285
(15 years, 1 month and 10 days)
Son of Louis IX3 April 1245 – 5 October 1285
(aged 40)
Greatly expanded French influence in Europe. Died of a fever [58]
Philip iv and family 2 (detail crop2).jpeg Philip IV "the Fair"
Arms of the Kingdom of France & Navarre (Ancien).svg 5 October 1285 [lower-roman 23] – 29 November 1314
(29 years, 1 month and 24 days)
Son of Philip III1268 – 29 November 1314
(aged 46)
King of Navarre (as Philip I) since 16 August 1284, following his marriage with Joan I. Remembered for his struggle with the Roman papacy and his consolidation of royal power, which helped to reduce the influence of feudal lords [59]
Ludvik X.png Louis X "the Quarreller" 29 November 1314 [lower-roman 24] – 5 June 1316
(1 year, 6 months and 7 days)
Son of Philip IV3 October 1289 – 5 June 1316
(aged 26)
King of Navarre (as Louis I) since 2 April 1305. His short reign was marked by conflicts with the nobility [60]
JeanIposthume.JPG John I "the Posthumous"
15–19 November 1316
(4 days)
Posthumous son of Louis XKing for the four days he lived; youngest and shortest undisputed monarch in French history [lower-alpha 15]
Sacre Philippe5 France 01 (cropped).jpg Philip V "the Tall"
20 November 1316 [lower-roman 25] – 3 January 1322
(5 years, 1 month and 14 days)
Son of Philip IV and uncle of John I1293/4 – 3 January 1322
(aged 28–29)
King of Navarre as Philip II.
Died without a male heir [65]
Charles4 mini.jpg Charles IV "the Fair" 3 January 1322 [lower-roman 26] – 1 February 1328
(6 years and 29 days)
Son of Philip IV and younger brother of Philip V1294 – 1 February 1328
(aged 34)
King of Navarre as Charles I. Died without a male heir, ending the direct line of Capetians [66]

House of Valois (1328–1589)

The death of Charles IV started the Hundred Years' War between the House of Valois and the House of Plantagenet, whose claim was taken up by the cadet branch known as the House of Lancaster, over control of the French throne. The Valois claimed the right to the succession by male-only primogeniture through the ancient Salic Law, having the closest all-male line of descent from a recent French king. They were descended from the third son of Philip III, Charles, Count of Valois. The Plantagenets based their claim on being closer to a more recent French king, Edward III of England being a grandson of Philip IV through his mother, Isabella.

The two houses fought the Hundred Years War to enforce their claims. The Valois were ultimately successful, and French historiography counts their leaders as rightful kings. One Plantagenet, Henry VI of England, enjoyed de jure control of the French throne following the Treaty of Troyes, which formed the basis for continued English claims to the throne of France until 1801. The Valois line ruled France until the line became extinct in 1589, in the backdrop of the French Wars of Religion. As Navarre did not have a tradition of male-only primogeniture, the Navarrese monarchy became distinct from the French with Joan II, a daughter of Louis X.

PortraitNameArmsReignSuccessionLife details
Phil6france.jpg Philip VI "the Fortunate"
Arms of the Kingdom of France (Ancien).svg 1 April 1328 [lower-roman 27] – 22 August 1350
(22 years, 4 months and 21 days)
Son of Charles, Count of Valois, grandson of Philip III and cousin of Charles IV 1293 – 22 August 1350
(aged 57)
His reign was dominated by the consequences of a succession dispute, which led to the Hundred Years' War. [67]
JeanIIdFrance.jpg John II "the Good"
22 August 1350 [lower-roman 28] – 8 April 1364
(13 years, 7 months and 17 days)
Son of Philip VIApril 1319 [lower-alpha 17] – 8 April 1364
(aged 45)
Captured by the English at the Battle of Poitiers (1356); forced to sign a series of humiliating treaties [68]
Charles V France.jpg Charles V "the Wise" Arms of Charles V of France (counter-seal).svg 8 April 1364 [lower-roman 29] – 16 September 1380
(16 years, 5 months and 8 days)
Son of John II; named Dauphin on 16 July 134921 January 1337 – 16 September 1380
(aged 43)
His reign was marked with internal struggle against feudal lords [69]
Charles VI de France - Dialogues de Pierre Salmon - Bib de Geneve MsFr165f4.jpg Charles VI "the Mad" "the Beloved" Arms of Charles VI of France (counter-seal).svg 16 Sept 1380 [lower-roman 30] – 21 October 1422
(42 years, 1 month and 5 days)
Son of Charles V3 December 1368 – 21 October 1422
(aged 53)
Ruled under the regency of his uncles until 1388. Suffered a long period of mental illness before dying of natural causes [70]
Henry VI of England, Shrewsbury book.jpg Henry VI of England
Royal Arms of England (1470-1471).svg 21 October 1422 [lower-roman 31]
19 October 1453 [lower-alpha 18]
(disputed; 31 years)
Maternal grandson of Charles VI, recognized as heir after the Treaty of Troyes of 21 May 14206 December 1421 – 21 May 1471
(aged 49)
King of England since 1 September 1422. Ruled under several regencies until 1437 [71]
Charles VII by Jean Fouquet 1445 1450.jpg Charles VII "the Victorious" "the Well-Served" Coat of Arms of Charles VII of France (counterseal).svg 21 October 1422 [lower-roman 32] – 22 July 1461
(38 years, 9 months and 1 day)
Son of Charles VI and uncle of Henry VI of England, named Dauphin in April 141722 February 1403 – 22 July 1461
(aged 58)
His reign saw the end of the Hundred Years' War [72]
Louis XI (1423-1483).jpg Louis XI "the Prudent" "the Universal Spider" Royal Coat of Arms of Valois France.svg 22 July 1461 [lower-roman 33] – 30 August 1483
(22 years, 1 month and 8 days)
Son of Charles VII3 July 1423 – 30 August 1483
(aged 60)
His reign saw the strengthening and expansion of royal power. Nicknamed "the Universal Spider" for the numerous intrigues during his rule [73]
Portrait of King Charles VIII of France (1470-1498), by anonymous artist, 16th century (cropped).jpg Charles VIII "the Affable" Coat of Arms of Charles VIII of France.svg 30 August 1483 [lower-roman 34] – 7 April 1498
(14 years, 7 months and 8 days)
Son of Louis XI30 June 1470 – 7 April 1498
(aged 27)
Ruled under the regency of his sister Anne until 1491. Started the long and unsuccessful Italian Wars. Died after hitting his head with a lintel [74]

