|Based on|| John Adams by|
|Written by||Kirk Ellis|
|Directed by||Tom Hooper|
|Starring|| Paul Giamatti |
|Theme music composer||Robert Lane|
|Country of origin||United States|
|No. of episodes||7|
|Executive producers|| Tom Hanks |
|Running time||501 minutes|
|Production companies|| HBO Films |
High Noon Productions
Mid Atlantic Films
|Original release||March 16 –|
April 27, 2008
John Adams is a 2008 American television miniseries chronicling most of U.S. President John Adams's political life and his role in the founding of the United States. The miniseries was directed by Tom Hooper and starred Paul Giamatti in the title role. Kirk Ellis wrote the screenplay based on the 2001 book John Adams by David McCullough. The biopic of Adams and the story of the first 50 years of the United States was broadcast in seven parts by HBO between March 16 and April 20, 2008. John Adams received widespread critical acclaim and many prestigious awards. The show won four Golden Globe awards and 13 Emmy awards, more than any other miniseries in history.
Episode 1 opens in Boston 1770 on the cold winter night of the Boston Massacre. It portrays John Adams arriving at the scene following the gunshots from British soldiers firing upon a mob of Boston citizens. Adams, a respected lawyer in his mid-30s known for his dedication to the law and justice, is sought as defense counsel for the accused Redcoats. Their commander, Captain Thomas Preston, asks him to defend them in court. Reluctant at first, he agrees despite knowing this will antagonize his neighbors and friends. Adams is depicted to have taken the case because he believed everyone deserves a fair trial and he wanted to uphold the standard of justice. Adams' cousin Samuel Adams is one of the main colonists opposed to the actions of the British government. He is one of the executive members of the Sons of Liberty, an anti-British group of agitators. Adams is depicted as a studious man doing his best to defend his clients. The show also illustrates Adams' appreciation and respect for his wife, Abigail. In one scene, Adams is shown having his wife proofread his summation as he takes her suggestions. After many sessions in court, the jury returns a verdict of not guilty of murder for each defendant. Additionally, the episode illustrates the growing tension over the Coercive Acts ("Intolerable Acts"), and Adams' election to the First Continental Congress.
The second episode covers the disputes among the members of the Second Continental Congress toward declaring independence from Great Britain as well as the final drafting of the Declaration of Independence. At the Continental Congresses Adams is depicted as the lead advocate for independence. He is in the vanguard in establishing that there is no other option than to break off and declare independence. He is also instrumental in the selection of then-Colonel George Washington as the new head of the Continental Army.
However, in his zeal for immediate action, he manages to alienate many of the other founding fathers, going so far as to insult John Dickinson, who is for conciliation to the Crown, implying that the man suffers from a religiously based moral cowardice. Later, Benjamin Franklin quietly chastens Adams, saying it is "perfectly acceptable to insult a man in private. He may even thank you for it afterwards. But when you do it in public, they tend to think you are serious." This points out Adams' primary flaw: his bluntness and lack of gentility toward his political opponents, one that would make him many enemies and which would eventually plague his political career. It would also, eventually, contribute to historians' disregard for his many achievements. The episode also shows how Abigail copes with issues at home as her husband was away much of the time participating in the Continental Congress. She employs the use of then pioneer efforts in the field of preventative medicine and inoculation against smallpox for herself and the children.
In Episode 3, Adams travels to Europe with his young son John Quincy during the Revolutionary War seeking alliances with foreign nations, during which the ship transporting them battles a British frigate. It first shows Adams' embassy with Benjamin Franklin in the court of Louis XVI of France. The old French nobility, who are in the last decade before being consumed by the French Revolution, are portrayed as effete and decadent. They meet cheerfully with Franklin, seeing him as a romantic figure, little noting the democratic infection he brings with him. Adams, on the other hand, is a plain spoken and faithful man, who finds himself out of his depth surrounded by an entertainment- and sex-driven culture among the French elite. Adams finds himself at sharp odds with Benjamin Franklin, who has adapted himself to the French, seeking to obtain by seduction what Adams would gain through histrionics. Franklin sharply rebukes Adams for his lack of diplomatic acumen, describing it as a "direct insult followed by a petulant whine". Franklin soon has Adams removed from any position of diplomatic authority in Paris. His approach is ultimately successful and was to result in the conclusive Franco-American victory at Yorktown.
