Breast cancer

Last updated

Breast cancer
Mammo breast cancer wArrows.jpg
Mammograms showing a normal breast (left) and a breast with cancer (right, white arrows).
Specialty Oncology
SymptomsLump in a breast, change in breast shape, dimpling of the skin, fluid coming from the nipple, a newly inverted nipple, red scaly patch of skin [1]
Risk factors Female, obesity, lack of exercise, alcohol, hormone replacement therapy during menopause, ionizing radiation, early age at first menstruation, having children late or not at all, older age, prior breast cancer, family history, Klinefelter syndrome [1] [2] [3]
Diagnostic method Tissue biopsy [1]
Treatment Surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, targeted therapy [1]
Prognosis Five-year survival rate ≈85% (US, UK) [4] [5]
Frequency2.1 million affected as of 2015 [6]
Deaths533,600 (2015) [7]

Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue. [8] Signs of breast cancer may include a lump in the breast, a change in breast shape, dimpling of the skin, fluid coming from the nipple, a newly inverted nipple, or a red or scaly patch of skin. [1] In those with distant spread of the disease, there may be bone pain, swollen lymph nodes, shortness of breath, or yellow skin. [9]

Cancer disease of uncontrolled, unregulated and abnormal cell growth

Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. These contrast with benign tumors, which do not spread. Possible signs and symptoms include a lump, abnormal bleeding, prolonged cough, unexplained weight loss and a change in bowel movements. While these symptoms may indicate cancer, they can also have other causes. Over 100 types of cancers affect humans.

Breast Region of the torso of a primate containing the mammary gland

The breast is one of two prominences located on the upper ventral region of the torso of primates. In females, it serves as the mammary gland, which produces and secretes milk to feed infants. Both females and males develop breasts from the same embryological tissues. At puberty, estrogens, in conjunction with growth hormone, cause breast development in female humans and to a much lesser extent in other primates. Breast development in other primate females generally only occurs with pregnancy.

Metastatic breast cancer

Metastatic breast cancer, also referred to as metastases, advanced breast cancer, secondary tumours, secondaries or stage 4 breast cancer, is a stage of breast cancer where the disease has spread to distant sites beyond the axillary lymph nodes. There is no cure for metastatic breast cancer. There is no stage after IV.

Contents

Risk factors for developing breast cancer include being female, obesity, lack of physical exercise, drinking alcohol, hormone replacement therapy during menopause, ionizing radiation, early age at first menstruation, having children late or not at all, older age, prior history of breast cancer, and family history. [1] [2] About 5–10% of cases are due to genes inherited from a person's parents, [1] including BRCA1 and BRCA2 among others. [1] Breast cancer most commonly develops in cells from the lining of milk ducts and the lobules that supply the ducts with milk. [1] Cancers developing from the ducts are known as ductal carcinomas, while those developing from lobules are known as lobular carcinomas. [1] In addition, there are more than 18 other sub-types of breast cancer. [2] Some cancers, such as ductal carcinoma in situ, develop from pre-invasive lesions. [2] The diagnosis of breast cancer is confirmed by taking a biopsy of the concerning lump. [1] Once the diagnosis is made, further tests are done to determine if the cancer has spread beyond the breast and which treatments are most likely to be effective. [1]

Obesity medical condition in which excess body fat harms health

Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to an extent that it may have a negative effect on health. People are generally considered obese when their body mass index (BMI), a measurement obtained by dividing a person's weight by the square of the person's height, is over 30 kg/m2; the range 25–30 kg/m2 is defined as overweight. Some East Asian countries use lower values. Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases and conditions, particularly cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, osteoarthritis, and depression.

Alcoholic drink Drink containing alcohol (ethanol) derived from fermentation of sugars

An alcoholic drink is a drink that contains ethanol, a type of alcohol produced by fermentation of grains, fruits, or other sources of sugar. Drinking alcohol plays an important social role in many cultures. Most countries have laws regulating the production, sale, and consumption of alcoholic beverages. Some countries ban such activities entirely, but alcoholic drinks are legal in most parts of the world. The global alcoholic drink industry exceeded $1 trillion in 2014.

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT), also known as menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) or postmenopausal hormone therapy, is a form of hormone therapy used to treat symptoms associated with female menopause. These symptoms can include hot flashes, vaginal atrophy, accelerated skin aging, vaginal dryness, decreased muscle mass, sexual dysfunction, and bone loss. They are in large part related to the diminished levels of sex hormones that occur during menopause.

The balance of benefits versus harms of breast cancer screening is controversial. A 2013 Cochrane review stated that it is unclear if mammographic screening does more good or harm. [10] A 2009 review for the US Preventive Services Task Force found evidence of benefit in those 40 to 70 years of age, [11] and the organization recommends screening every two years in women 50 to 74 years old. [12] The medications tamoxifen or raloxifene may be used in an effort to prevent breast cancer in those who are at high risk of developing it. [2] Surgical removal of both breasts is another preventative measure in some high risk women. [2] In those who have been diagnosed with cancer, a number of treatments may be used, including surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy and targeted therapy. [1] Types of surgery vary from breast-conserving surgery to mastectomy. [13] [14] Breast reconstruction may take place at the time of surgery or at a later date. [14] In those in whom the cancer has spread to other parts of the body, treatments are mostly aimed at improving quality of life and comfort. [14]

Breast cancer screening

Breast cancer screening is the medical screening of asymptomatic, apparently healthy women for breast cancer in an attempt to achieve an earlier diagnosis. The assumption is that early detection will improve outcomes. A number of screening tests have been employed, including clinical and self breast exams, mammography, genetic screening, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging.

Mammography

Mammography is the process of using low-energy X-rays to examine the human breast for diagnosis and screening. The goal of mammography is the early detection of breast cancer, typically through detection of characteristic masses or microcalcifications.

Tamoxifen chemical compound

Tamoxifen, sold under the brand name Nolvadex among others, is a medication that is used to prevent breast cancer in women and treat breast cancer in women and men. It is also being studied for other types of cancer. It has been used for Albright syndrome. Tamoxifen is typically taken daily by mouth for five years for breast cancer.

Outcomes for breast cancer vary depending on the cancer type, extent of disease, and person's age. [14] Survival rates in the developed world are high, [15] with between 80% and 90% of those in England and the United States alive for at least 5 years. [4] [5] In developing countries survival rates are poorer. [2] Worldwide, breast cancer is the leading type of cancer in women, accounting for 25% of all cases. [16] In 2012 it resulted in 1.68 million new cases and 522,000 deaths. [16] It is more common in developed countries [2] and is more than 100 times more common in women than in men. [15] [17]

Cancer staging is the process of determining the extent to which a cancer has developed by growing and spreading. Contemporary practice is to assign a number from I to IV to a cancer, with I being an isolated cancer and IV being a cancer which has spread to the limit of what the assessment measures. The stage generally takes into account the size of a tumor, whether it has invaded adjacent organs, how many regional (nearby) lymph nodes it has spread to, and whether it has appeared in more distant locations (metastasized).

The five-year survival rate is a type of survival rate for estimating the prognosis of a particular disease, normally calculated from the point of diagnosis. Lead time bias from earlier diagnosis can affect interpretation of the five-year survival rate.

Signs and symptoms

Breast cancer Breast Cancer.png
Breast cancer
Breast cancer showing an inverted nipple, lump, and skin dimpling. Breast cancer.jpg
Breast cancer showing an inverted nipple, lump, and skin dimpling.

The first noticeable symptom of breast cancer is typically a lump that feels different from the rest of the breast tissue. More than 80% of breast cancer cases are discovered when the woman feels a lump. [18] The earliest breast cancers are detected by a mammogram. [19] Lumps found in lymph nodes located in the armpits [18] can also indicate breast cancer.

Symptom departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease; subjective, observed by the patient, cannot be measured directly

A symptom is a departure from normal function or feeling which is apparent to a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease. A symptom can be subjective or objective. Tiredness is a subjective symptom whereas cough or fever are objective symptoms. In contrast to a symptom, a sign is a clue to a disease elicited by an examiner or a doctor. For example, paresthesia is a symptom, whereas erythema is a sign. Symptoms and signs are often nonspecific, but often combinations of them are at least suggestive of certain diagnoses, helping to narrow down what may be wrong. In other cases they are specific even to the point of being pathognomonic.

Indications of breast cancer other than a lump may include thickening different from the other breast tissue, one breast becoming larger or lower, a nipple changing position or shape or becoming inverted, skin puckering or dimpling, a rash on or around a nipple, discharge from nipple/s, constant pain in part of the breast or armpit, and swelling beneath the armpit or around the collarbone. [20] Pain ("mastodynia") is an unreliable tool in determining the presence or absence of breast cancer, but may be indicative of other breast health issues. [18] [19] [21]

Inflammatory breast cancer is a particular type of breast cancer which can pose a substantial diagnostic challenge. Symptoms may resemble a breast inflammation and may include itching, pain, swelling, nipple inversion, warmth and redness throughout the breast, as well as an orange-peel texture to the skin referred to as peau d'orange. [18] As inflammatory breast cancer does not present as a lump there can sometimes be a delay in diagnosis.