House of Valois-Orléans (1498–1515)

PortraitNameArmsReignSuccessionLife details
Ludwig XII. von Frankreich.jpg Louis XII "Father of the People" Royal Coat of Arms of Valois France.svg 7 April 1498 [lower-roman 35] – 1 January 1515
(16 years, 8 months and 25 days)
Great-grandson of Charles V. Second cousin, and by first marriage son-in-law, of Louis XI27 June 1462 – 1 January 1515
(aged 52)
Briefly conquered the Kingdom of Naples and the Duchy of Milan [75]

House of Valois-Angoulême (1515–1589)

PortraitNameArmsReignSuccessionLife details
Francois Ier Louvre.jpg Francis I "the Father of Letters"
Lesser Coat of Arms of France 1515-1574.svg 1 January 1515 [lower-roman 36] – 31 March 1547
(32 years, 2 months and 30 days)
Great-great-grandson of Charles V. First cousin once removed, and by first marriage son-in-law, of Louis XII12 September 1494 – 31 March 1547
(aged 52)
Remembered as a Renaissance patron of the arts and scholarship. Died of a fever [76]
Henry II of France-Francois Clouet (altered).jpg Henry II
31 March 1547 [lower-roman 37] – 10 July 1559
(12 years, 3 months and 10 days)
Son of Francis I, named Dauphin in August 153631 March 1519 – 10 July 1559
(aged 40)
His reign saw the end of the Italian Wars. Died after being accidentally stabbed in a Jousting tournament [77]
Portrait du roi de France Francois II.jpg Francis II
10 July 1559 [lower-roman 38] – 5 December 1560
(1 year, 4 months and 25 days)
Son of Henry II20 January 1544 – 5 December 1560
(aged 16)
King consort of Scotland since 24 April 1558. A weak and sick boy, he remained under the regency of the House of Guise until his premature death [78]
Portrait of King Charles IX of France (1550-1574), by After Francois Clouet.jpg Charles IX 5 December 1560 [lower-roman 39] – 30 May 1574
(13 years, 5 months and 25 days)
Younger brother of Francis II27 June 1550 – 30 May 1574
(aged 23)
Ruled under the regency of his mother Catherine until 1563, but remained under her influence until his death. The Wars of Religion began under his reign (1562). Best remembered for the Massacre of Vassy [79]
Quesnel Henry III of France in Polish hat.jpg Henry III
COA - Henry III of France.svg 30 May 1574 [lower-roman 40] – 2 August 1589
(15 years, 2 months and 3 days)
Younger brother of Francis II and Charles IX19 September 1551 – 2 August 1589
(aged 37)
Initially ruler of Poland–Lithuania. [lower-alpha 19] He reigned through the devastating Wars of Religion, which eventually led to his own assassination [83]

House of Bourbon (1589–1792)

The Valois line looked strong on the death of Henry II, who left four male heirs. His first son, Francis II, died in his minority. His second son, Charles IX, had no legitimate sons to inherit. Following the premature death of his fourth son Hercule François and the assassination of his third son, the childless Henry III, France was plunged into a succession crisis over which distant cousin of the king would inherit the throne. The best claimant, King Henry III of Navarre, was a Protestant, and thus unacceptable to much of the French nobility.

Ultimately, after winning numerous battles in defence of his claim, Henry converted to Catholicism and was crowned as King Henry IV, founding the House of Bourbon. This marked the second time the thrones of Navarre and France were united under one monarch, as different inheritance laws had caused them to become separated during the events of the Hundred Years Wars. The House of Bourbon was overthrown during the French Revolution and replaced by a short-lived republic.

PortraitNameArmsReignSuccessionLife details
Chateau de Beauregard - Cardinal Charles de Bourbon (1523-1590).jpg Charles X
Coat of Arms of Charles de Bourbon, archbishop of Rouen.svg 2 August 1589 – 9 May 1590
(disputed; 9 months and 7 days)
7x great-grandson of Louis IX. Proclaimed king by the Catholic League in opposition to Henry of Navarre 22 December 1523 – 9 May 1590
(aged 66)
Imprisoned by Henry III on 23 December 1588; remained his entire "reign" in captivity. Died of natural causes [84]
HENRI IV DE BOURBON.jpg Henry IV "the Great" "the Good King"
Grand Royal Coat of Arms of France & Navarre (1).svg 2 August 1589 [lower-roman 41] – 14 May 1610
(20 years, 9 months and 12 days)
10th-generation descendant of Louis IX; also nephew of Charles (X) and by first marriage son-in-law of Henry II. Proclaimed king on Henry III's deathbed13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610
(aged 56)
King of Lower Navarre (as Henry III) since 10 June 1572. Killed in Paris on 14 May 1610 by Catholic fanatic François Ravaillac. [85]
LouisXIII.jpg Louis XIII "the Just" 14 May 1610 [lower-roman 42] – 14 May 1643
(33 years)
Son of Henry IV27 September 1601 – 14 May 1643
(aged 41)
Last King of Lower Navarre (as Louis II). [lower-alpha 20] Died of natural causes. [86]
Louis XIV of France.jpg Louis XIV "the Great" "the Sun King" 14 May 1643 [lower-roman 43] – 1 September 1715
(72 years, 3 months and 18 days)
Son of Louis XIII5 September 1638 – 1 September 1715
(aged 76)
Ruled under the regency of his mother Anne of Austria until 1651. Longest reigning sovereign monarch in history [87]
Louis XV, King of France (1710-1774) edited 2.jpg Louis XV "the Beloved" 1 September 1715 [lower-roman 44] – 10 May 1774
(58 years, 8 months and 9 days)
Great-grandson of Louis XIV15 February 1710 – 10 May 1774
(aged 64)
Ruled under the regency of Philippe II, Duke of Bourbon-Orléans, until 1723 [88]
Antoine-Francois Callet - Louis XVI, roi de France et de Navarre (1754-1793), revetu du grand costume royal en 1779 - Google Art Project.jpg Louis XVI 10 May 1774 [lower-roman 45] – 21 September 1792 [lower-alpha 21]
(18 years, 4 months and 11 days)
Grandson of Louis XV23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793
(aged 38)
Forced to install a constitutional monarchy after 1789. Formally deposed following the proclamation of the First Republic, executed in public [89]
Louis Charles of France5.jpg Louis XVII
21 January 1793 – 8 June 1795
(2 years, 4 months and 18 days; disputed)
Son of Louis XVI; named Dauphin on 4 June 178927 March 1785 – 8 June 1795
(aged 10)
Imprisoned by the revolutionary forces on 13 August 1792. Remained his entire "reign" in captivity [90]

