Television promotional poster
|Based on|| John Adams by|
|Written by||Kirk Ellis|
|Directed by||Tom Hooper|
|Starring|| Paul Giamatti |
|Theme music composer||Robert Lane|
|Country of origin||United States|
|No. of episodes||7|
|Executive producer(s)|| Tom Hanks |
|Running time||501 minutes|
|Original release||March 16 –|
April 27, 2008
John Adams is a 2008 American television miniseries chronicling most of U.S. President John Adams's political life and his role in the founding of the United States. Paul Giamatti portrays John Adams. The miniseries was directed by Tom Hooper. Kirk Ellis wrote the screenplay based on the 2001 book John Adams by David McCullough. The biopic of John Adams and the story of the first 50 years of the United States was broadcast in seven parts by HBO between March 16 and April 20, 2008. John Adams received widespread critical acclaim and many prestigious awards. The show won four Golden Globe awards and 13 Emmy awards, more than any other miniseries in history.
Episode 1 opens in Boston 1770 on the cold winter night of the Boston Massacre. It portrays John Adams arriving at the scene following the gunshots from British soldiers firing upon a mob of Boston citizens. Adams, a respected lawyer in his mid-30's known for his dedication to the law and justice, is sought as defense counsel for the accused Redcoats. Their commander, Captain Thomas Preston, asks him to defend them in court. Reluctant at first, he agrees despite knowing this will antagonize his neighbors and friends. Adams is depicted to have taken the case because he believed everyone deserves a fair trial and he wanted to uphold the standard of justice. Adams' cousin Samuel Adams is one of the main colonists opposed to the actions of the British government. He is one of the executive members of the Sons of Liberty, an anti-British group of agitators. Adams is depicted as a studious man doing his best to defend his clients. The show also illustrates Adams' appreciation and respect for his wife, Abigail. In one scene, Adams is shown having his wife proofread his summation as he takes her suggestions. After many sessions of court, the jury returns verdicts of not guilty of murder for each defendant. The episode also illustrates the growing tensions over the Coercive Acts ("Intolerable Acts"), and Adams' election to the First Continental Congress.
The second episode covers the disputes among the members of the Second Continental Congress toward declaring independence from Great Britain as well as the final drafting of the Declaration of Independence. At the Continental Congresses Adams is depicted as the lead advocate for independence. He is in the vanguard in establishing that there is no other option than to break off and declare independence. He is also instrumental in the selection of then-Colonel George Washington as the new head of the Continental Army.
However, in his zeal for immediate action, he manages to alienate many of the other founding fathers, going so far as to insult John Dickinson, who is for conciliation to the Crown, implying that the man suffers from a religiously based moral cowardice. Later, Benjamin Franklin quietly chastens Adams, saying it is "perfectly acceptable to insult a man in private. He may even thank you for it afterwards. But when you do it in public, they tend to think you are serious." This points out Adams' primary flaw: his bluntness and lack of gentility toward his political opponents, one that would make him many enemies and which would eventually plague his political career. It would also, eventually, contribute to historians' disregard for his many achievements. The episode also shows how Abigail copes with issues at home as her husband was away much of the time participating in the Continental Congress. She employs the use of then pioneer efforts in the field of preventative medicine and inoculation against smallpox for herself and the children.
In Episode 3, Adams travels to Europe with his young son John Quincy during the Revolutionary War seeking alliances with foreign nations, during which the ship transporting them battles a British frigate. It first shows Adams' embassy with Benjamin Franklin in the court of Louis XVI of France. The old French nobility, who are in the last decade before being consumed by the French Revolution, are portrayed as effete and decadent. They meet cheerfully with Franklin, seeing him as a romantic figure, little noting the democratic infection he brings with him. Adams, on the other hand, is a plain spoken and faithful man, who finds himself out of his depth surrounded by an entertainment- and sex-driven culture among the French elite. Adams finds himself at sharp odds with Benjamin Franklin, who has adapted himself to the French, seeking to obtain by seduction what Adams would gain through histrionics. Franklin sharply rebukes Adams for his lack of diplomatic acumen, describing it as a "direct insult followed by a petulant whine". Franklin soon has Adams removed from any position of diplomatic authority in Paris. His approach is ultimately successful and was to result in the conclusive Franco-American victory at Yorktown.
Adams, chastened and dismayed but learning from his mistakes, then travels to the Dutch Republic to obtain monetary support for the Revolution. Although the Dutch agree with the American cause, they do not consider the new union a reliable and credit-worthy client. Adams ends his time in the Netherlands in a state of progressive illness, having sent his son away as a diplomatic secretary to the Russian Empire.