Another reported symptom complex of breast cancer is Paget's disease of the breast. This syndrome presents as skin changes resembling eczema, such as redness, discoloration, or mild flaking of the nipple skin. As Paget's disease of the breast advances, symptoms may include tingling, itching, increased sensitivity, burning, and pain. There may also be discharge from the nipple. Approximately half of women diagnosed with Paget's disease of the breast also have a lump in the breast. [22]

In rare cases, what initially appears as a fibroadenoma (hard, movable non-cancerous lump) could in fact be a phyllodes tumor. Phyllodes tumors are formed within the stroma (connective tissue) of the breast and contain glandular as well as stromal tissue. Phyllodes tumors are not staged in the usual sense; they are classified on the basis of their appearance under the microscope as benign, borderline, or malignant. [23]

Occasionally, breast cancer presents as metastatic disease—that is, cancer that has spread beyond the original organ. The symptoms caused by metastatic breast cancer will depend on the location of metastasis. Common sites of metastasis include bone, liver, lung and brain. [24] Unexplained weight loss can occasionally signal breast cancer, as can symptoms of fevers or chills. Bone or joint pains can sometimes be manifestations of metastatic breast cancer, as can jaundice or neurological symptoms. These symptoms are called non-specific, meaning they could be manifestations of many other illnesses. [25]

Most symptoms of breast disorders, including most lumps, do not turn out to represent underlying breast cancer. Fewer than 20% of lumps, for example, are cancerous, [26] and benign breast diseases such as mastitis and fibroadenoma of the breast are more common causes of breast disorder symptoms. [27]

Risk factors

Risk factors can be divided into two categories:

The primary risk factors for breast cancer are being female and older age. [29] Other potential risk factors include genetics, [30] lack of childbearing or lack of breastfeeding, [31] higher levels of certain hormones, [32] [33] certain dietary patterns, and obesity. One study indicates that exposure to light pollution is a risk factor for the development of breast cancer. [34]

Lifestyle

Obesity and drinking alcoholic beverages are among the most common modifiable risk factors.

Smoking tobacco appears to increase the risk of breast cancer, with the greater the amount smoked and the earlier in life that smoking began, the higher the risk. [35] In those who are long-term smokers, the risk is increased 35% to 50%. [35] A lack of physical activity has been linked to about 10% of cases. [36] Sitting regularly for prolonged periods is associated with higher mortality from breast cancer. The risk is not negated by regular exercise, though it is lowered. [37]

There is an association between use of hormonal birth control and the development of premenopausal breast cancer, [28] [38] but whether oral contraceptives use may actually cause premenopausal breast cancer is a matter of debate. [39] If there is indeed a link, the absolute effect is small. [39] [40] Additionally, it is not clear if the association exists with newer hormonal birth controls. [40] In those with mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility genes BRCA1 or BRCA2 , or who have a family history of breast cancer, use of modern oral contraceptives does not appear to affect the risk of breast cancer. [41] [42]

The association between breast feeding and breast cancer has not been clearly determined; some studies have found support for an association while others have not. [43] In the 1980s, the abortion–breast cancer hypothesis posited that induced abortion increased the risk of developing breast cancer. [44] This hypothesis was the subject of extensive scientific inquiry, which concluded that neither miscarriages nor abortions are associated with a heightened risk for breast cancer. [45]

A number of dietary factors have been linked to the risk for breast cancer. Drinking alcoholic beverages increases the risk of breast cancer, even at relatively low (one to three drinks per week) and moderate levels. [46] The risk is highest among heavy drinkers. [46] Dietary factors which may increase risk include a high-fat diet [47] and obesity-related high cholesterol levels. [48] [49] Dietary iodine deficiency may also play a role. [50] Evidence for fiber is unclear. A 2015 review found that studies trying to link fiber intake with breast cancer produced mixed results. [51] In 2016 a tentative association between low fiber intake during adolescence and breast cancer was observed. [52]

Other risk factors include radiation [53] and shift-work. [54] A number of chemicals have also been linked, including polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and organic solvents [55] Although the radiation from mammography is a low dose, it is estimated that yearly screening from 40 to 80 years of age will cause approximately 225 cases of fatal breast cancer per million women screened. [56]

Genetics

Some genetic susceptibility may play a minor role in most cases. [57] Overall, however, genetics is believed to be the primary cause of 5–10% of all cases. [58] Women whose mother was diagnosed before 50 have an increased risk of 1.7 and those whose mother was diagnosed at age 50 or after has an increased risk of 1.4. [59] In those with zero, one or two affected relatives, the risk of breast cancer before the age of 80 is 7.8%, 13.3%, and 21.1% with a subsequent mortality from the disease of 2.3%, 4.2%, and 7.6% respectively. [60] In those with a first degree relative with the disease the risk of breast cancer between the age of 40 and 50 is double that of the general population. [61]

In less than 5% of cases, genetics plays a more significant role by causing a hereditary breast–ovarian cancer syndrome. [57] This includes those who carry the BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutation. [57] These mutations account for up to 90% of the total genetic influence with a risk of breast cancer of 60–80% in those affected. [58] Other significant mutations include p53 (Li–Fraumeni syndrome), PTEN (Cowden syndrome), and STK11 (Peutz–Jeghers syndrome), CHEK2, ATM, BRIP1, and PALB2. [58] In 2012, researchers said that there are four genetically distinct types of the breast cancer and that in each type, hallmark genetic changes lead to many cancers. [62]

Medical conditions

Breast changes like atypical ductal hyperplasia [63] and lobular carcinoma in situ, [64] [65] found in benign breast conditions such as fibrocystic breast changes, are correlated with an increased breast cancer risk.

Diabetes mellitus might also increase the risk of breast cancer. [66] Autoimmune diseases such as lupus erythematosus seem also to increase the risk for the acquisition of breast cancer. [67]

Pathophysiology

Overview of signal transduction pathways involved in programmed cell death. Mutations leading to loss of this ability can lead to cancer formation. Signal transduction pathways.svg
Overview of signal transduction pathways involved in programmed cell death. Mutations leading to loss of this ability can lead to cancer formation.

Breast cancer, like other cancers, occurs because of an interaction between an environmental (external) factor and a genetically susceptible host. Normal cells divide as many times as needed and stop. They attach to other cells and stay in place in tissues. Cells become cancerous when they lose their ability to stop dividing, to attach to other cells, to stay where they belong, and to die at the proper time.

Normal cells will commit cell suicide (programmed cell death) when they are no longer needed. Until then, they are protected from cell suicide by several protein clusters and pathways. One of the protective pathways is the PI3K/AKT pathway; another is the RAS/MEK/ERK pathway. Sometimes the genes along these protective pathways are mutated in a way that turns them permanently "on", rendering the cell incapable of committing suicide when it is no longer needed. This is one of the steps that causes cancer in combination with other mutations. Normally, the PTEN protein turns off the PI3K/AKT pathway when the cell is ready for programmed cell death. In some breast cancers, the gene for the PTEN protein is mutated, so the PI3K/AKT pathway is stuck in the "on" position, and the cancer cell does not commit suicide. [68]

Mutations that can lead to breast cancer have been experimentally linked to estrogen exposure. [69]

Abnormal growth factor signaling in the interaction between stromal cells and epithelial cells can facilitate malignant cell growth. [70] [71] In breast adipose tissue, overexpression of leptin leads to increased cell proliferation and cancer. [72]

In the United States, 10 to 20 percent of people with breast cancer and people with ovarian cancer have a first- or second-degree relative with one of these diseases. The familial tendency to develop these cancers is called hereditary breast–ovarian cancer syndrome. The best known of these, the BRCA mutations, confer a lifetime risk of breast cancer of between 60 and 85 percent and a lifetime risk of ovarian cancer of between 15 and 40 percent. Some mutations associated with cancer, such as p53 , BRCA1 and BRCA2 , occur in mechanisms to correct errors in DNA. These mutations are either inherited or acquired after birth. Presumably, they allow further mutations, which allow uncontrolled division, lack of attachment, and metastasis to distant organs. [53] [73] However, there is strong evidence of residual risk variation that goes well beyond hereditary BRCA gene mutations between carrier families. This is caused by unobserved risk factors. [74] This implicates environmental and other causes as triggers for breast cancers. The inherited mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes can interfere with repair of DNA cross links and DNA double strand breaks (known functions of the encoded protein). [75] These carcinogens cause DNA damage such as DNA cross links and double strand breaks that often require repairs by pathways containing BRCA1 and BRCA2. [76] [77] However, mutations in BRCA genes account for only 2 to 3 percent of all breast cancers. [78] Levin et al. say that cancer may not be inevitable for all carriers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. [79] About half of hereditary breast–ovarian cancer syndromes involve unknown genes.

GATA-3 directly controls the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and other genes associated with epithelial differentiation, and the loss of GATA-3 leads to loss of differentiation and poor prognosis due to cancer cell invasion and metastasis. [80]

Diagnosis

Early signs of possible breast cancer En Breast cancer illustrations.png
Early signs of possible breast cancer

Most types of breast cancer are easy to diagnose by microscopic analysis of a sample—or biopsy—of the affected area of the breast. Also, there are types of breast cancer that require specialized lab exams.

The two most commonly used screening methods, physical examination of the breasts by a healthcare provider and mammography, can offer an approximate likelihood that a lump is cancer, and may also detect some other lesions, such as a simple cyst. [81] When these examinations are inconclusive, a healthcare provider can remove a sample of the fluid in the lump for microscopic analysis (a procedure known as fine needle aspiration, or fine needle aspiration and cytology—FNAC) to help establish the diagnosis. A needle aspiration can be performed in a healthcare provider's office or clinic. A local anaesthetic may be used to numb the breast tissue to prevent pain during the procedure, but may not be necessary if the lump isn't beneath the skin. A finding of clear fluid makes the lump highly unlikely to be cancerous, but bloody fluid may be sent off for inspection under a microscope for cancerous cells. Together, physical examination of the breasts, mammography, and FNAC can be used to diagnose breast cancer with a good degree of accuracy.

