American Philosophical Society

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American Philosophical Society Hall
American Philosophical Society Hall.jpg
American Philosophical Society, 2006
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Location104 S. Fifth St.
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Coordinates Coordinates: 39°56′55.51″N75°8′59.42″W / 39.9487528°N 75.1498389°W / 39.9487528; -75.1498389
Architect Samuel Vaughan
Architectural style Georgian
NRHP reference No. 66000675 [1]
Significant dates
Added to NRHPOctober 15, 1966
Designated NHLJanuary 12, 1965

The American Philosophical Society (APS), founded in 1743 and located in Philadelphia, is an eminent scholarly organization of international reputation that promotes useful knowledge in the sciences and humanities through excellence in scholarly research, professional meetings, publications, library resources, and community outreach. Considered the first learned society in the United States, it has played an important role in American cultural and intellectual life for over 270 years.


Through research grants, published journals, the American Philosophical Society Museum, an extensive library, and regular meetings, the society continues to advance a variety of disciplines in the humanities and the sciences. Philosophical Hall, now a museum, is located just east of Independence Hall in Independence National Historical Park; it was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1965.

Linda Greenhouse, Knight Distinguished Journalist in Residence and Joseph Goldstein Lecturer in Law at Yale Law School, was elected President of the American Philosophical Society in 2017. [2] She was elected to the Society in 2001

Robert M. Hauser, Vilas Research Professor of Sociology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, became Executive Officer of the American Philosophical Society in 2017. [3] He was elected to the Society in 2005.


The Philosophical Society, as it was originally called, was founded in 1743 by Benjamin Franklin, James Alexander (lawyer), Francis Hopkinson, John Bartram, Philip Syng, Jr. and others [4] [5] as an offshoot of an earlier club called the Junto.

Library Hall (2013) American Philosophical Society Library.jpg
Library Hall (2013)

Since its inception, the society attracted America's finest minds. Early members included John Dickinson,George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, [6] Alexander Hamilton, James McHenry, Thomas Paine, David Rittenhouse, Nicholas Biddle, Owen Biddle, Benjamin Rush, James Madison, Michael Hillegas, John Marshall, and John Andrews.

It was common for intellectual societies to invite members from around the world at the time. And so the society also recruited members from other countries, including Alexander von Humboldt, the Marquis de Lafayette, Baron von Steuben, Tadeusz Kościuszko, and Princess Dashkova.

The society lapsed into inactivity by 1746, but in 1767 it was revived. And on January 2, 1769, it united with the American Society for Promoting Useful Knowledge under the name American Philosophical Society Held at Philadelphia for Promoting Useful Knowledge. Benjamin Franklin was elected the first president. [7] During this time, the society maintained a standing Committee on American Improvements; one of its investigations was to study the prospects of a canal to connect the Chesapeake Bay and the Delaware River. [8] The canal, which had been proposed by Thomas Gilpin, Sr., would not become reality until the 1820s. [9]

Thomas Jefferson Garden, adjacent to Library Hall American Philosophical Society Thomas Jefferson Garden.jpg
Thomas Jefferson Garden, adjacent to Library Hall

After the American Revolution, the society looked for leadership to Francis Hopkinson, one of the signatories of the Declaration of Independence. Under his influence, the society received land from the government of Pennsylvania, along with a plot of land in Philadelphia where Philosophical Hall now stands.

Illustrious names have continually been added to the membership roster, reflecting the society's scope. Charles Darwin, Robert Frost, Louis Pasteur, Elizabeth Cabot Agassiz, John James Audubon, Linus Pauling, Margaret Mead, Maria Mitchell, and Thomas Edison became members of the society. The society continues to attract names of high renown today, with a current membership list (as of the April 2005 elections) of 920 members, including 772 resident members (citizens or residents of the United States) and 148 foreign members representing more than two dozen countries.

Many members of the Society of the Cincinnati were among the APS's first board members and contributors; today the APS and SOC still maintain an informal, collegial relationship.


In 1786, the society established the Magellanic Premium, a prize for achievement in "navigation, astronomy, or natural philosophy," the oldest scientific prize awarded by an American institution, which it still awards. Other awards include the Barzun Prize for cultural history, Judson Daland Prize for Outstanding Achievement in Clinical Investigation, the Benjamin Franklin Medal, the Lashley Award for neurobiology, the Lewis Award, and the Thomas Jefferson Medal for distinguished achievement in the arts, humanities, or social sciences.