The fourth episode shows John Adams being notified of the end of the Revolutionary War and the defeat of the British. He is then sent to Paris to negotiate the Treaty of Paris in 1783. While overseas, he spends time with Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Jefferson and Abigail visits him. Franklin informs John Adams that he was appointed as the first American Ambassador to Great Britain and thus has to relocate to London. John Adams is poorly received by the British during this time—he is the representative for a recently hostile power, and represents in his person what many British at the time regarded as a disastrous end to its early Empire. He meets with his former sovereign, George III, and while the meeting is not a disaster, he is excoriated in British newspapers. In 1789, he returns to Massachusetts for the first presidential election and he and Abigail are reunited with their children, now grown. George Washington is elected the first President of the United States and John Adams as the first Vice President.
Initially, Adams is disappointed and wishes to reject the post of Vice President because he feels there is a disproportionate number of electoral votes in favor of George Washington (Adams' number of votes pales in comparison to those garnered by Washington). In addition, John feels the position of Vice President is not a proper reflection of all the years of service he has dedicated to his nation. However, Abigail successfully influences him to accept the nomination.
The fifth episode begins with Vice President John Adams presiding over the Senate and the debate over what to call the new President. It depicts Adams as frustrated in this role: His opinions are ignored and he has no actual power, except in the case of a tied vote. He's excluded from George Washington's inner circle of cabinet members, and his relationships with Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton are strained. Even Washington himself gently rebukes him for his efforts to "royalize" the office of the Presidency, although Washington values Adams' counsel in other areas, considering him to be "reasonable company" when compared with Jefferson and Hamilton. A key event shown is the struggle to enact the Jay Treaty with Britain, which Adams himself must ratify before a deadlocked Senate (although historically his vote was not required). The episode concludes with his inauguration as the second president—and his subsequent arrival in a plundered executive mansion.
The sixth episode covers Adams's term as president and the rift between the Hamilton-led Federalists and Jefferson-led Republicans. Adams's neutrality pleases neither side and often angers both. His shaky relationship with vice president Thomas Jefferson worsens after taking defensive actions against the French Republic because of failed diplomatic attempts and the signing of the Alien and Sedition Acts. Adams also alienates himself from the anti-French Alexander Hamilton after taking all actions possible to prevent a war with France. He disowns his son Charles, who soon dies as an alcoholic vagrant. Adams sees success late in his Presidency with his campaign of preventing a war with France, but his success is clouded after losing the presidential election of 1800. After receiving so much bad publicity while in office, Adams lost the election against his Vice-President, Thomas Jefferson, and runner-up Aaron Burr (both from the same party). Adams leaves the Presidential Palace (now known as the White House) in March 1801 and retires to his personal life in Massachusetts.
The final episode covers Adams's retirement years. His home life at Peacefield is full of pain and sorrow as his daughter, Nabby, dies of breast cancer and Abigail succumbs to typhoid fever. Adams does live to see the election of his son, John Quincy, as president, but is too ill to attend the inauguration. Adams and Jefferson are reconciled through correspondence in their last years. Both die hours apart on July 4, 1826, the 50th anniversary of the Declaration of Independence. Jefferson was 83, Adams was 90.
The 110-day shoot took place from February to May 2007 in Colonial Williamsburg, Virginia; Richmond, Virginia; and Budapest, Hungary.Some European scenes were shot in Keszthely, Sóskút, Fertőd and Kecskemét, Hungary.
British officers ransacked an abandoned Continental Army war room in a scene shot in the Robert Carter house. Williamsburg's Public Hospital was in the background of the tent encampment of the Continental army which Adams visited in the winter of 1776, which was replicated using special-effects snow. The College of William and Mary's Wren Building represented a Harvard interior. Scenes were also filmed at the Governor's Palace.
Sets, stage space, backlot and production offices were housed in an old Mechanicsville AMF warehouse in Richmond, Virginia. Some street scenes with cobblestone pavements and colonial storefronts were shot in historic neighborhoods of Washington, D.C., Boston, and Philadelphia. Countryside surrounding Richmond in Hanover County and Powhatan County was chosen to represent areas surrounding early Boston, New York, and Philadelphia.