Other options for biopsy include a core biopsy or vacuum-assisted breast biopsy, [82] which are procedures in which a section of the breast lump is removed; or an excisional biopsy, in which the entire lump is removed. Very often the results of physical examination by a healthcare provider, mammography, and additional tests that may be performed in special circumstances (such as imaging by ultrasound or MRI) are sufficient to warrant excisional biopsy as the definitive diagnostic and primary treatment method.

Classification

Breast cancers are classified by several grading systems. Each of these influences the prognosis and can affect treatment response. Description of a breast cancer optimally includes all of these factors.

Where available, imaging studies may be employed as part of the staging process in select cases to look for signs of metastatic cancer. However, in cases of breast cancer with low risk for metastasis, the risks associated with PET scans, CT scans, or bone scans outweigh the possible benefits, as these procedures expose the person to a substantial amount of potentially dangerous ionizing radiation. [84] [85]

Prevention

Lifestyle

Women can reduce their risk of breast cancer by maintaining a healthy weight, reducing alcohol use, increasing physical activity, and breast-feeding. [89] These modifications might prevent 38% of breast cancers in the US, 42% in the UK, 28% in Brazil and 20% in China. [89] The benefits with moderate exercise such as brisk walking are seen at all age groups including postmenopausal women. [89] [90] High levels of physical activity reduce the risk of breast cancer by about 14%. [91] Strategies that encourage regular physical activity and reduce obesity could also have other benefits, such as reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. [28]

High intake of citrus fruit has been associated with a 10% reduction in the risk of breast cancer. [92]

Marine omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids appear to reduce the risk. [93] High consumption of soy-based foods may reduce risk. [94]

Pre-emptive surgery

Removal of both breasts before any cancer has been diagnosed or any suspicious lump or other lesion has appeared (a procedure known as "prophylactic bilateral mastectomy" or "risk reducing mastectomy") may be considered in people with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations, which are associated with a substantially heightened risk for an eventual diagnosis of breast cancer. [95] [96] Evidence is not strong enough to support this procedure in anyone but those at the highest risk. [97] BRCA testing is recommended in those with a high family risk after genetic counseling. It is not recommended routinely. [98] This is because there are many forms of changes in BRCA genes, ranging from harmless polymorphisms to obviously dangerous frameshift mutations. [99] The effect of most of the identifiable changes in the genes is uncertain. Testing in an average-risk person is particularly likely to return one of these indeterminate, useless results. Removing the second breast in a person who has breast cancer (contralateral risk‐reducing mastectomy or CRRM) may reduce the risk of cancer in the second breast, however, it is unclear if removing the second breast in those who have breast cancer improves survival. [97]

Medications

The selective estrogen receptor modulators (such as tamoxifen) reduce the risk of breast cancer but increase the risk of thromboembolism and endometrial cancer. [100] There is no overall change in the risk of death. [100] [101] They are thus not recommended for the prevention of breast cancer in women at average risk but may be offered for those at high risk. [102] The benefit of breast cancer reduction continues for at least five years after stopping a course of treatment with these medications. [103]

Screening

A mobile breast cancer screening unit in New Zealand BreastScreen Aotearoa.JPG
A mobile breast cancer screening unit in New Zealand

Breast cancer screening refers to testing otherwise-healthy women for breast cancer in an attempt to achieve an earlier diagnosis under the assumption that early detection will improve outcomes. A number of screening tests have been employed including clinical and self breast exams, mammography, genetic screening, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging.

A clinical or self breast exam involves feeling the breast for lumps or other abnormalities. Clinical breast exams are performed by health care providers, while self-breast exams are performed by the person themselves. [104] Evidence does not support the effectiveness of either type of breast exam, as by the time a lump is large enough to be found it is likely to have been growing for several years and thus soon be large enough to be found without an exam. [105] [106] Mammographic screening for breast cancer uses X-rays to examine the breast for any uncharacteristic masses or lumps. During a screening, the breast is compressed and a technician takes photos from multiple angles. A general mammogram takes photos of the entire breast, while a diagnostic mammogram focuses on a specific lump or area of concern. [107]

A number of national bodies recommend breast cancer screening. For the average woman, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends mammography every two years in women between the ages of 50 and 74, [12] the Council of Europe recommends mammography between 50 and 69 with most programs using a 2-year frequency, [108] and in Canada screening is recommended between the ages of 50 and 74 at a frequency of 2 to 3 years. [109] These task force reports point out that in addition to unnecessary surgery and anxiety, the risks of more frequent mammograms include a small but significant increase in breast cancer induced by radiation. [110]

The Cochrane collaboration (2013) states that the best quality evidence neither demonstrates a reduction in cancer specific, nor a reduction in all cause mortality from screening mammography. [10] When less rigorous trials are added to the analysis there is a reduction in mortality due to breast cancer of 0.05% (a decrease of 1 in 2000 deaths from breast cancer over 10 years or a relative decrease of 15% from breast cancer). [10] Screening over 10 years results in a 30% increase in rates of over-diagnosis and over-treatment (3 to 14 per 1000) and more than half will have at least one falsely positive test. [10] [111] This has resulted in the view that it is not clear whether mammography screening does more good or harm. [10] Cochrane states that, due to recent improvements in breast cancer treatment, and the risks of false positives from breast cancer screening leading to unnecessary treatment, "it therefore no longer seems beneficial to attend for breast cancer screening" at any age. [112] Whether MRI as a screening method has greater harms or benefits when compared to standard mammography is not known. [113]

Management

The management of breast cancer depends on various factors, including the stage of the cancer and the person's age. Treatments are more aggressive when the cancer is more advanced or there is a higher risk of recurrence of the cancer following treatment.

Breast cancer is usually treated with surgery, which may be followed by chemotherapy or radiation therapy, or both. A multidisciplinary approach is preferable. [114] Hormone receptor-positive cancers are often treated with hormone-blocking therapy over courses of several years. Monoclonal antibodies, or other immune-modulating treatments, may be administered in certain cases of metastatic and other advanced stages of breast cancer. Although this range of treatment is still being studied. [115]

Surgery

Chest after right breast mastectomy Mastectomie 02.jpg
Chest after right breast mastectomy

Surgery involves the physical removal of the tumor, typically along with some of the surrounding tissue. One or more lymph nodes may be biopsied during the surgery; increasingly the lymph node sampling is performed by a sentinel lymph node biopsy.

Standard surgeries include:

Once the tumor has been removed, if the person desires, breast reconstruction surgery, a type of plastic surgery, may then be performed to improve the aesthetic appearance of the treated site. Alternatively, women use breast prostheses to simulate a breast under clothing, or choose a flat chest. Nipple prosthesis can be used at any time following the mastectomy.

Medication

Medications used after and in addition to surgery are called adjuvant therapy. Chemotherapy or other types of therapy prior to surgery are called neoadjuvant therapy. Aspirin may reduce mortality from breast cancer when used with other treatments. [116] [117]

There are currently three main groups of medications used for adjuvant breast cancer treatment: hormone-blocking agents, chemotherapy, and monoclonal antibodies.

Hormone blocking therapy

Some breast cancers require estrogen to continue growing. They can be identified by the presence of estrogen receptors (ER+) and progesterone receptors (PR+) on their surface (sometimes referred to together as hormone receptors). These ER+ cancers can be treated with drugs that either block the receptors, e.g. tamoxifen, or alternatively block the production of estrogen with an aromatase inhibitor, e.g. anastrozole [118] or letrozole. The use of tamoxifen is recommended for 10 years. [119] Letrozole is recommended for 5 years. Aromatase inhibitors are only suitable for women after menopause; however, in this group, they appear better than tamoxifen. [120] This is because the active aromatase in postmenopausal women is different from the prevalent form in premenopausal women, and therefore these agents are ineffective in inhibiting the predominant aromatase of premenopausal women. [121] Aromatase inhibitors should not be given to premenopausal women with intact ovarian function (unless they are also on treatment to stop their ovaries from working). [122] CDK inhibitors can be used in combination with endocrine or aromatase therapy. [123]

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is predominantly used for cases of breast cancer in stages 2–4, and is particularly beneficial in estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) disease. The chemotherapy medications are administered in combinations, usually for periods of 3–6 months. One of the most common regimens, known as "AC", combines cyclophosphamide with doxorubicin. Sometimes a taxane drug, such as docetaxel, is added, and the regime is then known as "CAT". Another common treatment is cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil (or "CMF"). Most chemotherapy medications work by destroying fast-growing and/or fast-replicating cancer cells, either by causing DNA damage upon replication or by other mechanisms. However, the medications also damage fast-growing normal cells, which may cause serious side effects. Damage to the heart muscle is the most dangerous complication of doxorubicin, for example.