Publications, Archive

The APS has published the Transactions of the American Philosophical Society since 1771. Currently five issues appear each year. The Proceedings have appeared since 1838: they publish the papers delivered at the biannual meetings of the society. The society has also published the collected papers of Benjamin Franklin, Joseph Henry, William Penn, and Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. Jane Aitken bound some 400 volumes for the society. [10]

The society also holds an expansive archive regarding Framer of the U.S. Constitution John Dickinson. [11]


National Historic Landmark Plaque Philosophical NHL.jpg
National Historic Landmark Plaque

Philosophical Hall

Philosophical Hall, located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, at 104 South Fifth Street, between Chestnut and Walnut Streets, immediately south of Old City Hall, was built in 1785–89 to house the society and was designed by Samuel Vaughan in the Federal style. [12] [13] A third floor was added in 1890, to accommodate the expanding library, but was removed in 1948–50 [13] when the building was restored to its original appearance for the creation of Independence National Historical Park. [14] In 2001, it was opened to the public as The American Philosophical Society Museum, hosting revolving, thematic exhibitions that explore the intersections of history, art, and science. The museum features works of art, scientific instruments, original manuscripts, rare books, natural history specimens, and curiosities of all kinds from the APS's own collections, along with objects on loan from other institutions. [15]

Library Hall

Reading room for researchers at Library Hall (2019) American Philosophical Society Library Hall reading room.jpg
Reading room for researchers at Library Hall (2019)

In 1789–90, the Library Company of Philadelphia (LCP) built its headquarters directly across 5th Street from APS. LCP sold its building in 1884, which was demolished for the expansion of the Drexel & Company Building in 1887. This building itself was demolished in the mid-1950s, during the creation of Independence National Historical Park.

APS built a library on the site in 1958, and recreated the facade of the old LCP building.

According to historical ghost stories, Benjamin Franklin's spirit haunts the library, and his statue at the front of the building "comes to life and dances in the streets." [16]

Benjamin Franklin Hall

APS restored the former Farmers' & Mechanics' Bank building at 425–29 Chestnut Street, which was built in 1854–5 to the design of John M. Gries in the Italianate style, [17] to serve as a lecture hall. It is the site of meetings and most major events hosted or produced by the society. [18]

Richardson Hall

Constance C. and Edgar P. Richardson Hall at 431 Chestnut Street, immediately west of Benjamin Franklin Hall, is the former Pennsylvania Company for Insurances on Lives and Granting Annuities Building, which was built in 1871–73 and was designed by Addison Hutton. [19] It now contains offices and the Consortium for History of Science, Technology and Medicine. [18]

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  1. "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places . National Park Service. January 23, 2007.
  4. Duer, William Alexander. The life of William Alexander, Earl of Stirling, Major-General in the Army of the United States during the Revolution New York: Wiley & Putnam for the New Jersey Historical Society, 1847. p.5
  5. "Philip Syng, Jr.", Philadelphia Museum of Art. Retrieved 31 December 2015.
  6. "American Philosophical Society selected records, 1784–1954". Archives of American Art. 2011. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
  7. New International Encyclopedia
  8. Goodrich, Carter (1974). Government Promotion of American Canals and Railroads, 1800–1890. Greenwood Press. ISBN   978-0837177731.
  9. Kozel, Scott M. (2010). "Chesapeake and Delaware Canal (C & D Canal)". PENNWAYS: Roads to the Future. Scott M. Kozel. Archived from the original on May 13, 2015. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
  10. James 1971, p. 26.
  11. "John H. Powell Collection of John Dickinson Research". American Philosophical Society. Retrieved May 26, 2020.
  12. Gallery, John Andrew, ed. (2004), Philadelphia Architecture: A Guide to the City (2nd ed.), Philadelphia: Foundation for Architecture, ISBN   0962290815 p.160
  13. 1 2 Teitelman, Edward & Longstreth, Richard W. (1981), Architecture in Philadelphia: A Guide, Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, ISBN   0262700212 , p. 30
  14. Richard Webster, Philadelphia Preserved (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1976), p. 92.
  15. "American Philosophical Society Museum: About". ARTINFO. 2008. Retrieved July 25, 2008.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)[ permanent dead link ]
  16. Editors (October 29, 2009). "History of Ghost Stories". History. A&E Television Networks. Retrieved February 7, 2019.
  17. Gallery, John Andrew, ed. (2004), Philadelphia Architecture: A Guide to the City (2nd ed.), Philadelphia: Foundation for Architecture, ISBN   0962290815 , pp. 55–56
  18. 1 2 "Directions" Archived 2013-06-04 at the Wayback Machine on the APS website
  19. Gallery, John Andrew, ed. (2004), Philadelphia Architecture: A Guide to the City (2nd ed.), Philadelphia: Foundation for Architecture, ISBN   0962290815 , p.64


Works cited
Research being conducted at APS American Philosophical Society Library Hall table with document.jpg
Research being conducted at APS

(Wayback Machine copy)