The score for the miniseries was composed by Rob Lane and Joseph Vitarelli. Lane wrote the main theme and scored "Join or Die," "Independence," "Unite or Die" and "Peacefield," with Vitarelli doing "Don't Tread on Me," "Reunion" and "Unnecessary War." The two composers worked independently of each other, with Lane writing and recording his segments in London and Vitarelli in Los Angeles. There are also pieces by classical composers. Examples being Mozart, Boccerini Gluck , Handel and Schubert.The soundtrack was released on the Varèse Sarabande label.
The critical reception to the miniseries was predominantly positive. On review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes, the series has a rating of 81% based on 36 reviews, with a rating average of 8.56/10.Metacritic rates the critical response at 78 out of 100 based upon 27 national reviews. Ken Tucker of Entertainment Weekly rated the miniseries A-, and Matt Roush of TV Guide praised the lead performances of Paul Giamatti and Laura Linney.
David Hinckley of the New York Daily News felt John Adams "is, quite simply, as good as TV gets ... Best of all are two extraordinary performances at the center: Paul Giamatti as Adams and Laura Linney as his wife, Abigail ... To the extent that John Adams is a period piece, it isn't quite as lush as, say, some BBC productions. But it looks fine, and it feels right, and sometimes what's good for you can also be just plain good."
Alessandra Stanley of the New York Times had mixed feelings. She said the miniseries has "a Masterpiece Theatre gravity and takes a more somber, detailed and sepia-tinted look at the dawn of American democracy. It gives viewers a vivid sense of the isolation and physical hardships of the period, as well as the mores, but it does not offer significantly different or deeper insights into the personalities of the men — and at least one woman — who worked so hard for liberty ... [It] is certainly worthy and beautifully made, and it has many masterly touches at the edges, especially Laura Linney as Abigail. But Paul Giamatti is the wrong choice for the hero ... And that leaves the mini-series with a gaping hole at its center. What should be an exhilarating, absorbing ride across history alongside one of the least understood and most intriguing leaders of the American Revolution is instead a struggle."
Among those unimpressed with the miniseries were Mary McNamara of the Los Angeles Timesand Tim Goodman of the San Francisco Chronicle . Both cited the miniseries for poor casting and favoring style over storytelling.
The series deviates from David McCullough's book on several occasions, using creative license throughout.
John Adams received twenty-three Emmy Award nominations, and won thirteen, beating the previous record for wins by a miniseries set by Angels in America . It also holds the record for most Emmy wins by a program in a single year.[ citation needed ]
|2008||Outstanding Miniseries||Tom Hanks, Gary Goetzman, Kirk Ellis, Frank Doelger, David Coatsworth and Steve Shareshian||Won|
|Outstanding Writing for a Miniseries or Movie||Kirk Ellis||Episode 2, Independence||Won|
|Outstanding Lead Actor in a Miniseries or Movie||Paul Giamatti||Won|
|Outstanding Lead Actress in a Miniseries or Movie||Laura Linney||Won|
|Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Miniseries or Movie||Tom Wilkinson||Won|
|Outstanding Art Direction for a Miniseries or Movie||Gemma Jackson, David Crank, Christina Moore, Kathy Lucas and Sarah Whittle||Won|
|Outstanding Casting for a Miniseries, Movie or a Special||Kathleen Chopin, Nina Gold and Tracy Kilpatrick||Won|
|Outstanding Cinematography For A Miniseries or Movie||Tak Fujimoto||Episode 2, Independence||Won|
|Outstanding Costumes for a Miniseries, Movie or a Special||Donna Zakowska, Amy Andrews and Clare Spragge||Episode 4, Reunion||Won|
|Outstanding Prosthetic Makeup for a Series, Miniseries, Movie or a Special||Trefor Proud, John R. Bayless, Chris Burgoyne and Matthew W. Mungle||Won|
|Outstanding Sound Editing for a Miniseries, Movie or a Special||Stephen Hunter Flick, Vanessa Lapato, Curt Schulkey, Randy Kelley, Kenneth L. Johnson, Paul Berolzheimer, Dean Beville, Bryan Bowen, Patricio A. Libenson, Solange S. Schwalbe, David Lee Fein, Hilda Hodges and Alex Gibson||Episode 3, Don't Tread On Me||Won|
|Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Miniseries or a Movie||Jay Meagher, Marc Fishman and Tony Lamberti||Episode 3, Don't Tread On Me||Won|
|Outstanding Special Visual Effects for a Miniseries, Movie, or Dramatic Special||Erik Henry, Jeff Goldman, Paul Graff, Steve Kullback, Christina Graff, David Van Dyke, Robert Stromberg, Ed Mendez and Ken Gorrell||Episode 1, Join or Die||Won|
|Outstanding Directing for a Miniseries, Movie or Dramatic Special||Tom Hooper||Nominated|
|Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Miniseries or Movie||Stephen Dillane||Nominated|