Monoclonal antibodies

Trastuzumab, a monoclonal antibody to HER2, has improved the 5-year disease free survival of stage 1–3 HER2-positive breast cancers to about 87% (overall survival 95%). [124] Between 25% and 30% of breast cancers overexpress the HER2 gene or its protein product, [125] and overexpression of HER2 in breast cancer is associated with increased disease recurrence and worse prognosis. Trastuzumab, however, is very expensive, and its use may cause serious side effects (approximately 2% of people who receive it develop significant heart damage). [126] Another antibody pertuzumab prevents HER2 dimerization and is recommended together with trastuzumab and chemotherapy in severe disease. [127] [128]

Radiation

Internal radiotherapy for breast cancer Diagram showing how you have internal radiotherapy for breast cancer CRUK 159.svg
Internal radiotherapy for breast cancer

Radiotherapy is given after surgery to the region of the tumor bed and regional lymph nodes, to destroy microscopic tumor cells that may have escaped surgery. It may also have a beneficial effect on tumor microenvironment. [129] [130] Radiation therapy can be delivered as external beam radiotherapy or as brachytherapy (internal radiotherapy). Conventionally radiotherapy is given after the operation for breast cancer. Radiation can also be given at the time of operation on the breast cancer. Radiation can reduce the risk of recurrence by 50–66% (1/2 – 2/3 reduction of risk) when delivered in the correct dose [131] and is considered essential when breast cancer is treated by removing only the lump (Lumpectomy or Wide local excision).

Prognosis

Breasts after double mastectomy followed by nipple-sparing reconstruction with implants Breast reconstruction 15.jpg
Breasts after double mastectomy followed by nipple-sparing reconstruction with implants
An extreme example of an advanced recurrent breast cancer with an ulcerating axillary mass RecurrentbreastCA1.gif
An extreme example of an advanced recurrent breast cancer with an ulcerating axillary mass

Prognostic factors

The stage of the breast cancer is the most important component of traditional classification methods of breast cancer, because it has a greater effect on the prognosis than the other considerations. Staging takes into consideration size, local involvement, lymph node status and whether metastatic disease is present. The higher the stage at diagnosis, the poorer the prognosis. The stage is raised by the invasiveness of disease to lymph nodes, chest wall, skin or beyond, and the aggressiveness of the cancer cells. The stage is lowered by the presence of cancer-free zones and close-to-normal cell behaviour (grading). Size is not a factor in staging unless the cancer is invasive. For example, Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) involving the entire breast will still be stage zero and consequently an excellent prognosis with a 10-year disease free survival of about 98%. [132]

The breast cancer grade is assessed by comparison of the breast cancer cells to normal breast cells. The closer to normal the cancer cells are, the slower their growth and the better the prognosis. If cells are not well differentiated, they will appear immature, will divide more rapidly, and will tend to spread. Well differentiated is given a grade of 1, moderate is grade 2, while poor or undifferentiated is given a higher grade of 3 or 4 (depending upon the scale used). The most widely used grading system is the Nottingham scheme. [135]

Younger women with an age of less than 40 years or women over 80 years tend to have a poorer prognosis than post-menopausal women due to several factors. Their breasts may change with their menstrual cycles, they may be nursing infants, and they may be unaware of changes in their breasts. Therefore, younger women are usually at a more advanced stage when diagnosed. There may also be biologic factors contributing to a higher risk of disease recurrence for younger women with breast cancer. [136]

Psychological aspects

Not all people with breast cancer experience their illness in the same manner. Factors such as age can have a significant impact on the way a person copes with a breast cancer diagnosis. Premenopausal women with estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer must confront the issues of early menopause induced by many of the chemotherapy regimens used to treat their breast cancer, especially those that use hormones to counteract ovarian function. [137]

Epidemiology

Age-standardized death from breast cancer per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004.
no data
<2
2-4
4-6
6-8
8-10
10-12
12-14
14-16
16-18
18-20
20-22
>22 Breast cancer world map - Death - WHO2004.svg
Age-standardized death from breast cancer per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004.

Worldwide, breast cancer is the most common invasive cancer in women. [139] It affects about 12% of women worldwide. [139] (The most common form of cancer is non-invasive non-melanoma skin cancer; non-invasive cancers are generally easily cured, cause very few deaths, and are routinely excluded from cancer statistics.) Breast cancer comprises 22.9% of invasive cancers in women [140] and 16% of all female cancers. [141] In 2012, it comprised 25.2% of cancers diagnosed in women, making it the most common female cancer. [142]

In 2008, breast cancer caused 458,503 deaths worldwide (13.7% of cancer deaths in women and 6.0% of all cancer deaths for men and women together). [140] Lung cancer, the second most common cause of cancer-related death in women, caused 12.8% of cancer deaths in women (18.2% of all cancer deaths for men and women together). [140]

The incidence of breast cancer varies greatly around the world: it is lowest in less-developed countries and greatest in the more-developed countries. In the twelve world regions, the annual age-standardized incidence rates per 100,000 women are as follows: in Eastern Asia, 18; South Central Asia, 22; sub-Saharan Africa, 22; South-Eastern Asia, 26; North Africa and Western Asia, 28; South and Central America, 42; Eastern Europe, 49; Southern Europe, 56; Northern Europe, 73; Oceania, 74; Western Europe, 78; and in North America, 90. [143] Metastatic breast cancer affects between 19% (USA) and 50% (parts of Africa) of women with breast cancer. [144]

The number of cases worldwide has significantly increased since the 1970s, a phenomenon partly attributed to the modern lifestyles. [145] [146] Breast cancer is strongly related to age with only 5% of all breast cancers occurring in women under 40 years old. [147] There were more than 41,000 newly diagnosed cases of breast cancer registered in England in 2011, around 80% of these cases were in women age 50 or older [148] Based on U.S. statistics in 2015 there were 2.8 million women affected by breast cancer. [139] In the United States, the age-adjusted incidence of breast cancer per 100,000 women rose from around 102 cases per year in the 1970s to around 141 in the late 1990s, and has since fallen, holding steady around 125 since 2003. However age-adjusted deaths from breast cancer per 100,000 women only rose slightly from 31.4 in 1975 to 33.2 in 1989 and have since declined steadily to 20.5 in 2014. [149]

History

Breast cancer surgery in 18th century Louis-Jacques Goussier Enzyklopadie Diderot Pl XXIX.jpg
Breast cancer surgery in 18th century

Because of its visibility, breast cancer was the form of cancer most often described in ancient documents. [150] Because autopsies were rare, cancers of the internal organs were essentially invisible to ancient medicine. Breast cancer, however, could be felt through the skin, and in its advanced state often developed into fungating lesions: the tumor would become necrotic (die from the inside, causing the tumor to appear to break up) and ulcerate through the skin, weeping fetid, dark fluid. [150]

The oldest discovered evidence of breast cancer is from Egypt and dates back 4200 years, to the Sixth Dynasty. [151] The study of a woman's remains from the necropolis of Qubbet el-Hawa showed the typical destructive damage due to metastatic spread. [151] The Edwin Smith Papyrus describes 8 cases of tumors or ulcers of the breast that were treated by cauterization. The writing says about the disease, "There is no treatment." [152] For centuries, physicians described similar cases in their practices, with the same conclusion. Ancient medicine, from the time of the Greeks through the 17th century, was based on humoralism, and thus believed that breast cancer was generally caused by imbalances in the fundamental fluids that controlled the body, especially an excess of black bile. [153] Alternatively it was seen as divine punishment. [154] In the 18th century, a wide variety of medical explanations were proposed, including a lack of sexual activity, too much sexual activity, physical injuries to the breast, curdled breast milk, and various forms of lymphatic blockages, either internal or due to restrictive clothing. [153] [155] In the 19th century, the Scottish surgeon John Rodman said that fear of cancer caused cancer, and that this anxiety, learned by example from the mother, accounted for breast cancer's tendency to run in families. [155]

Although breast cancer was known in ancient times, it was uncommon until the 19th century, when improvements in sanitation and control of deadly infectious diseases resulted in dramatic increases in lifespan. Previously, most women had died too young to have developed breast cancer. [155] Additionally, early and frequent childbearing and breastfeeding probably reduced the rate of breast cancer development in those women who did survive to middle age. [155]

Because ancient medicine believed that the cause was systemic, rather than local, and because surgery carried a high mortality rate, the preferred treatments tended to be pharmacological rather than surgical. Herbal and mineral preparations, especially involving the poison arsenic, were relatively common.

Mastectomy for breast cancer was performed at least as early as AD 548, when it was proposed by the court physician Aetios of Amida to Theodora. [150] It was not until doctors achieved greater understanding of the circulatory system in the 17th century that they could link breast cancer's spread to the lymph nodes in the armpit. The French surgeon Jean Louis Petit (1674–1750) performed total mastectomies which included removing the axillary lymph nodes, as he recognized that this reduced recurrence. [156] Petit's work was built on by another French surgeon, Bernard Peyrilhe (1737–1804), who additionally removed the pectoral muscle underlying the breast, as he judged that this greatly improved the prognosis. [157] The Scottish surgeon Benjamin Bell (1749–1806) advocated removal of the entire breast, even when only a portion was affected. [158]

Their successful work was carried on by William Stewart Halsted who started performing radical mastectomies in 1882, helped greatly by advances in general surgical technology, such as aseptic technique and anesthesia. The Halsted radical mastectomy often involved removing both breasts, associated lymph nodes, and the underlying chest muscles. This often led to long-term pain and disability, but was seen as necessary in order to prevent the cancer from recurring. [159] Before the advent of the Halsted radical mastectomy, 20-year survival rates were only 10%; Halsted's surgery raised that rate to 50%. [160] Extending Halsted's work, Jerome Urban promoted superradical mastectomies, taking even more tissue, until 1963, when the ten-year survival rates proved equal to the less-damaging radical mastectomy. [159]