Adams, chastened and dismayed but learning from his mistakes, then travels to the Dutch Republic to obtain monetary support for the Revolution. Although the Dutch agree with the American cause, they do not consider the new union a reliable and credit-worthy client. Adams ends his time in the Netherlands in a state of progressive illness, having sent his son away as a diplomatic secretary to the Russian Empire.
The fourth episode shows John Adams being notified of the end of the Revolutionary War and the defeat of the British. He is then sent to Paris to negotiate the Treaty of Paris in 1783. While overseas, he spends time with Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson and Abigail visits him. Franklin informs John Adams that he was appointed as the first American Ambassador to Great Britain and thus has to relocate to London. John Adams is poorly received by the British during this time—he is the representative for a recently hostile power, and represents in his person what many British at the time regarded as a disastrous end to its early Empire. He meets with his former sovereign, George III, and while the meeting is not a disaster, he is excoriated in British newspapers. In 1789, he returns to Massachusetts for the first presidential election and he and Abigail are reunited with their children, now grown. George Washington is elected the first President of the United States and John Adams as the first Vice President.
Initially, Adams is disappointed and wishes to reject the post of Vice President because he feels there is a disproportionate number of electoral votes in favor of George Washington (Adams' number of votes pales in comparison to those garnered by Washington). In addition, John feels the position of Vice President is not a proper reflection of all the years of service he has dedicated to his nation. However, Abigail successfully influences him to accept the nomination.
The fifth episode begins with Vice President John Adams presiding over the Senate and the debate over what to call the new president. It depicts Adams as frustrated in this role: His opinions are ignored and he has no actual power, except in the case of a tied vote. He's excluded from George Washington's inner circle of cabinet members, and his relationships with Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton are strained. Even Washington himself gently rebukes him for his efforts to "royalize" the office of the Presidency, although Washington values Adams' counsel in other areas, considering him to be "reasonable company" when compared with Jefferson and Hamilton. A key event shown is the struggle to enact the Jay Treaty with Britain, which Adams himself must ratify before a deadlocked Senate (although historically his vote was not required). The episode concludes with his inauguration as the second president—and his subsequent arrival in a plundered executive mansion.
The sixth episode covers Adams's term as president and the rift between the Hamilton-led Federalists and Jefferson-led Republicans. Adams's neutrality pleases neither side and often angers both. His shaky relationship with vice president Thomas Jefferson worsens after taking defensive actions against the French Republic because of failed diplomatic attempts and the signing of the Alien and Sedition Acts. Adams also alienates himself from the anti-French Alexander Hamilton after taking all actions possible to prevent a war with France. He disowns his son Charles, who soon dies as an alcoholic vagrant. Adams sees success late in his presidency with his campaign of preventing a war with France, but his success is clouded after losing the presidential election of 1800. After receiving so much bad publicity while in office, Adams loses the election against his vice-president, Thomas Jefferson, and runner-up Aaron Burr (both from the same party). Adams leaves the Presidential Palace (now known as the White House) in March 1801 and retires to his personal life in Massachusetts.
The final episode covers Adams's retirement years. His home life at Peacefield is full of pain and sorrow as his daughter, Nabby, dies of breast cancer and Abigail succumbs to typhoid fever. Adams does live to see the election of his son, John Quincy, as president, but is too ill to attend the inauguration. Adams and Jefferson are reconciled through correspondence in their last years. Both die hours apart on July 4, 1826, the 50th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence. Jefferson was 83, Adams was 90.
The 110-day shoot took place from February to July 2007 in Colonial Williamsburg, Virginia; Richmond, Virginia; and Budapest, Hungary.Some European scenes were shot in Keszthely, Sóskút, Fertőd and Kecskemét, Hungary.
British officers ransacked an abandoned Continental Army war room in a scene shot in the Robert Carter house. Williamsburg's Public Hospital was in the background of the tent encampment of the Continental army which Adams visited in the winter of 1776, which was replicated using special-effects snow. The College of William and Mary's Wren Building represented a Harvard interior. Scenes were also filmed at the Governor's Palace.
Sets, stage space, backlot and production offices were housed in an old Mechanicsville AMF warehouse in Richmond, Virginia. Some street scenes with cobblestone pavements and colonial storefronts were shot in historic neighborhoods of Washington, D.C., Boston, and Philadelphia. Countryside surrounding Richmond in Hanover County and Powhatan County was chosen to represent areas surrounding early Boston, New York, and Philadelphia.