|Outstanding Cinematography for a Miniseries or Movie||Tak Fujimoto and Danny Cohen||Episode 3, Don't Tread On Me||Nominated|
|Outstanding Hairstyling for a Miniseries or a Movie||Jan Archibald and Loulia Sheppard||Nominated|
|Outstanding Makeup for a Miniseries or a Movie (Non-prosthetic)||Trefor Proud and John R. Bayless||Nominated|
|Outstanding Original Dramatic Score for a Miniseries, Movie or a Special||Robert Lane||Episode 2, Independence||Nominated|
|Outstanding Single-Camera Picture Editing for a Miniseries or a Movie||Melanie Oliver||Episode 2, Independence||Nominated|
|Outstanding Sound Editing for a Miniseries, Movie or a Special||Jon Johnson, Bryan Bowen, Kira Roessler, Vanessa Lapato, Eileen Horta, Virginia Cook-McGowan, Samuel C. Crutcher, Mark Messick, Martin Maryska, Greg Stacy, Patricio A. Libenson, Solange S. Schwalbe, Hilda Hodges and Nicholas Viterelli||Episode 6, Unnecessary War||Nominated|
|Outstanding Sound Mixing for a Miniseries or a Movie||Jay Meagher, Michael Minkler and Bob Beemer||Episode 5, Unite Or Die||Nominated|
It was nominated for four awards at the 66th Golden Globe Awards and won all four.
|2009||Best Mini-Series or Motion Picture Made for Television||Won|
|Best Performance by an Actor in a Mini-Series or Motion Picture Made for Television||Paul Giamatti||Won|
|Best Performance by an Actress in a Mini-Series or Motion Picture Made for Television||Laura Linney||Won|
|Best Performance by an Actor in a Supporting Role in a Series, Mini-Series, or Motion Picture Made for Television||Tom Wilkinson||Won|
It was also nominated for three awards at the 15th Screen Actors Guild Awards and won two.
|2009||Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a Television Movie or Miniseries||Laura Linney||Won|
|Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Television Movie or Miniseries||Paul Giamatti||Won|
The show also won a 2008 AFI Award for best television seriesand a Peabody Award "for exploring both public and private elements in the life of a truly great man." It won the Movieguide 2009 Faith & Freedom Award for Television. Part 1 of the show won three awards at the 7th Visual Effects Society Awards in the categories of Outstanding Visual Effects in a Broadcast Miniseries, Movie or Special, Outstanding Created Environment in a Broadcast Program or Commercial, and Outstanding Compositing in a Broadcast Program or Commercial.
John Quincy Adams was an American statesman, diplomat, lawyer, and diarist who served as the sixth president of the United States from 1825 to 1829. He previously served as the eighth United States Secretary of State from 1817 to 1825. During his long diplomatic and political career, Adams also served as an ambassador, and as a member of the United States Senate and United States House of Representatives representing Massachusetts. He was the eldest son of John Adams, who served as the second US president from 1797 to 1801, and First Lady Abigail Adams. Initially a Federalist like his father, he won election to the presidency as a member of the Democratic-Republican Party, and in the mid-1830s became affiliated with the Whig Party.
Abigail Adams was the wife and closest advisor of John Adams, as well as the mother of John Quincy Adams. She is sometimes considered to have been a Founder of the United States, and is now designated as the first Second Lady and second First Lady of the United States, although these titles were not used at the time. She and Barbara Bush are the only two women to be the wife of one U.S. president and the mother of another.
1776 is a musical with music and lyrics by Sherman Edwards and a book by Peter Stone. The show is based on the events leading up to the signing of the Declaration of Independence, telling a story of the efforts of John Adams to persuade his colleagues to vote for American independence and to sign the document.
John Dickinson, a Founding Father of the United States, was a solicitor and politician from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Wilmington, Delaware, known as the "Penman of the Revolution" for his twelve Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania, published individually in 1767 and 1768. As a member of the First Continental Congress, where he was a signee to the Continental Association, Dickinson drafted most of the 1774 Petition to the King, and then, as a member of the Second Continental Congress, wrote the 1775 Olive Branch Petition. When these two attempts to negotiate with King George III of Great Britain failed, Dickinson reworked Thomas Jefferson's language and wrote the final draft of the 1775 Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms. When Congress then decided to seek independence from Great Britain, Dickinson served on the committee that wrote the Model Treaty, and then wrote the first draft of the 1776–1777 Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union. Dickinson also composed The Liberty Song.