Radical mastectomies remained the standard of care in America until the 1970s, but in Europe, breast-sparing procedures, often followed by radiation therapy, were generally adopted in the 1950s. [159] One reason for this striking difference in approach may be the structure of the medical professions: European surgeons, descended from the barber surgeon, were held in less esteem than physicians; in America, the surgeon was the king of the medical profession. [159] Additionally, there were far more European women surgeons: Less than one percent of American surgical oncologists were female, but some European breast cancer wards boasted a medical staff that was half female. [159] American health insurance companies also paid surgeons more to perform radical mastectomies than they did to perform more intricate breast-sparing surgeries. [159]

Breast cancer staging systems were developed in the 1920s and 1930s. [159]

During the 1970s, a new understanding of metastasis led to perceiving cancer as a systemic illness as well as a localized one, and more sparing procedures were developed that proved equally effective. Modern chemotherapy developed after World War II. [161]

Prominent women who died of breast cancer include Anne of Austria, the mother of Louis XIV of France; Mary Washington, mother of George, and Rachel Carson, the environmentalist. [162]

The first case-controlled study on breast cancer epidemiology was done by Janet Lane-Claypon, who published a comparative study in 1926 of 500 breast cancer cases and 500 controls of the same background and lifestyle for the British Ministry of Health. [163]

In the 1980s and 1990s, thousands of women who had successfully completed standard treatment then demanded and received high-dose bone marrow transplants, thinking this would lead to better long-term survival. However, it proved completely ineffective, and 15–20% of women died because of the brutal treatment. [164]

The 1995 reports from the Nurses' Health Study and the 2002 conclusions of the Women's Health Initiative trial conclusively proved that hormone replacement therapy significantly increased the incidence of breast cancer. [164]

Society and culture

Before the 20th century, breast cancer was feared and discussed in hushed tones, as if it were shameful. As little could be safely done with primitive surgical techniques, women tended to suffer silently rather than seeking care. When surgery advanced, and long-term survival rates improved, women began raising awareness of the disease and the possibility of successful treatment. The "Women's Field Army", run by the American Society for the Control of Cancer (later the American Cancer Society) during the 1930s and 1940s was one of the first organized campaigns. In 1952, the first peer-to-peer support group, called "Reach to Recovery", began providing post-mastectomy, in-hospital visits from women who had survived breast cancer. [165]

The breast cancer movement of the 1980s and 1990s developed out of the larger feminist movements and women's health movement of the 20th century. [166] This series of political and educational campaigns, partly inspired by the politically and socially effective AIDS awareness campaigns, resulted in the widespread acceptance of second opinions before surgery, less invasive surgical procedures, support groups, and other advances in care. [167]

Pink ribbon

The pink ribbon is a symbol to show support for breast cancer awareness Pink ribbon.svg
The pink ribbon is a symbol to show support for breast cancer awareness

A pink ribbon is the most prominent symbol of breast cancer awareness. Pink ribbons, which can be made inexpensively, are sometimes sold as fundraisers, much like poppies on Remembrance Day. They may be worn to honor those who have been diagnosed with breast cancer, or to identify products that the manufacturer would like to sell to consumers that are interested in breast cancer. [168]

The pink ribbon is associated with individual generosity, faith in scientific progress, and a "can-do" attitude. It encourages consumers to focus on the emotionally appealing ultimate vision of a cure for breast cancer, rather than on the fraught path between current knowledge and any future cures. [169]

Wearing or displaying a pink ribbon has been criticized by the opponents of this practice as a kind of slacktivism, because it has no practical positive effect. It has also been criticized as hypocrisy, because some people wear the pink ribbon to show good will towards women with breast cancer, but then oppose these women's practical goals, like patient rights and anti-pollution legislation. [170] [171] Critics say that the feel-good nature of pink ribbons and pink consumption distracts society from the lack of progress on preventing and curing breast cancer. [172] It is also criticized for reinforcing gender stereotypes and objectifying women and their breasts. [173] Breast Cancer Action launched the "Think Before You Pink" campaign, and said that businesses have co-opted the pink campaign to promote products that cause breast cancer, such as alcoholic beverages. [174]

Breast cancer culture

Breast cancer culture, also known as pink ribbon culture, is the set of activities, attitudes, and values that surround and shape breast cancer in public. The dominant values are selflessness, cheerfulness, unity, and optimism.

In breast cancer culture, breast cancer therapy is viewed as a rite of passage rather than a disease. [175] To fit into this mold, the woman with breast cancer needs to normalize and feminize her appearance, and minimize the disruption that her health issues cause anyone else. Anger, sadness, and negativity must be silenced. [175]

As with most cultural models, people who conform to the model are given social status, in this case as cancer survivors. Women who reject the model are shunned, punished and shamed. [175]

The culture is criticized for treating adult women like little girls, as evidenced by "baby" toys such as pink teddy bears given to adult women. [175]

The primary purposes or goals of breast cancer culture are to maintain breast cancer's dominance as the pre-eminent women's health issue, to promote the appearance that society is doing something effective about breast cancer, and to sustain and expand the social, political, and financial power of breast cancer activists. [176]

Emphasis

Compared to other diseases or other cancers, breast cancer receives a proportionately greater share of resources and attention. In 2001 MP Ian Gibson, chairman of the House of Commons of the United Kingdom all party group on cancer stated "The treatment has been skewed by the lobbying, there is no doubt about that. Breast cancer sufferers get better treatment in terms of bed spaces, facilities and doctors and nurses." [177] Breast cancer also receives significantly more media coverage than other, equally prevalent cancers, with a study by Prostate Coalition showing 2.6 breast cancer stories for each one covering cancer of the prostate. [178] Ultimately there is a concern that favoring sufferers of breast cancer with disproportionate funding and research on their behalf may well be costing lives elsewhere. [177] Partly because of its relatively high prevalence and long-term survival rates, research is biased towards breast cancer. Some subjects, such as cancer-related fatigue, have been studied little except in women with breast cancer.

One result of breast cancer's high visibility is that statistical results can sometimes be misinterpreted, such as the claim that one in eight women will be diagnosed with breast cancer during their lives—a claim that depends on the unrealistic assumption that no woman will die of any other disease before the age of 95. [179] This obscures the reality, which is that about ten times as many women will die from heart disease or stroke than from breast cancer. [180]

The emphasis on breast cancer screening may be harming women by subjecting them to unnecessary radiation, biopsies, and surgery. One-third of diagnosed breast cancers might recede on their own. [181] Screening mammography efficiently finds non-life-threatening, asymptomatic breast cancers and pre-cancers, even while overlooking serious cancers. According to H. Gilbert Welch of the Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice, research on screening mammography has taken the "brain-dead approach that says the best test is the one that finds the most cancers" rather than the one that finds dangerous cancers. [181]

Pregnancy

Breast cancers occur during pregnancy at the same rate as breast cancers in non-pregnant women of the same age. Breast cancer then becomes more common in the 5 or 10 years following pregnancy but then becomes less common than among the general population. [182] These cancers are known as postpartum breast cancer and have worse outcomes including an increased risk of distant spread of disease and mortality. [183] Other cancers found during or shortly after pregnancy appear at approximately the same rate as other cancers in women of a similar age. [184]

Diagnosing new cancer in a pregnant woman is difficult, in part because any symptoms are commonly assumed to be a normal discomfort associated with pregnancy. [184] As a result, cancer is typically discovered at a somewhat later stage than average in many pregnant or recently pregnant women. Some imaging procedures, such as MRIs (magnetic resonance imaging), CT scans, ultrasounds, and mammograms with fetal shielding are considered safe during pregnancy; some others, such as PET scans are not. [184]

Treatment is generally the same as for non-pregnant women. [184] However, radiation is normally avoided during pregnancy, especially if the fetal dose might exceed 100 cGy. In some cases, some or all treatments are postponed until after birth if the cancer is diagnosed late in the pregnancy. Early deliveries to speed the start of treatment are not uncommon. Surgery is generally considered safe during pregnancy, but some other treatments, especially certain chemotherapy drugs given during the first trimester, increase the risk of birth defects and pregnancy loss (spontaneous abortions and stillbirths). [184] Elective abortions are not required and do not improve the likelihood of the mother surviving or being cured. [184]

Radiation treatments may interfere with the mother's ability to breastfeed her baby because it reduces the ability of that breast to produce milk and increases the risk of mastitis. Also, when chemotherapy is being given after birth, many of the drugs pass through breast milk to the baby, which could harm the baby. [184]

Regarding future pregnancy among breast cancer survivors, there is often fear of cancer recurrence. [185] On the other hand, many still regard pregnancy and parenthood to represent normalcy, happiness and life fulfillment. [185]

Hormones

Birth control

In breast cancer survivors, non-hormonal birth control methods should be used as first-line options. Progestogen-based methods such as depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, IUD with progestogen or progestogen only pills have a poorly investigated but possible increased risk of cancer recurrence, but may be used if positive effects outweigh this possible risk. [186]

Menopausal hormone replacement

In breast cancer survivors, it is recommended to first consider non-hormonal options for menopausal effects, such as bisphosphonates or selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) for osteoporosis, and vaginal estrogen for local symptoms. Observational studies of systemic hormone replacement therapy after breast cancer are generally reassuring. If hormone replacement is necessary after breast cancer, estrogen-only therapy or estrogen therapy with an intrauterine device with progestogen may be safer options than combined systemic therapy. [187]

Research

Treatments are being evaluated in trials. This includes individual drugs, combinations of drugs, and surgical and radiation techniques Investigations include new types of targeted therapy, [188] cancer vaccines, oncolytic virotherapy, [189] gene therapy [190] [191] and immunotherapy. [192]

The latest research is reported annually at scientific meetings such as that of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, [193] and the St. Gallen Oncology Conference in St. Gallen, Switzerland. [194] These studies are reviewed by professional societies and other organizations, and formulated into guidelines for specific treatment groups and risk category.