Long 19th-century (1792–1870)

The period known as the "long nineteenth century" was a tumultuous time in French politics. The period is generally considered to have begun with the French Revolution, which deposed and then executed Louis XVI. Royalists continued to recognize his son, the putative king Louis XVII, as ruler of France. Louis was under arrest by the government of the Revolution and died in captivity having never ruled. The republican government went through several changes in form and constitution until France was declared an empire, following the ascension of the First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte as Emperor Napoleon I. Napoleon was overthrown twice following military defeats during the Napoleonic Wars.

After the Napoleonic period followed two different royal governments, the Bourbon Restoration, which was ruled successively by two younger brothers of Louis XVI, and the July Monarchy, ruled by Louis Philippe I, a distant cousin who claimed descent from Louis XIII. The French Revolution of 1848 brought an end to the monarchy again, instituting a brief Second Republic that lasted four years, before its President declared himself Emperor Napoleon III, who was deposed and replaced by the Third Republic, and ending monarchic rule in France for good.

House of Bonaparte, First French Empire (1804–1814)

PortraitNameArmsReignSuccessionLife details
Napoleon in Coronation Robes by Francois Gerard.jpg Napoleon I Imperial Coat of Arms of France (1804-1815).svg 18 May 1804 [lower-roman 46] – 2 April 1814 [lower-alpha 22]
(9 years, 10 months and 15 days)
First Consul of the French Republic following the coup d'etat of 19 November 1799; self-proclaimed Emperor of the French 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821
(aged 51)
Conquered most of Europe in a series of successful wars; remembered as one of the greatest military commanders in history. Deposed in absentia and forced to abdicate, then exiled to the island of Elba [92]
Portrait of Napoleon II attributed to Johann Peter Krafft.png Napoleon II
4 – 6 April 1814
(2 days; disputed)
Son of Napoleon I20 March 1811 – 22 July 1832
(aged 21)
Unrecognized by the Coalition and the Senate, only named emperor in Napoleon's will.

House of Bourbon (1814–1815)

PortraitNameArmsReignSuccessionLife details
Gerard - Louis XVIII of France in Coronation Robes.jpg Louis XVIII "the Desired" Coat of Arms of the Bourbon Restoration (1815-30).svg 3 May 1814 [lower-roman 47] – 20 March 1815
(1st time; 10 months and 17 days)
Younger brother of Louis XVI; proclaimed king in June 1795. Had his dynasty restored to the throne with the help of other European royal houses, which had dethroned Napoleon17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824
(aged 68)
Fled France on 21 June 1791, during the Flight to Varennes, and again in March 1815, after the return of Napoleon [93]

House of Bonaparte, Hundred Days (1815)

PortraitNameArmsReignSuccessionLife details
Napoleon in Coronation Robes by Francois Gerard.jpg Napoleon I Imperial Coat of Arms of France (1804-1815).svg 20 March – 22 June 1815
(94 days)
Restored as Emperor of the French by the French Army following his escape from the island of Elba 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821
(aged 51)
Abdicated in favour of his son following his defeat at the Battle of Waterloo. Exiled to the island of Saint Helena, where he later died of a stomach illness [92]
Portrait of Napoleon II attributed to Johann Peter Krafft.png Napoleon II
22 June – 7 July 1815
(15 days; disputed)
Son of Napoleon I20 March 1811 – 22 July 1832
(aged 21)
Unrecognized by the Coalition; remained his entire "reign" hidden in Austria, with his mother Marie Louise. Died of tuberculosis several years later [94] [95]

Bourbon Restoration (1815–1830)

PortraitNameArmsReignSuccessionLife details
Gerard - Louis XVIII of France in Coronation Robes.jpg Louis XVIII "the Desired" Coat of Arms of the Bourbon Restoration (1815-30).svg 8 July 1815 – 16 September 1824
(9 years, 2 months and 8 days)
Younger brother of Louis XVI; restored to the throne.17 November 1755 – 16 September 1824
(aged 68)
Attempted to rule under a constitutional monarchy. Last French monarch to die while still reigning [93]
Carlos X de Francia (Francois Gerard).jpg Charles X 16 September 1824 [lower-roman 48] – 2 August 1830
(5 years, 10 months and 17 days)
Younger brother of Louis XVI and Louis XVIII9 October 1757 – 6 November 1836
(aged 79)
Leader of the Ultra-royalists; attempted to return to the Ancient Regime. Abdicated in favour of his grandson Henry after the July Revolution. [96]
Louis Antoine, Duke of Angouleme.jpg Louis XIX (?)
2 August 1830
(20 minutes; disputed)
Son of Charles X6 August 1775 – 3 June 1844
(aged 68)
Allegedly king for 20 minutes; [lower-alpha 23] later legitimist pretender to the throne. [99]
Portrait, The Duke of Bordeaux, Dubois-Drahonet.jpg Henry V
2–9 August 1830
(7 days; disputed)
Grandson of Charles X29 September 1820 – 24 August 1883
(aged 62)
Later legitimist pretender to the throne. Died in exile several years later [100]