The Founding Fathers of the United States, or simply the Founding Fathers, were a group of American leaders who united the Thirteen Colonies, led the war for independence from Great Britain, and built a frame of government for the new United States of America upon republican principles during the latter decades of the 18th century.
Samuel Tucker was an officer in the Continental Navy and the United States Navy.
The Abigail Adams Cairn marks the spot where Abigail Adams and her young son, John Quincy Adams, watched the burning of Charlestown on Saturday, June 17, 1775, during the Battle of Bunker Hill. It is located on Penn's Hill, now at the corner of Franklin Street and Viden Road in Quincy, Massachusetts. Abigail was caring for the four children of Dr. Joseph Warren, then President of the Massachusetts Provincial Congress, as well as her own children, Nabby, John Quincy (7), Charles (5), and Thomas Boylston (3), when word came that Dr. Warren had been killed by British troops. In the afternoon, she walked up Penn's Hill to the rock outcroppings, taking her son John Quincy and Nabby along with her. There they looked out over the distant hills and shoreline, seeing the smoke of Charlestown and hearing the far-off rumble of guns and cannon at Bunker Hill.
George Washington Adams was an American attorney and politician. He was the eldest son of John Quincy Adams, the sixth president of the United States. Adams served in the Massachusetts House of Representatives and on the Boston City Council. He died of an apparent suicide at age 28.
William Stephens Smith was a United States Representative from New York. He married Abigail "Nabby" Adams, the daughter of President John Adams, and so was a brother-in-law of President John Quincy Adams and an uncle of Charles Francis Adams Sr.
John Adams was an American statesman, attorney, diplomat, writer, and Founding Father who served as the second president of the United States, from 1797 to 1801. Before his presidency, he was a leader of the American Revolution that achieved independence from Great Britain and served as the first vice president of the United States. Adams was a dedicated diarist and regularly corresponded with many important figures in early American history, including his wife and adviser Abigail Adams, and Thomas Jefferson.
Abigail "Nabby" AmeliaAdams Smith was the daughter of Abigail and John Adams, founding father and second President of the United States, and the sister of John Quincy Adams, sixth President of the United States. She was named for her mother.
1776 is a 1972 American musical drama film directed by Peter H. Hunt. The screenplay by Peter Stone was based on his book for the 1969 Broadway musical of the same name. The song score was composed by Sherman Edwards. The film stars William Daniels, Howard Da Silva, Donald Madden, John Cullum, Ken Howard and Blythe Danner.
Charles Adams was the second son of President John Adams and his wife, Abigail Adams.
Thomas Boylston Adams was the third and youngest son of the 2nd president of the United States, John and Abigail (Smith) Adams.
The Adams Chronicles is a thirteen-episode miniseries by PBS that aired in 1976 to commemorate the American Bicentennial.
John Adams. is a 2001 biography of the Founding Father and second U.S. President John Adams, written by the popular American historian David McCullough, which won the 2002 Pulitzer Prize for Biography or Autobiography. It has been made into a TV miniseries with the same name by HBO Films. Since the TV miniseries debuted, an alternative cover has been added to the book showing Paul Giamatti as John Adams. The book is available as both hardcover and paperback.
The Quincy family was a prominent political family in Massachusetts from the mid-17th century through to the early 20th century. It is connected to the Adams political family through Abigail Adams.
John Adams Sr. was a British colonial farmer and minister. He was the father of the second U.S. President, John Adams Jr., and grandfather of the sixth President, John Quincy Adams. He was the son of Joseph Adams Jr. (1654–1737), the grandson of Joseph Adams Sr. (1626-1694), and the great-grandson of Henry Adams, who emigrated from Braintree, Essex, in England to Massachusetts Bay Colony in about 1638. He was also descended from John and Priscilla Alden. Adams worked as a farmer and cobbler for most of his life.
The following is a list and discussion of important scholarly resources relating to John Adams.
John Adams (1735-1826) was an American Founding Father who served as one of the most important diplomats on behalf of the new United States during the American Revolution. He served as minister to the Kingdom of France and the Dutch Republic and then was sent to help negotiate the Treaty of Paris to end the American Revolutionary War.
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