Fenretinide, a retinoid, is also being studied as a way to reduce the risk of breast cancer (retinoids are medications related to vitamin A). [195] [196]

Cryoablation

As of 2014 cryoablation is being studied to see if it could be a substitute for a lumpectomy in small cancers. [197] There is tentative evidence in those with tumors less than 2 centimeters. [198] It may also be used in those in who surgery is not possible. [198] Another review states that cryoablation looks promising for early breast cancer of small size. [199]

Breast cancer cell lines

A considerable part of the current knowledge on breast carcinomas is based on in vivo and in vitro studies performed with cell lines derived from breast cancers. These provide an unlimited source of homogenous self-replicating material, free of contaminating stromal cells, and often easily cultured in simple standard media. The first breast cancer cell line described, BT-20, was established in 1958. Since then, and despite sustained work in this area, the number of permanent lines obtained has been strikingly low (about 100). Indeed, attempts to culture breast cancer cell lines from primary tumors have been largely unsuccessful. This poor efficiency was often due to technical difficulties associated with the extraction of viable tumor cells from their surrounding stroma. Most of the available breast cancer cell lines issued from metastatic tumors, mainly from pleural effusions. Effusions provided generally large numbers of dissociated, viable tumor cells with little or no contamination by fibroblasts and other tumor stroma cells. Many of the currently used BCC lines were established in the late 1970s. A very few of them, namely MCF-7, T-47D, and MDA-MB-231, account for more than two-thirds of all abstracts reporting studies on mentioned breast cancer cell lines, as concluded from a Medline-based survey.

Molecular markers

Transcription factors

NFAT transcription factors are implicated in breast cancer, more specifically in the process of cell motility at the basis of metastasis formation. Indeed, NFAT1 (NFATC2) and NFAT5 are pro-invasive and pro-migratory in breast carcinoma [200] [201] and NFAT3 (NFATc4) is an inhibitor of cell motility. [202] NFAT1 regulates the expression of the TWEAKR and its ligand TWEAK with the Lipocalin 2 to increase breast cancer cell invasion [203] and NFAT3 inhibits Lipocalin 2 expression to blunt the cell invasion. [202]

Metabolic markers

Clinically, the most useful metabolic markers in breast cancer are the estrogen and progesterone receptors that are used to predict response to hormone therapy. New or potentially new markers for breast cancer include BRCA1 and BRCA2 [204] to identify people at high risk of developing breast cancer, HER-2,[ medical citation needed ] and SCD1, for predicting response to therapeutic regimens, and urokinase plasminogen activator, PA1-1 and SCD1 for assessing prognosis.[ medical citation needed ]

Other animals

Related Research Articles

Endometrial cancer uterine cancer that is located in tissues lining the uterus

Endometrial cancer is a cancer that arises from the endometrium. It is the result of the abnormal growth of cells that have the ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body. The first sign is most often vaginal bleeding not associated with a menstrual period. Other symptoms include pain with urination, pain during sexual intercourse, or pelvic pain. Endometrial cancer occurs most commonly after menopause.

Ovarian cancer female reproductive organ cancer that is located in the ovary

Ovarian cancer is a cancer that forms in or on an ovary. It results in abnormal cells that have the ability to invade or spread to other parts of the body. When this process begins, there may be no or only vague symptoms. Symptoms become more noticeable as the cancer progresses. These symptoms may include bloating, pelvic pain, abdominal swelling, and loss of appetite, among others. Common areas to which the cancer may spread include the lining of the abdomen, lymph nodes, lungs, and liver.

Pagets disease of the breast type of cancer that outwardly may have the appearance of eczema, with skin changes involving the nipple of the breast.

Paget's disease of the breast is a type of cancer that outwardly may have the appearance of eczema, with skin changes involving the nipple of the breast. The condition is an uncommon disease accounting for 1 to 4.3% of all breast cancers and was first described by Sir James Paget in 1874. The condition in itself often appears innocuous, limited to a surface appearance and it is sometimes dismissed, although actually indicative of underlying breast cancer.

Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is one of the most aggressive types of breast cancer that can occur in women of any age. It is called inflammatory because it frequently presents with symptoms resembling an inflammation. Despite the name, whether inflammation contributes to the development of "inflammatory breast cancer" remains an area of ongoing research. However it can present with very variable signs and symptoms, frequently without detectable tumors and therefore is often not detected by mammography or ultrasound.

This is a list of terms related to oncology. The original source for this list was the US National Cancer Institute's public domain Dictionary of Cancer Terms.

Lumpectomy is a surgical removal of a discrete portion or "lump" of breast tissue, usually in the treatment of a malignant tumor or breast cancer. It is considered a viable breast conservation therapy, as the amount of tissue removed is limited compared to a full-breast mastectomy, and thus may have physical and emotional advantages over more disfiguring treatment. Sometimes a lumpectomy may be used to either confirm or rule out that cancer has actually been detected. A lumpectomy is usually recommended to patients whose cancer has been detected early and who do not have enlarged tumors. Although a lumpectomy is used to allow for most of the breast to remain intact, the procedure may result in adverse affects that can include sensitivity and result in scar tissue, pain, and possible disfiguration of the breast if the lump taken out is significant. According to National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines, lumpectomy may be performed for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), invasive ductal carcinoma, or other conditions.

Invasive carcinoma of no special type (NST) also known as invasive ductal carcinoma or ductal NOS and previously known as invasive ductal carcinoma, not otherwise specified (NOS) is a group of breast cancers that do not have the "specific differentiating features". Those that have these features belong to other types.

Ductal carcinoma in situ Human disease

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), also known as intraductal carcinoma, is a pre-cancerous or non-invasive cancerous lesion of the breast. DCIS is classified as Stage 0. It rarely produces symptoms or a breast lump one can feel, and is usually detected through screening mammography.

Fibrocystic breast changes Human disease

Fibrocystic breast changes is a condition of the breasts where there may be pain, breast cysts, and breast masses. The breasts may be described as "lumpy" or "doughy". Symptoms may worsen during certain parts of the menstrual cycle. It is not associated with cancer.

Hormonal therapy in oncology is hormone therapy for cancer and is one of the major modalities of medical oncology, others being cytotoxic chemotherapy and targeted therapy (biotherapeutics). It involves the manipulation of the endocrine system through exogenous or external administration of specific hormones, particularly steroid hormones, or drugs which inhibit the production or activity of such hormones. Because steroid hormones are powerful drivers of gene expression in certain cancer cells, changing the levels or activity of certain hormones can cause certain cancers to cease growing, or even undergo cell death. Surgical removal of endocrine organs, such as orchiectomy and oophorectomy can also be employed as a form of hormonal therapy.

Triple-negative breast cancer refers to any breast cancer that does not express the genes for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and HER2/neu. This makes it more difficult to treat since most hormone therapies target one of the three receptors, so triple-negative cancers often require combination therapies. Triple negative is sometimes used as a surrogate term for basal-like; however, more detailed classification may provide better guidance for treatment and better estimates for prognosis.

Risk factors for breast cancer may be divided into preventable and non-preventable. Their study belongs in the field of epidemiology. Breast cancer, like other forms of cancer, can result from multiple environmental and hereditary risk factors. The term "environmental", as used by cancer researchers, means any risk factor that is not genetically inherited.

Breast cancer management takes different approaches depending on physical and biological characteristics of the disease, as well as the age, over-all health and personal preferences of the patient. Treatment types can be classified into local therapy and systemic treatment. Local therapy is most efficacious in early stage breast cancer, while systemic therapy is generally justified in advanced and metastatic disease, or in diseases with specific phenotypes.

Metaplastic carcinoma, otherwise known as metaplastic carcinoma of the breast (MCB), is a heterogeneous group of cancers that exhibit varied patterns of metaplasia and differentiation along multiple cell lines. This rare and aggressive form of breast cancer is characterized as being composed of a mixed group of neoplasms containing both glandular and non-glandular patterns with epithelial and/or mesenchymal components. It accounts for fewer than 1% of all breast cancer diagnoses. It is most closely associated with invasive ductal carcinoma of no special type. (IDC), and shares similar treatment approaches. Relative to IDC, MCB generally has higher histological grade and larger tumor size at time of diagnoses, but a lower incidence of axillary lymph node involvement. MCB tumors are typically estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor-2 (HER-2) negative, meaning hormone therapy is generally not an effective treatment option, which correlates to a relatively poor prognosis. MCB was first recognized as a distinct pathological entity in 2000 by the World Health Organization.

Lobular carcinoma in situ Human disease

Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is an incidental microscopic finding with characteristic cellular morphology and multifocal tissue patterns. The condition is a laboratory diagnosis and refers to unusual cells in the lobules of the breast. The lobules and acini of the terminal duct-lobular unit (TDLU), the basic functional unit of the breast, may become distorted and undergo expansion due to the abnormal proliferation of cells comprising the structure. These changes represent a spectrum of atypical epithelial lesions that are broadly referred to as lobular neoplasia (LN).

Breast cancer classification divides breast cancer into categories according to different schemes criteria and serving a different purpose. The major categories are the histopathological type, the grade of the tumor, the stage of the tumor, and the expression of proteins and genes. As knowledge of cancer cell biology develops these classifications are updated.