House of Bourbon-Orléans, July Monarchy (1830–1848)

The Bourbon Restoration came to an end with the July Revolution of 1830 which deposed Charles X and replaced him with Louis Philippe I, a distant cousin with more liberal politics. Charles X's son Louis signed a document renouncing his own right to the throne only after a 20-minute argument with his father. Because he was never crowned he is disputed as a genuine king of France. Louis's nephew Henry was likewise considered by some to be Henry V, but the new regime did not recognise his claim and he never ruled.

Charles X named Louis Philippe as Lieutenant général du royaume, a regent to the young Henry V, and charged him to announce his desire to have his grandson succeed him to the Chamber of Deputies, the lower house of the French Parliament at the time, the French equivalent at the time of the UK House of Commons. Louis Philippe did not do this, in order to increase his own chances of succession. As a consequence, and because the French parliamentarians were aware of his liberal policies and of his popularity at the time with the French population, they proclaimed Louis Philippe as the new French king, displacing the senior branch of the House of Bourbon.

PortraitNameArmsReignSuccessionLife details
1841 portrait painting of Louis Philippe I (King of the French) by Winterhalter.jpg Louis Philippe I "the Citizen King" Coat of Arms of the July Monarchy (1830-31).svg 9 August 1830 [lower-roman 49] – 24 February 1848
(17 years, 6 months and 15 days)
Sixth-generation descendant of Louis XIII and distant cousin of Charles X; proclaimed king by the Chamber of Deputies after the abdication of Charles X during the July Revolution 6 October 1773 – 26 August 1850
(aged 76)
Styled as King of the French. Formally deposed following the proclamation of the Second Republic. Abdicated in favour of his grandson [101]
Louis-Philippe II when he was a child.jpg Louis Philippe II
24–26 February 1848
(2 days; disputed)
Grandson of Louis-Philippe24 August 1838 – 8 September 1894
(aged 56)
Chosen by Louis Philippe I to be his successor, however the National Assembly refused to recognize him as king and proclaimed the Second Republic. Later Orléanist pretender to the throne. [102]

House of Bonaparte, Second French Empire (1852–1870)

The French Second Republic lasted from 1848 to 1852, when its president, Charles-Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, was declared Emperor of the French under the regnal name of Napoleon III. He would later be overthrown during the events of the Franco-Prussian War, becoming the last monarch to rule France.

PortraitNameArmsReignSuccessionLife details
Portrait of Napoleon III, Emperor of the French, in Coronation Robes (by After Franz Xaver Winterhalter) - Palace of Versailles.jpg Napoleon III Coat of Arms Second French Empire (1852-1870).svg 2 December 1852 [lower-roman 50] – 4 September 1870
(17 years, 9 months and 2 days)
Nephew of Napoleon I; elected as President of the French Republic in 1848, made himself Emperor of the French after a coup d'état 20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873
(aged 64)
Captured by the German army on 2 September 1870; deposed in absentia following the proclamation of the Third Republic. [103]

Later pretenders

Various pretenders descended from the preceding monarchs have claimed to be the legitimate monarch of France, rejecting the claims of the president of France and of one another. These groups are:


House of OrléansHouse of BonaparteHouse of BourbonHouse of ValoisCapetBosonidRobertianCarolingianNapoleon IIILouis Philippe IILouis Philippe IHenri, Count of ChambordLouis Antoine, Duke of AngoulêmeCharles X of FranceNapoleon IILouis XVIIINapoleon ILouis XVIILouis XVILouis XVLouis XIVLouis XIIICharles I, Cardinal de BourbonHenry IV of FranceHenry III of FranceCharles IX of FranceFrancis II of FranceHenry II of FranceFrancis I of FranceLouis XIICharles VIII of FranceLouis XIHenry VI of EnglandCharles VII of FranceCharles VI of FranceCharles V of FranceJohn II of FrancePhilip VI of FranceCharles IV of FrancePhilip V of FranceJohn I of FranceLouis X of FrancePhilip IV of FrancePhilip III of FranceLouis IXLouis VIIIPhilip II AugustusLouis VIILouis VI of FrancePhilip I of FranceHenry I of FranceRobert II of FranceHugh CapetLouis V of FranceLothair of FranceLouis IV of FranceRudolph of FranceRobert I of FranceCharles the SimpleOdo of FranceCharles the FatCarloman IILouis III of FranceLouis the StammererCharles the BaldList of French monarchs