The critical reception to the miniseries was predominantly positive. On review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, the series has a rating of 82% based on 37 reviews, with an average rating of 8.56/10. The website's critics consensus reads: "Elegantly shot and relatively educational, John Adams is a worthy addition to the genre -- though its casting leaves something to be desired."Metacritic assigned the series a weighted average score of 78 out of 100, based on 27 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews".
Ken Tucker of Entertainment Weekly rated the miniseries A−,and Matt Roush of TV Guide praised the lead performances of Paul Giamatti and Laura Linney. David Hinckley of the New York Daily News felt John Adams "is, quite simply, as good as TV gets ... Best of all are two extraordinary performances at the center: Paul Giamatti as Adams and Laura Linney as his wife, Abigail ... To the extent that John Adams is a period piece, it isn't quite as lush as, say, some BBC productions. But it looks fine, and it feels right, and sometimes what's good for you can also be just plain good."
Alessandra Stanley of The New York Times had mixed feelings. She said the miniseries has "a Masterpiece Theatre gravity and takes a more somber, detailed and sepia-tinted look at the dawn of American democracy. It gives viewers a vivid sense of the isolation and physical hardships of the period, as well as the mores, but it does not offer significantly different or deeper insights into the personalities of the men — and at least one woman — who worked so hard for liberty ... [It] is certainly worthy and beautifully made, and it has many masterly touches at the edges, especially Laura Linney as Abigail. But Paul Giamatti is the wrong choice for the hero ... And that leaves the mini-series with a gaping hole at its center. What should be an exhilarating, absorbing ride across history alongside one of the least understood and most intriguing leaders of the American Revolution is instead a struggle."
Among those unimpressed with the miniseries were Mary McNamara of the Los Angeles Timesand Tim Goodman of the San Francisco Chronicle . Both cited the miniseries for poor casting and favoring style over storytelling.
|Artios Awards||Outstanding Achievement in Casting – Mini Series||Kathleen Chopin||Won|
|Golden Nymph Awards||Best Mini Series||Won|
|Outstanding Actor – Mini Series||Paul Giamatti||Won|
|Hollywood Post Alliance Awards||Outstanding Audio Post – Television||Marc Fishman, Tony Lamberti, Stephen Hunter Flick, |
and Vanessa Lapato (for "Don't Tread on Me)
|Humanitas Prize||60 Minute Network or Syndicated Television||Kirk Ellis (for "Join or Die")||Won|
|International Film Music Critics Association Awards||Best Original Score for Television||Robert Lane and Joseph Vitarelli||Won|
|Online Film & Television Association Awards||Best Miniseries||Won|
|Best Actor in a Motion Picture or Miniseries||Paul Giamatti||Won|
|Best Actress in a Motion Picture or Miniseries||Laura Linney||Nominated|
|Best Supporting Actor in a Motion Picture or Miniseries||Stephen Dillane||Nominated|
|Best Direction of a Motion Picture or Miniseries||Tom Hooper||Won|
|Best Writing of a Motion Picture or Miniseries||Kirk Ellis and Michelle Ashford||Nominated|
|Best Ensemble in a Motion Picture or Miniseries||Won|
|Best Costume Design in a Motion Picture or Miniseries||Nominated|
|Best Editing in a Motion Picture or Miniseries||Won|
|Best Lighting in a Motion Picture or Miniseries||Nominated|
|Best Makeup/Hairstyling in a Motion Picture or Miniseries||Won|
|Best Music in a Motion Picture or Miniseries||Won|
|Best Production Design in a Motion Picture or Miniseries||Nominated|
|Best Sound in a Motion Picture or Miniseries||Nominated|
|Best Visual Effects in a Motion Picture or Miniseries||Won|
|Primetime Emmy Awards||Outstanding Miniseries|| Tom Hanks, Gary Goetzman, Kirk Ellis, Frank Doelger, |
David Coatsworth, and Steven Shareshian
|Outstanding Lead Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie||Paul Giamatti||Won|
|Outstanding Lead Actress in a Miniseries or a Movie||Laura Linney||Won|
|Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie||Stephen Dillane||Nominated|
|Outstanding Directing for a Miniseries, Movie or Dramatic Special||Tom Hooper||Nominated|
|Outstanding Writing for a Miniseries, Movie or Dramatic Special||Kirk Ellis (for "Independence")||Won|
|Primetime Creative Arts Emmy Awards||Outstanding Art Direction for a Miniseries or Movie|| Gemma Jackson, David Crank, Christina Moore, |
Kathy Lucas, and Sarah Whittle
|Outstanding Casting for a Miniseries, Movie or Special||Kathleen Chopin, Nina Gold, and Tracy Kilpatrick||Won|
|Outstanding Cinematography for a Miniseries or Movie||Tak Fujimoto (for "Independence")||Won|
|Tak Fujimoto and Danny Cohen (for "Don't Tread on Me")||Nominated|
|Outstanding Costumes for a Miniseries, Movie or a Special|| Donna Zakowska, Amy Andrews Harrell, and |
Clare Spragge (for "Reunion")
|Outstanding Hairstyling for a Miniseries or a Movie||Jan Archibald and Loulia Sheppard||Nominated|
|Outstanding Makeup for a Miniseries or a Movie (Non-Prosthetic)||Trefor Proud and John R. Bayless||Nominated|
|Outstanding Prosthetic Makeup for a Series, Miniseries, Movie or a Special||Trefor Proud, John R. Bayless, Christopher Burgoyne, |
and Matthew W. Mungle
|Outstanding Music Composition for a Miniseries, Movie or Special (Original Dramatic Score)||Robert Lane (for "Independence")||Nominated|
|Outstanding Single-Camera Picture Editing for a Miniseries or a Movie||Melanie Oliver (for "Independence")||Nominated|
|Outstanding Sound Editing for a Miniseries, Movie or a Special||Stephen Hunter Flick, Vanessa Lapato, Kira Roessler, |
Curt Schulkey, Randy Kelley, Ken Johnson,
Paul Berolzheimer, Dean Beville, Bryan Bowen,
Patricio Libenson, Solange S. Schwalbe, David Fein,
Hilda Hodges, and Alex Gibson (for "Don't Tread on Me")
|Jon Johnson, Bryan Bowen, Kira Roessler, |
Vanessa Lapato, Eileen Horta, Virginia Cook McGowan,
Samuel C. Crutcher, Mark Messick, Martin Maryska,
Greg Stacy, Patricio Libenson, Solange S. Schwalbe,
David Fein, Hilda Hodges, and Nicholas Vitarelli
(for "Unnecessary War")
|Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Miniseries or a Movie||Jay Meagher, Marc Fishman, and Tony Lamberti |
(for "Don't Tread on Me")
|Jay Meagher, Michael Minkler, and Bob Beemer |
(for "Join or Die")
|Outstanding Special Visual Effects for a Miniseries, Movie or a Special||Erik Henry, Jeff Goldman, Paul Graff, Steve Kullback, |
Christina Graff, David Van Dyke, Robert Stromberg,
Edwardo Mendez, and Ken Gorrell (for "Join or Die")
|Satellite Awards||Best Miniseries||Nominated|
|Best Actor in a Miniseries or Motion Picture Made for Television||Paul Giamatti||Won|
|Best Actress in a Miniseries or Motion Picture Made for Television||Laura Linney||Nominated|
|Best Actress in a Supporting Role in a Series, Miniseries or Motion Picture Made for Television||Sarah Polley||Nominated|
|Television Critics Association Awards||Program of the Year||Nominated|
|Outstanding Achievement in Movies, Miniseries and Specials||Won|
|Individual Achievement in Drama||Paul Giamatti||Won|
|American Cinema Editors Awards||Best Edited Miniseries or Motion Picture for Non-Commercial Television||Melanie Oliver (for "Independence")||Nominated|
|American Film Institute Awards||Top 10 Television Programs||Won|
|Art Directors Guild Awards||Excellence in Production Design Award – Television Movie or Mini-series||Gemma Jackson, David Crank, Christina Moore, |
John P. Goldsmith, Tibor Lázár, Dan Kuchar,
Michael H. Ward, Ted Haigh, Richard Salinas,
Kathy Lucas, and Sarah Whittle
|Cinema Audio Society Awards||Outstanding Achievement in Sound Mixing for Television Movies and Miniseries||Jay Meagher, Marc Fishman, and Tony Lamberti |
(for "Don't Tread on Me")
|Jay Meagher, Michael Minkler, and Bob Beemer |
|Jay Meagher, Michael Minkler, and Bob Beemer |
(for "Join or Die")
|Costume Designers Guild Awards||Outstanding Made for Television Movie or Miniseries||Donna Zakowska||Won|
|Critics' Choice Awards||Best Picture Made for Television||Won|
|Directors Guild of America Awards||Outstanding Directorial Achievement in Movies for Television or Miniseries||Tom Hooper||Nominated|