Male breast cancer Human disease

Male breast cancer is a rare cancer in males that originates from the breast. Many males with breast cancer have inherited a BRCA mutation, but there are other causes, including alcohol abuse and exposure to certain hormones and ionizing radiation.

<i>BRCA</i> mutation

A BRCA mutation is a mutation in either of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, which are tumour suppressor genes. Hundreds of different types of mutations in these genes have been identified, some of which have been determined to be harmful, while others have no proven impact. Harmful mutations in these genes may produce a hereditary breast-ovarian cancer syndrome in affected persons. Only 5-10% of breast cancer cases in women are attributed to BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations, but the impact on women with the gene mutation is more profound. Women with harmful mutations in either BRCA1 or BRCA2 have a risk of breast cancer that is about five times the normal risk, and a risk of ovarian cancer that is about ten to thirty times normal. The risk of breast and ovarian cancer is higher for women with a high-risk BRCA1 mutation than with a BRCA2 mutation. Having a high-risk mutation does not guarantee that the woman will develop any type of cancer, or imply that any cancer that appears was actually caused by the mutation, rather than some other factor.

Cancer biomarker

A cancer biomarker refers to a substance or process that is indicative of the presence of cancer in the body. A biomarker may be a molecule secreted by a tumor or a specific response of the body to the presence of cancer. Genetic, epigenetic, proteomic, glycomic, and imaging biomarkers can be used for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and epidemiology. Ideally, such biomarkers can be assayed in non-invasively collected biofluids like blood or serum.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 "Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)". NCI. 23 May 2014. Archived from the original on 5 July 2014. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 World Cancer Report 2014. World Health Organization. 2014. pp. Chapter 5.2. ISBN   978-92-832-0429-9.
  3. "Klinefelter Syndrome". Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. 24 May 2007. Archived from the original on 27 November 2012.
  4. 1 2 "SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Breast Cancer". NCI. Archived from the original on 3 July 2014. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
  5. 1 2 "Cancer Survival in England: Patients Diagnosed 2007–2011 and Followed up to 2012" (PDF). Office for National Statistics. 29 October 2013. Archived (PDF) from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
  6. GBD 2015 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence, Collaborators. (8 October 2016). "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1545–1602. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31678-6. PMC   5055577 . PMID   27733282.
  7. GBD 2015 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators. (8 October 2016). "Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980–2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1459–1544. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(16)31012-1. PMC   5388903 . PMID   27733281.
  8. "Breast Cancer". NCI. January 1980. Archived from the original on 25 June 2014. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
  9. Saunders, Christobel; Jassal, Sunil (2009). Breast cancer (1. ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. Chapter 13. ISBN   978-0-19-955869-8. Archived from the original on 25 October 2015.
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 Gøtzsche PC, Jørgensen KJ (4 June 2013). "Screening for breast cancer with mammography". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 6 (6): CD001877. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001877.pub5. PMID   23737396.
  11. Nelson, HD; Tyne, K; Naik, A; Bougatsos, C; Chan, B; Nygren, P; Humphrey, L (November 2009). "Screening for Breast Cancer: Systematic Evidence Review Update for the US Preventive Services Task Force [Internet]". PMID   20722173.
  12. 1 2 Siu, Albert L. (12 January 2016). "Screening for Breast Cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement". Annals of Internal Medicine. 164 (4): 279–96. doi:10.7326/M15-2886. PMID   26757170.
  13. American College of Surgeons (September 2013), "Five Things Physicians and Patients Should Question", Choosing Wisely: an initiative of the ABIM Foundation , American College of Surgeons, archived from the original on 27 October 2013, retrieved 2 January 2013
  14. 1 2 3 4 "Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)". NCI. 26 June 2014. Archived from the original on 5 July 2014. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
  15. 1 2 "World Cancer Report" (PDF). International Agency for Research on Cancer. 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 26 February 2011.
  16. 1 2 World Cancer Report 2014. World Health Organization. 2014. pp. Chapter 1.1. ISBN   978-92-832-0429-9.
  17. "Male Breast Cancer Treatment". National Cancer Institute. 2014. Archived from the original on 4 July 2014. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
  18. 1 2 3 4 Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy (February 2003). "Breast Disorders: Breast Cancer". Archived from the original on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2008.
  19. 1 2 American Cancer Society (2007). "Cancer Facts & Figures 2007" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 April 2007. Retrieved 26 April 2007.
  20. Watson M (2008). "Assessment of suspected cancer". InnoAiT. 1 (2): 94–107. doi:10.1093/innovait/inn001.
  21. eMedicine (23 August 2006). "Breast Cancer Evaluation". Archived from the original on 12 February 2008. Retrieved 5 February 2008.
  22. National Cancer Institute (27 June 2005). "Paget's Disease of the Nipple: Questions and Answers". Archived from the original on 10 April 2008. Retrieved 6 February 2008.
  23. answers.com. "Oncology Encyclopedia: Cystosarcoma Phyllodes". Archived from the original on 8 September 2010. Retrieved 10 August 2010.
  24. Lacroix M (December 2006). "Significance, detection and markers of disseminated breast cancer cells". Endocrine-Related Cancer . 13 (4): 1033–67. doi:10.1677/ERC-06-0001. PMID   17158753.
  25. National Cancer Institute (1 September 2004). "Metastatic Cancer: Questions and Answers". Archived from the original on 27 August 2008. Retrieved 6 February 2008.
  26. Interpreting Signs and Symptoms. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2007. pp. 99–. ISBN   978-1-58255-668-0.
  27. Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy (February 2003). "Breast Disorders: Overview of Breast Disorders". Archived from the original on 3 October 2011. Retrieved 5 February 2008.
  28. 1 2 3 Hayes, James; Ricahrdson, Ann; Frampton, Chris (15 November 2013). "Population attributable risks for modifiable lifestyle factors and breast cancer in New Zealand women". IMJ. 43 (11): 1198–1204. doi:10.1111/imj.12256. PMID   23910051.
  29. Reeder JG, Vogel VG (2008). "Breast cancer prevention". Advances in Breast Cancer Management, Second Edition. Cancer Treatment and Research. 141. pp. 149–64. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-73161-2_10. ISBN   978-0-387-73160-5. PMID   18274088.
  30. "Am I at risk?". Breast Cancer Care. 23 February 2018. Archived from the original on 25 October 2013. Retrieved 22 October 2013.
  31. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer (August 2002). "Breast cancer and breastfeeding: collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 47 epidemiological studies in 30 countries, including 50302 women with breast cancer and 96973 women without the disease". Lancet. 360 (9328): 187–95. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)09454-0. PMID   12133652.
  32. Yager JD, Davidson NE (2006). "Estrogen carcinogenesis in breast cancer". N Engl J Med. 354 (3): 270–82. doi:10.1056/NEJMra050776. PMID   16421368.
  33. Mazzucco A, Santoro E, DeSoto, M, Hong Lee J (February 2009). "Hormone Therapy and Menopause". National Research Center for Women & Families.
  34. Light Pollution as new risk factor for human Breast and Prostate Cancers- Haim, Abraham; Portnov, Biris P., 2013, ISBN   978-94-007-6220-6
  35. 1 2 Johnson KC, Miller AB, Collishaw NE, Palmer JR, Hammond SK, Salmon AG, Cantor KP, Miller MD, Boyd NF, Millar J, Turcotte F (January 2011). "Active smoking and secondhand smoke increase breast cancer risk: the report of the Canadian Expert Panel on Tobacco Smoke and Breast Cancer Risk (2009)". Tobacco Control. 20 (1): e2. doi:10.1136/tc.2010.035931. PMID   21148114.
  36. Lee IM, Shiroma EJ, Lobelo F, Puska P, Blair SN, Katzmarzyk PT (1 July 2012). "Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide: an analysis of burden of disease and life expectancy". The Lancet. 380 (9838): 219–29. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61031-9. PMC   3645500 . PMID   22818936.
  37. Biswas A, Oh PI, Faulkner GE, Bajaj RR, Silver MA, Mitchell MS, Alter DA (2015). "Sedentary Time and Its Association With Risk for Disease Incidence, Mortality, and Hospitalization in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis". Annals of Internal Medicine. 162 (2): 123–32. doi:10.7326/M14-1651. PMID   25599350.
  38. Kahlenborn C, Modugno F, Potter DM, Severs WB (October 2006). "Oral contraceptive use as a risk factor for premenopausal breast cancer: a meta-analysis". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 81 (10): 1290–302. doi:10.4065/81.10.1290. PMID   17036554.