See also


  1. Louis the Pious and Charlemagne are both enumerated as "Louis I" and "Charles I" in the lists of French and German monarchs.
  2. Older scholars give his birth as 15 May, [10] the ides of May. However, ancient sources record his birth as 13 June, the ides of June. [11]
  3. Not to be confused with Louis II the German, son of Louis the Pious and king of East Francia (Germany). Both French and German monarchs saw themselves as the successors of Charlemagne, hence why many rulers share the same regnal name.
  4. Scholars give his death as either 3, [16] 4, [17] or 10 August, [18] but ancient sources clearly indicates 5 August. [19]
  5. Some modern sources give his death as "12 December", but this is a mistake. [21] [22] [23]
  6. Charles the Fat was initially king of East Francia (Germany) and Holy Roman Emperor. Given that he was the third emperor with that name, he is also known as Charles III. He must not to be confused with Charles the Simple, who is also enumerated as Charles III . This discrepancy originates from the regnal number adopted by Charles V, the first French king to assume one. [25]
  7. This is the most accepted and cited date, although it is not entirely confirmed. [28] [27]
  8. In older sources his birth was dated to 832, but nowadays 839 is the accepted date. [29]
  9. Odo's death is universally given as 1 January, as given by a late 13th century chronicle, [32] but the earliest source on the matter, from the early 11th century, records his death as 3 January. [33] Another source, from the 13th century, records his death as 2 January. [34]
  10. 1 2 See main entry for references.
  11. Some scholars give his death as 21 May, but contemporary sources give 22 May. [42]
  12. "Capet" (latin: Cappetus) was not actually a name, but a nickname adopted by later historians. It probably derived from chappe, an ecclesiastical mantle wore at the Abbey of Saint Martin of Tours. [44]
  13. Hugh was also descendant of Charlemagne's sons Louis the Pious and Pepin of Italy through his mother and paternal grandmother, respectively, and was also a nephew of Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor. [46]
  14. 1 2 Because neither Hugh nor Philip were sole or senior king in their own lifetimes, they are not traditionally listed as kings of France and are not given ordinals.
  15. He lived from 15 to 19 November according to the continuator of Guillaume de Nangis. [61] The Chronique Parisienne Anonyme de 1316 à 1339 gives 13 and 18 November. [62] Modern sources often give his lifespan as 15–20 November. [63]
  16. Humphreys, p. 16 gives 6 January, the same date of Philip IV's coronation. This is a confusion. [64]
  17. Sources give his birth date as 6, 16, 20 or 26 April.
  18. This is the date in which the last English holdout was expelled by the French, with the exception of Calais.
  19. Henry III was elected on 5 May 1573. [80] He was crowned on 21 February 1574, [81] but he was declared deposed soon after, on 12 May. [82]
  20. Lower Navarre was integrated into France during his reign.
  21. Louis XVI's powers as king became obsolete following the March on Versailles on 5 October 1789, after which he became a hostage of the revolutionary forces.
  22. The Sénat proclaimed the deposition in absentia of Napoleon on 2 April, which was followed by the Corps législatif on 3 April. Napoleon wrote an act of abdication on 4 April renouncing the throne in favour of his son. However, this was not accepted by the Coalition, so he wrote an unconditional abdication on 6 April renouncing his rights and that of his family. [91]
  23. Although claimed as the shortest reigning monarch by the Guinness World Records , [97] this claim appears to be unsustained. [98] The exact circumstances of his "abdication" are unknown, as it was announced in a document firmed by both Charles X and Louis, who is only called Dauphin. He is said to have been "king" between his father's signature and his own, as he (allegedly) initially refused to sign the document.


  1. Charles II was crowned emperor on 25 December 875. For later Frankish and German emperors, see Holy Roman Emperor.
  2. Louis II was crowned on 8 December 877. [13]
  3. Louis III and Carloman II were crowned on September 879. [15]
  4. Louis III and Carloman II were crowned on September 879. [15]
  5. Charles the Fat was most likely crowned on 20 May 885. [26] He was already king of East Francia since 28 August 876. He was also crowned emperor on 12 February 881. [27]
  6. Odo was crowned on 29 February 888 and then again on 13 November. [31]
  7. Charles III was crowned on 28 January 893, in opposition to Odo. [lower-alpha 10]
  8. Robert I was crowned on 30 June 922. [37]
  9. Rudolph was crowned on 13 July 923. [lower-alpha 10]
  10. Louis IV was crowned on 19 June 936, following a brief interregnum after the death of Rudolph.
  11. Lothair was crowned on 12 November 954.
  12. Louis V was crowned on 8 June 979.
  13. Hugh was elected and crowned king on 1 June 987, in Noyon. He was crowned again on 3 July in Paris by the archbishop of Reims. The latter date is usually regarded as the "official" start of the Capetian dynasty. [45]
  14. Robert II was crowned on 30 December 987. [45]
  15. Henry I was crowned on 14 May 1027.
  16. Philip I was crowned on 23 May 1059.
  17. Louis VI was crowned on 3 August 1108.
  18. Louis VII was crowned as a child on 25 October 1131, and again on 25 December 1137 alongside Eleanor of Aquitaine.
  19. Philip II was crowned on 1 November 1179.
  20. Louis VIII was crowned on 6 August 1223.
  21. Louis IX was crowned on 29 November 1226.
  22. Philip III was crowned on 30 August 1271.
  23. Philip IV was crowned on 6 January 1286.
  24. Louis X was crowned on 24 August 1315.
  25. Philip V was crowned on 9 January 1317. [lower-alpha 16]
  26. Charles IV was crowned on 21 February 1322.
  27. Philip VI was crowned on 29 May 1328.
  28. John II was crowned on 26 September 1350.
  29. Charles V was crowned on 19 May 1364.
  30. Charles VI was crowned on 4 November 1380.
  31. Henry (II) was crowned on 16 December 1431, at Notre-Dame de Paris.
  32. Charles VII was crowned on 17 July 1429.
  33. Louis XI was crowned on 15 August 1461.
  34. Charles VIII was crowned on 30 May 1484.
  35. Louis XII was crowned on 27 May 1498.
  36. Francis I was crowned on 25 January 1515.
  37. Henry II was crowned on 26 July 1547.
  38. Francis II was crowned on 18 September 1559.
  39. Charles IX was crowned on 15 May 1561.
  40. Henry III was crowned on 13 February 1575.
  41. Henry IV was crowned on 27 February 1594.
  42. Louis XIII was crowned on 17 October 1610.
  43. Louis XIV was crowned on 7 June 1654.
  44. Louis XV was crowned on 25 October 1722.
  45. Louis XVI was crowned on 11 June 1775.
  46. Napoleon I was crowned on 2 December 1804.
  47. Louis XVIII decided not to have a coronation.
  48. Charles X was crowned on 29 May 1825, an unsuccessful attempt to revive the old monarchical traditions.
  49. Louis Philippe I decided not to have a coronation.
  50. A coronation ceremony for Napoleon III was planned, but never executed.