|Golden Globe Awards||Best Miniseries or Television Film||Won|
|Best Actor – Miniseries or Television Film||Paul Giamatti||Won|
|Best Actress – Miniseries or Television Film||Laura Linney||Won|
|Best Supporting Actor – Series, Miniseries or Television Film||Tom Wilkinson||Won|
|Gracie Awards||Outstanding Female Lead – Drama Special||Laura Linney||Won|
|Movieguide Awards||Faith & Freedom Award for Television||Won|
|Producers Guild of America Awards||David L. Wolper Award for Outstanding Producer of Long-Form Television||David Coatsworth, Frank Doelger, Gary Goetzman, |
Tom Hanks, and Steven Shareshian
|Screen Actors Guild Awards||Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Miniseries or Television Movie||Paul Giamatti||Won|
|Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a Miniseries or Television Movie||Laura Linney||Won|
|Visual Effects Society Awards||Outstanding Visual Effects in a Broadcast Miniseries, Movie, or Special||Steve Kullback, Eric Henry, Robert Stromberg, and |
Jeff Goldman (for "Join or Die")
|Outstanding Created Environment in a Broadcast Program or Commercial||Paul Graff, Robert Stromberg, and Adam Watkins |
(for "Join or Die" – Boston Harbor)
|Outstanding Compositing in a Broadcast Program or Commercial||Paul Graff, Joshua LaCross, and Matt Collorafice |
(for "Join or Die" – Boston Harbor)
|Writers Guild of America Awards||Long Form – Adaptation||Kirk Ellis (for "Join or Die" and "Independence"); |
Based on the book by David McCullough
|Young Artist Awards||Best Performance in a TV Movie, Miniseries or Special – Supporting Young Actor||Steven Hinkle||Nominated|
|Online Film & Television Association Awards||Hall of Fame – Television Programs||Inducted|
The score for the miniseries was composed by Robert Lane and Joseph Vitarelli. Lane wrote the main theme and scored "Join or Die," "Independence," "Unite or Die" and "Peacefield," with Vitarelli doing "Don't Tread on Me," "Reunion" and "Unnecessary War." The two composers worked independently of each other, with Lane writing and recording his segments in London and Vitarelli in Los Angeles. There are also pieces by classical composers, including Mozart, Boccherini, Gluck, Handel and Schubert.The soundtrack was released on the Varèse Sarabande label.
The series deviates from David McCullough's book on several occasions, using creative license throughout.
Abigail Adams was the wife and closest advisor of John Adams, as well as the mother of John Quincy Adams. She was a Founder of the United States, and was the first second lady of the United States and second first lady of the United States, although such titles were not used at the time. She and Barbara Bush are the only two women to have been married to one U.S. president and the mother of another.
1776 is a musical with music and lyrics by Sherman Edwards and a book by Peter Stone. The show is based on the events leading up to the signing of the Declaration of Independence, telling a story of the efforts of John Adams to persuade his colleagues to vote for American independence and to sign the document.
The Founding Fathers of the United States, known simply as the Founding Fathers or Founders, were a group of late-18th-century American revolutionary leaders who united the Thirteen Colonies, oversaw the war for independence from Great Britain, established the United States of America, and crafted a framework of government for the new nation.
The Adams family was a prominent political family in the United States from the late 18th through the early 20th centuries. Based in eastern Massachusetts, they formed part of the Boston Brahmin community. The family traces to Henry Adams of Barton St David, Somerset, in England. The two presidents and their descendants are also descended from John Alden, who came to the United States on the Mayflower.
David Gaub McCullough was an American popular historian. He was a two-time winner of the Pulitzer Prize and the National Book Award. In 2006, he was given the Presidential Medal of Freedom, one of the United States' highest civilian awards.
The Abigail Adams Cairn marks the spot where Abigail Adams and her young son, John Quincy Adams, watched the burning of Charlestown on Saturday, June 17, 1775, during the Battle of Bunker Hill. It is located on Penn's Hill, now at the corner of Franklin Street and Viden Road in Quincy, Massachusetts. Abigail was caring for the four children of Dr. Joseph Warren, then President of the Massachusetts Provincial Congress, as well as her own children, Nabby, John Quincy (7), Charles (5), and Thomas Boylston (3), when word came that Dr. Warren had been killed by British troops. In the afternoon, she walked up Penn's Hill to the rock outcroppings, taking her son John Quincy and Nabby along with her. There they looked out over the distant hills and shoreline, seeing the smoke of Charlestown and hearing the far-off rumble of guns and cannon at Bunker Hill.
George Washington Adams was an American attorney and politician. He was the eldest son of John Quincy Adams, the sixth president of the United States. Adams served in the Massachusetts House of Representatives and on the Boston City Council. He is believed to have died by suicide at age 28.
William Stephens Smith was a United States representative from New York. He married Abigail "Nabby" Adams, the daughter of President John Adams, and so was a brother-in-law of President John Quincy Adams and an uncle of Charles Francis Adams Sr.
John Adams was an American statesman, attorney, diplomat, writer, and Founding Father who served as the second president of the United States from 1797 to 1801. Before his presidency, he was a leader of the American Revolution that achieved independence from Great Britain, and during the war served as a diplomat in Europe. He was twice elected vice president, serving from 1789 to 1797 in a prestigious role with little power. Adams was a dedicated diarist and regularly corresponded with many important contemporaries, including his wife and adviser Abigail Adams as well as his friend turned rival Thomas Jefferson.
Abigail "Nabby" AmeliaAdams Smith was the daughter of Abigail and John Adams, founding father and second President of the United States, and the sister of John Quincy Adams, sixth President of the United States. She was named for her mother.
1776 is a 1972 American musical drama film directed by Peter H. Hunt. The screenplay by Peter Stone was based on his book for the 1969 Broadway musical of the same name. Set in Philadelphia in the summer of 1776, it is a fictionalized account of the events leading up to the signing of the Declaration of Independence. The song score was composed by Sherman Edwards. The film stars William Daniels, Howard Da Silva, Donald Madden, John Cullum, Ken Howard and Blythe Danner.
Charles Adams was the second son of President John Adams and his wife, Abigail Adams.
Thomas Boylston Adams was the third and youngest son of the 2nd president of the United States, John and Abigail (Smith) Adams.
The Adams Chronicles is a thirteen-episode miniseries by PBS that aired in 1976 to commemorate the American Bicentennial.
John Adams is a 2001 biography of the Founding Father and second U.S. President John Adams, written by the popular American historian David McCullough, which won the 2002 Pulitzer Prize for Biography or Autobiography. It was adapted into the 2008 television miniseries of the same name by HBO Films. Since the TV miniseries debuted, an alternative cover has been added to the book showing Paul Giamatti as John Adams. The book is available as both hardcover and paperback.
The Quincy family was a prominent political family in Massachusetts from the mid-17th century through to the early 20th century. It is connected to the Adams political family through Abigail Adams.
John Adams Sr., also known as Deacon John, was a British-North American colonial farmer and minister. He was the father of the second U.S. president, John Adams Jr., and grandfather of the sixth president, John Quincy Adams. He was the son of Joseph Adams Jr. (1654–1737), the grandson of Joseph Adams Sr. (1626–1694), and the great-grandson of Henry Adams, who emigrated from Braintree, Essex, in England to Massachusetts Bay Colony in about 1638. He was also descended from John and Priscilla Alden. Adams worked as a farmer and cobbler for most of his life.
The following is a list and discussion of important scholarly resources relating to John Adams.
John Adams (1735–1826) was an American Founding Father who served as one of the most important diplomats on behalf of the new United States during the American Revolution. He served as minister to the Kingdom of France and the Dutch Republic and then was sent to help negotiate the Treaty of Paris to end the American Revolutionary War.
John and Abigail Adams is a 2006 television documentary film about John Adams, the 2nd President of the United States, and his wife Abigail Adams. Produced by PBS for the American Experience documentary program, it recounts the Adams couple's lives and partnership through both dramatizations and interviews. The film was directed by Peter Jones and written and produced by Elizabeth Deane, and it first aired on PBS in the United States on January 23, 2006.