Related Research Articles

The Capetian dynasty, also known as the "House of France", is a dynasty of European origin, and a branch of the Robertians and the Karlings. It is among the largest and oldest royal houses in Europe and the world, and consists of Hugh Capet, the founder of the dynasty, and his male-line descendants, who ruled in France without interruption from 987 to 1792, and again from 1814 to 1848. The senior line ruled in France as the House of Capet from the election of Hugh Capet in 987 until the death of Charles IV in 1328. That line was succeeded by cadet branches, the Houses of Valois and then Bourbon, which ruled without interruption until the French Revolution abolished the monarchy in 1792. The Bourbons were restored in 1814 in the aftermath of Napoleon's defeat, but had to vacate the throne again in 1830 in favour of the last Capetian monarch of France, Louis Philippe I, who belonged to the House of Orléans. Cadet branches of the Capetian House of Bourbon are still reigning over Spain and Luxembourg.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">House of Bourbon</span> Cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty

The House of Bourbon is a dynasty that originated in the Kingdom of France as a branch of the Capetian dynasty, the royal House of France. Bourbon kings first ruled France and Navarre in the 16th century. A branch descended from the French Bourbons came to rule Spain in the 18th century and is the current Spanish royal family. Further branches, descended from the Spanish Bourbons, held thrones in Naples, Sicily, and Parma. Today, Spain and Luxembourg have monarchs of the House of Bourbon. The royal Bourbons originated in 1272, when Robert, the youngest son of King Louis IX of France, married the heiress of the lordship of Bourbon. The house continued for three centuries as a cadet branch, serving as nobles under the direct Capetian and Valois kings.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Henry IV of France</span> King of France from 1589 to 1610

Henry IV, also known by the epithets Good King Henry or Henry the Great, was King of Navarre from 1572 and King of France from 1589 to 1610. He was the first monarch of France from the House of Bourbon, a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty. He pragmatically balanced the interests of the Catholic and Protestant parties in France as well as among the European states. He was assassinated in 1610 by a Catholic zealot, and was succeeded by his son Louis XIII.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">House of Valois</span> Cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty

The Capetian house of Valois was a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty. They succeeded the House of Capet to the French throne, and were the royal house of France from 1328 to 1589. Junior members of the family founded cadet branches in Orléans, Anjou, Burgundy, and Alençon.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Henri, Count of Chambord</span> Pretender to the French throne as Henry V (1844–83)

Henri, Count of Chambord and Duke of Bordeaux was the Legitimist pretender to the throne of France as Henri V from 1844 until his death in 1883.

An appanage, or apanage, is the grant of an estate, title, office or other thing of value to a younger child of a monarch, who would otherwise have no inheritance under the system of primogeniture. It was common in much of Europe.

Duke of Burgundy was a title used by the rulers of the Duchy of Burgundy, from its establishment in 843 to its annexation by the French crown in 1477, and later by members of the House of Habsburg, including Holy Roman Emperors and kings of Spain, who claimed Burgundy proper and ruled the Burgundian Netherlands.

Duke of Orléans was a French royal title usually granted by the King of France to one of his close relatives, or otherwise inherited through the male line. First created in 1344 by King Philip VI for his younger son Philip, the title was recreated by King Charles VI for his younger brother Louis, who passed the title on to his son and then to his grandson, the latter becoming King Louis XII. The title was created and recreated six times in total, until 1661, when Louis XIV bestowed it upon his younger brother Philippe, who passed it on to his male descendants, who became known as the "Orléans branch" of the Bourbons.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Pretender</span> Someone who claims to be rightful holder of a throne that is vacant or held by another

A pretender is someone who claims to be the rightful ruler of a country although not recognized as such by the current government. The term is often used to suggest that a claim is not legitimate. The word may refer to a former monarch or a descendant of a deposed monarchy, although this type of claimant is also referred to as a head of a house.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Joan II of Navarre</span> Queen of Navarre from 1328 to 1349

Joan II was Queen of Navarre from 1328 until her death. She was the only surviving child of Louis X of France, King of France and Navarre, and Margaret of Burgundy. Joan's paternity was dubious because her mother was involved in a scandal, but Louis X declared her his legitimate daughter before he died in 1316. However, the French lords were opposed to the idea of a female monarch and elected Louis X's brother, Philip V, king. The Navarrese noblemen also paid homage to Philip. Joan's maternal grandmother, Agnes of France, and uncle, Odo IV of Burgundy, made attempts to secure the counties of Champagne and Brie to Joan, but the French royal troops defeated her supporters. After Philip V married his daughter to Odo and granted him two counties as her dowry, Odo renounced Joan's claim to Champagne and Brie in exchange for a compensation in March 1318. Joan married Philip of Évreux, who was also a member of the French royal family.

Duke of Berry or Duchess of Berry was a title in the Peerage of France. The Duchy of Berry, centred on Bourges, was originally created as an appanage for junior members of the French royal family and was frequently granted to female royals. The style "Duke of Berry" was later granted by several Bourbon monarchs to their grandsons. The last official Duke of Berry was Charles Ferdinand of Artois, son of Charles X. The title Duke of Berry is currently being claimed through its usage as a courtesy title by Prince Alphonse de Bourbon, son of Prince Louis, Duke of Anjou, the Legitimist claimant to the French Throne.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">English claims to the French throne</span> Claims to the French throne by English and British monarchs

From the 1340s to the 19th century, excluding two brief intervals in the 1360s and the 1420s, the kings and queens of England and Ireland also claimed the throne of France. The claim dates from Edward III, who claimed the French throne in 1340 as the sororal nephew of the last direct Capetian, Charles IV. Edward and his heirs fought the Hundred Years' War to enforce this claim, and were briefly successful in the 1420s under Henry V and Henry VI, but the House of Valois, a cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty, was ultimately victorious and retained control of France, except for Calais and the Channel Islands. Following the Hundred Years War, English and British monarchs continued to call themselves kings of France, and adopted the French fleur-de-lis as their coat of arms, quartering the arms of England in positions of secondary honour. This continued until 1802, by which time France no longer had any monarch, having become a republic. The Jacobite claimants, however, did not explicitly relinquish the claim.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">House of Capet</span> Royal house of France from 987 to 1328

The House of Capet ruled the Kingdom of France from 987 to 1328. It was the most senior line of the Capetian dynasty – itself a derivative dynasty from the Robertians.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kingdom of France</span> Kingdom in Western Europe (987–1792) (1815–1848)

The Kingdom of France is the historiographical name or umbrella term given to various political entities of France in the medieval and early modern period. It was one of the most powerful states in Europe from the High Middle Ages to 1848 during its dissolution. It was also an early colonial power, with colonies in Asia and Africa, and the largest being New France in North America centred around the Great Lakes.

The precise style of French sovereigns varied over the years. Currently, there is no French sovereign; three distinct traditions exist, each claiming different forms of title.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Succession of Henry IV of France</span> Henry III of Navarres accession as King of France

Henry III of Navarre's succession to the throne in 1589 was followed by a war of succession to establish his legitimacy, which was part of the French Wars of Religion (1562–1598). Henry IV inherited the throne after the assassination of Henry III, the last Valois king, who died without children. Henry was already King of Navarre, as the successor of his mother, Jeanne d'Albret, but he owed his succession to the throne of France to the line of his father, Antoine of Bourbon, an agnatic descendant of Louis IX. He was the first French king from the House of Bourbon.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Descendants of Louis XIV</span>

Louis XIV (1638–1715), the Bourbon monarch of the Kingdom of France, was the son of King Louis XIII of France and Queen Anne.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Descendants of Henry IV of France</span>

Henry IV of France was the first Bourbon king of France. Formerly known as Henri of Navarre, he succeeded to the French throne with the extinction of House of Valois, at the death of Henry III of France.

Succession to the French throne covers the mechanism by which the French crown passed from the establishment of the Frankish Kingdom in 486 to the fall of the Second French Empire in 1870.



  1. Guyotjeannin, Olivier, ed. (1996). Clovis chez les historiens (in French). Librairie Droz. pp. 241ff. ISBN   9782600055925.
  2. Sewell, Elizabeth Missing (1876). Popular History of France. Longman. pp. 48–49.
  3. Aguilera-Barchet, Bruno (2014). A History of Western Public Law. Springer. p. 182. ISBN   9783319118031.
  4. Potter, David (2008). Renaissance France at War. Boydell & Brewer Ltd. p. viii. ISBN   9781843834052.
  5. Deploige, Jeroen; Deneckere, Gita, eds. (2006). Mystifying the Monarch. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Amsterdam University Press. p. 182. ISBN   9789053567678.
  6. Pascal, Adrien (1853). Histoire de Napoléon III. Paris, France: Barbier. p. 359.
  7. Babcock, Philip (1993). Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged. MA, US: Merriam-Webster. p. 341.
  8. Reynolds, Susan (1984). Kingdoms and communities in Western Europe, 900–1300. Oxford: Clarendon Press. pp. 256–257. ISBN   978-0-19-821955-2.
  9. Scales, Len (2012). The Shaping of German Identity: Authority and Crisis, 1245-1414. Cambridge University Press. pp. 155–182. ISBN   9780521573337.
  10. McCarty, p. 328; Peignot, p. lv; de Wailly, p. 10.
  11. Annales S. Benigni Divionensis 824. MGH V, 39.
  12. Peignot, p. lv; de Wailly, p. 10; Thoison, p. 189; McCarty, p. 328; EB, Charles II.
  13. Jackson 1995, Vol 1, pp. 110–123.
  14. Peignot, p. lv; de Wailly, p. 10; Thoison, p. 189; McCarty, p. 328; EB, Louis II.
  15. 1 2 McKitterick 1995, p. 137.
  16. Thoison, p. 189; de Wailly, p. 10.
  17. Peignot, p. lviii.
  18. McCarty, p. 327.
  19. Annales Vedastini 882. "Nonis Augusti"
  20. Peignot, p. lviii; Thoison, p. 189; McCarty, p. 328; Dutton 1994, p. 227; EB, Louis III.
  21. Annales Vedastini. 884. "...he survived seven more days, and died in the same place... in December, about 18 years of age."
  22. Obituaires de la province de Sens I, p. 351. "VIII id. [6 December]."
  23. Annales S. Benigni Divionensis 884. "Non. Decemb. [5 December]".
  24. Peignot, p. lviii; Thoison, p. 189; Dutton 1994, p. 227; EB, Carloman.
  25. Brunel 2007, p. 79.
  26. MacLean 2003, p. 126.
  27. 1 2 Schieffer, Theodor (1977), "Karl III", Neue Deutsche Biographie (in German), vol. 11, pp. 181–184
  28. MacLean 2003, p. 194.
  29. MacLean 2003, p. 84.
  30. Peignot, p. lv; de Wailly, p. 10; McCarty, p. 329; EB, Charles III.
  31. Jackson 1995, Vol 1, pp. 133–138.
  32. Annales S. Benigni Divionensis 899. MGH V, 40.
  33. Annales Prumienses 898. MGH XV(2), 1292.
  34. Obituaires de la province de Sens I, p. 343.
  35. Peignot, p. lix; de Wailly, p. 10; McCarty, p. 329; EB, Eudes.
  36. Peignot, pp. lix–lx; de Wailly, p. 10; Thoison, p. 189; McCarty, p. 329; EB, Charles III.
  37. Champion 1976, pp. 9–11.
  38. Peignot, p. lx; de Wailly, p. 10; Thoison, p. 189; McCarty, p. 329; EB, Eudes.
  39. Peignot, p. lxi; de Wailly, p. 10; Thoison, p. 189; McCarty, p. 329; EB, Rudolf.
  40. Peignot, p. lxi; de Wailly, p. 10; McCarty, p. 329; EB, Louis IV.
  41. Peignot, p. lxii; de Wailly, p. 10; Thoison, p. 190; McCarty, p. 329; EB, Lothar.
  42. Richer (1845) [c. 995]. Histoire de son temps (in French). Vol. IV. J. Renouard. p. 147.
  43. Peignot, pp. lxii–lxiii; de Wailly, p. 10; McCarty, p. 329; EB, Louis V.
  44. Bodin 1840, p. 43.
  45. 1 2 Havet 1891.
  46. Alcan 1892, pp. 254–261.
  47. Peignot, pp. 10–16; Humphreys, p. 1; EB, Hugh.
  48. Peignot, pp. 16–20; Humphreys, p. 2; EB, Robert II.
  49. Peignot, p. 17.
  50. Peignot, p. 20–22; Humphreys, p. 3; EB, Henry I.
  51. Thoison, p. 190; Humphreys, p. 4; EB, Philip I.
  52. Peignot, p. 29–32; Humphreys, p. 5; EB, Louis VI.
  53. Peignot, p. 29.
  54. Thoison, p. 190; Humphreys, p. 6; EB, Louis VII.
  55. Thoison, p. 190; Humphreys, p. 8; EB, Philip II.
  56. Thoison, p. 190; Humphreys, p. 10; EB, Louis VIII.
  57. Thoison, p. 191; Humphreys, p. 11; EB, Louis IX.
  58. Thoison, p. 191; Humphreys, p. 12; EB, Philip III.
  59. Thoison, p. 191; Humphreys, p. 14; EB, Philip IV.
  60. McCarty, p. 330; Humphreys, p. 15; EB, Philip IV.
  61. Hercule Géraud (1843) Chronique latine de Guillaume de Nangis, de 1113 à 1300 . pp. 430–431.
  62. Amedée Hellot (1884). Chronique parisienne anonyme du XIVe siècle . p. 26.
  63. Humphreys, p. 15; EB, John I ("19/20 November").
  64. Jackson 1995, Vol II, p. 376.
  65. Thoison, p. 192; Humphreys, p. 16; EB, Philip V.
  66. Peignot, p. 85; Humphreys, p. 17; EB, Charles IV.
  67. Peignot, pp. 91–96; Humphreys, p. 19; EB, Philip VI.
  68. Peignot, p. 96; Humphreys, p. 19; EB, John II.
  69. Peignot, p. 105; Humphreys, p. 20; EB, Henry I.
  70. Peignot, p. 112; Humphreys, p. 21; EB, Charles VI.
  71. Curry 1993, pp. 102–122; Bradford 2004, pp. 621–625; EB, Henry VI.
  72. Peignot, p. 123; Humphreys, p. 23; EB, Frances I.
  73. Peignot, p. 136; Humphreys, p. 25; EB, Louis XI.
  74. Peignot, p. 143; Humphreys, p. 27; Knecht 2007, p. 125; EB, Charles VII.
  75. Peignot, pp. 150; Humphreys, p. 28; Knecht 2007, p. 112; EB, Louis XII.
  76. Peignot, p. 157; Humphreys, p. 30; Knecht 2007, p. 112; EB, Francis I.
  77. Peignot, p. 168; Humphreys, p. 33; EB, Henry II.
  78. Curry 1993, pp. 103–122; Humphreys, p. 35; EB, Francis II.
  79. Peignot, p. 179; Humphreys, p. 36; EB, Charles IX.
  80. Knecht 2016, p. 56. "On 5 May three orators were chosen [...] On 11 May the minority conceded defeat [but the election] did not happen till 15 May.".
  81. Knecht 2016, p. 76.
  82. Knecht 2016, p. 84.
  83. Peignot, p. 186; Humphreys, p. 38; EB, Henry III.
  84. Peignot, p. 203; Wellman, p. 83; Treccani , Carlo.
  85. Peignot, p. 195; Humphreys, p. 39; EB, Henry IV.
  86. Peignot, p. 205; Humphreys, p. 42; EB, Louis XIII.
  87. Peignot, p. 216; Humphreys, p. 43; EB, Louis XIV.
  88. Peignot, p. 238; Humphreys, p. 47; EB, Louis XV.
  89. Peignot, p. 253; Humphreys, p. 51; EB, Louis XVI.
  90. Peignot, p. 260; EB, p.  Louis (XVII).
  91. Vial, Charles-Éloi (2014). "Les trois actes d'abdication de Napoléon Ier". Napoleonica la Revue (in French). 19 (1): 3. doi: 10.3917/napo.141.0003 .
  92. 1 2 Peignot, p. 261; EB, p.  Napoleon I.
  93. 1 2 Peignot, p. 262; EB, p.  Louis XVIII.
  94. EB, Napoléon-François-Charles-Joseph Bonaparte.
  95. "France: Commission of Government: 1815 - Archontology". Retrieved 9 December 2023.
  96. EB, Charles X.
  97. "Shortest reign of a monarch". Guinness World Records. Retrieved 10 February 2023.
  98. Pinoteau, Hervé (1982). "Notes de vexillologie royale française". Hidalguía (172–173). Madrid: 361–362.
  99. Castelot 1988, p. 454; Blanc 1848, p. 214.
  100. EB, Henri Dieudonné.
  101. Brownell, p. 120; EB, p.  Louis Philippe.
  102. Holoman 2004, p. 184; EB, Louis Philippe.
  103. EB, Napoleon III.

Main bibliography

Secondary bibliography

Further reading