  39. 1 2 Veljković M, Veljković S (September 2010). "[The risk of breast cervical, endometrial and ovarian cancer in oral contraceptive users]". Medicinski Pregled. 63 (9–10): 657–61. doi:10.2298/mpns1010657v. PMID   21446095.
  40. 1 2 Casey PM, Cerhan JR, Pruthi S (January 2008). "Oral contraceptive use and risk of breast cancer". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 83 (1): 86–90, quiz 90–1. doi:10.4065/83.1.86. PMID   18174010.
  41. Iodice S, Barile M, Rotmensz N, Feroce I, Bonanni B, Radice P, Bernard L, Maisonneuve P, Gandini S (August 2010). "Oral contraceptive use and breast or ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1/2 carriers: a meta-analysis". European Journal of Cancer. 46 (12): 2275–84. doi:10.1016/j.ejca.2010.04.018. PMID   20537530.
  42. Gaffield ME, Culwell KR, Ravi A (October 2009). "Oral contraceptives and family history of breast cancer". Contraception. 80 (4): 372–80. doi:10.1016/j.contraception.2009.04.010. PMID   19751860.
  43. Yang L, Jacobsen KH (December 2008). "A systematic review of the association between breastfeeding and breast cancer". Journal of Women's Health . 17 (10): 1635–45. doi:10.1089/jwh.2008.0917. PMID   19049358.
  44. Russo J, Russo IH (1980). "Susceptibility of the mammary gland to carcinogenesis. II. Pregnancy interruption as a risk factor in tumor incidence". Am J Pathol. 100 (2): 505–506. PMC   1903536 . PMID   6773421. In contrast, abortion is associated with increased risk of carcinomas of the breast. The explanation for these epidemiologic findings is not known, but the parallelism between the DMBA-induced rat mammary carcinoma model and the human situation is striking. ... Abortion would interrupt this process, leaving in the gland undifferentiated structures like those observed in the rat mammary gland, which could render the gland again susceptible to carcinogenesis.
  45. Beral V, Bull D, Doll R, Peto R, Reeves G (27 March 2004). "Breast cancer and abortion: collaborative reanalysis of data from 53 epidemiological studies, including 83?000 women with breast cancer from 16 countries". Lancet. 363 (9414): 1007–16. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(04)15835-2. PMID   15051280.
  46. 1 2 Shield, Kevin D.; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Rehm, Jürgen (June 2016). "Alcohol Use and Breast Cancer: A Critical Review". Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research. 40 (6): 1166–1181. doi:10.1111/acer.13071. ISSN   1530-0277. PMID   27130687. All levels of evidence showed a risk relationship between alcohol consumption and the risk of breast cancer, even at low levels of consumption.
  47. Blackburn GL, Wang KA (September 2007). "Dietary fat reduction and breast cancer outcome: results from the Women's Intervention Nutrition Study (WINS)". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 86 (3): s878–81. doi:10.1093/ajcn/86.3.878S. PMID   18265482.
  48. BBC report Weight link to breast cancer risk Archived 13 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  49. Kaiser J (29 November 2013). "Cancer. Cholesterol forges link between obesity and breast cancer". Science. 342 (6162): 1028. doi:10.1126/science.342.6162.1028. PMID   24288308.
  50. Aceves C, Anguiano B, Delgado G (April 2005). "Is iodine a gatekeeper of the integrity of the mammary gland?". Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia. 10 (2): 189–96. doi:10.1007/s10911-005-5401-5. PMID   16025225.
  51. Mourouti, N; Kontogianni, MD; Papavagelis, C; Panagiotakos, DB (February 2015). "Diet and breast cancer: a systematic review". International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. 66 (1): 1–42. doi:10.3109/09637486.2014.950207. PMID   25198160.
  52. Aubrey, Allison (1 February 2016). "A Diet High In Fiber May Help Protect Against Breast Cancer". NPR . Archived from the original on 1 February 2016. Retrieved 1 February 2016.
  53. 1 2 American Cancer Society (2005). "Breast Cancer Facts & Figures 2005–2006" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 June 2007. Retrieved 26 April 2007.
  54. Wang XS, Armstrong ME, Cairns BJ, Key TJ, Travis RC (March 2011). "Shift work and chronic disease: the epidemiological evidence". Occupational Medicine. 61 (2): 78–89. doi:10.1093/occmed/kqr001. PMC   3045028 . PMID   21355031.
  55. Brody JG, Rudel RA, Michels KB, Moysich KB, Bernstein L, Attfield KR, Gray S (June 2007). "Environmental pollutants, diet, physical activity, body size, and breast cancer: where do we stand in research to identify opportunities for prevention?". Cancer. 109 (12 Suppl): 2627–34. doi:10.1002/cncr.22656. PMID   17503444.
  56. Hendrick RE (October 2010). "Radiation doses and cancer risks from breast imaging studies". Radiology. 257 (1): 246–53. doi:10.1148/radiol.10100570. PMID   20736332.
  57. 1 2 3 Boris Pasche (2010). Cancer Genetics (Cancer Treatment and Research). Berlin: Springer. pp. 19–20. ISBN   978-1-4419-6032-0.
  58. 1 2 3 Gage M, Wattendorf D, Henry LR (1 April 2012). "Translational advances regarding hereditary breast cancer syndromes". Journal of Surgical Oncology. 105 (5): 444–51. doi:10.1002/jso.21856. PMID   22441895.
  59. Colditz, Graham A.; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Rosner, Bernard (19 February 2012). "Family history and risk of breast cancer: nurses' health study". Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. 133 (3): 1097–1104. doi:10.1007/s10549-012-1985-9. ISSN   0167-6806. PMC   3387322 . PMID   22350789.
  60. Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer (27 October 2001). "Familial breast cancer: collaborative reanalysis of individual data from 52 epidemiological studies including 58,209 women with breast cancer and 101,986 women without the disease". Lancet. 358 (9291): 1389–99. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(01)06524-2. PMID   11705483.
  61. Nelson HD, Zakher B, Cantor A, Fu R, Griffin J, O'Meara ES, Buist DS, Kerlikowske K, van Ravesteyn NT, Trentham-Dietz A, Mandelblatt JS, Miglioretti DL (1 May 2012). "Risk factors for breast cancer for women aged 40 to 49 years: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Annals of Internal Medicine. 156 (9): 635–48. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-156-9-201205010-00006. PMC   3561467 . PMID   22547473.
  62. Kolata, Gina (23 September 2012). "Genetic Study Finds 4 Distinct Variations of Breast Cancer". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 24 September 2012. Retrieved 23 September 2012.
  63. "Understanding Breast Changes – National Cancer Institute". Archived from the original on 27 May 2010.
  64. "Breast Cancer Treatment". National Cancer Institute. January 1980. Archived from the original on 25 April 2015.
  65. Afonso N, Bouwman D (August 2008). "Lobular carcinoma in situ". Eur. J. Cancer Prev. 17 (4): 312–6. doi:10.1097/CEJ.0b013e3282f75e5d. PMID   18562954.
  66. Anothaisintawee T, Wiratkapun C, Lerdsitthichai P, Kasamesup V, Wongwaisayawan S, Srinakarin J, Hirunpat S, Woodtichartpreecha P, Boonlikit S, Teerawattananon Y, Thakkinstian A (2013). "Risk factors of breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Asian Pacific Journal of Public Health. 25 (5): 368–387. doi:10.1177/1010539513488795. PMID   23709491.
  67. Böhm I (2011). "Breast cancer in lupus". Breast. 20 (3): 288–90. doi:10.1016/j.breast.2010.12.005. PMID   21237645.
  68. Adrian Lee; Carlos Arteaga (14 December 2009). "32nd Annual CTRC-AACR San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium" (PDF). Sunday Morning Year-End Review. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 August 2013.
  69. Cavalieri E, Chakravarti D, Guttenplan J, Hart E, Ingle J, Jankowiak R, Muti P, Rogan E, Russo J, Santen R, Sutter T (August 2006). "Catechol estrogen quinones as initiators of breast and other human cancers: implications for biomarkers of susceptibility and cancer prevention". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1766 (1): 63–78. doi:10.1016/j.bbcan.2006.03.001. PMID   16675129.
  70. Haslam SZ, Woodward TL (June 2003). "Host microenvironment in breast cancer development: epithelial-cell-stromal-cell interactions and steroid hormone action in normal and cancerous mammary gland". Breast Cancer Res. 5 (4): 208–15. doi:10.1186/bcr615. PMC   165024 . PMID   12817994.
  71. Wiseman BS, Werb Z (May 2002). "Stromal effects on mammary gland development and breast cancer". Science. 296 (5570): 1046–9. doi:10.1126/science.1067431. PMC   2788989 . PMID   12004111.
  72. Jardé T, Perrier S, Vasson MP, Caldefie-Chézet F (January 2011). "Molecular mechanisms of leptin and adiponectin in breast cancer". Eur. J. Cancer. 47 (1): 33–43. doi:10.1016/j.ejca.2010.09.005. PMID   20889333.
  73. Dunning AM, Healey CS, Pharoah PD, Teare MD, Ponder BA, Easton DF (October 1999). "A systematic review of genetic polymorphisms and breast cancer risk". Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention. 8 (10): 843–54. PMID   10548311.
  74. Begg CB, Haile RW, Borg A, Malone KE, Concannon P, Thomas DC, Langholz B, Bernstein L, Olsen JH, Lynch CF, Anton-Culver H, Capanu M, Liang X, Hummer AJ, Sima C, Bernstein JL (January 2008). "Variation of breast cancer risk among BRCA1/2 carriers". JAMA. 299 (2): 194–201. doi:10.1001/jama.2007.55-a. PMC   2714486 . PMID   18182601.
  75. Patel KJ, Yu VP, Lee H, Corcoran A, Thistlethwaite FC, Evans MJ, Colledge WH, Friedman LS, Ponder BA, Venkitaraman AR (February 1998). "Involvement of Brca2 in DNA repair". Mol. Cell. 1 (3): 347–57. doi:10.1016/S1097-2765(00)80035-0. PMID   9660919.
  76. Marietta C, Thompson LH, Lamerdin JE, Brooks PJ (May 2009). "Acetaldehyde stimulates FANCD2 monoubiquitination, H2AX phosphorylation, and BRCA1 phosphorylation in human cells in vitro: implications for alcohol-related carcinogenesis". Mutat. Res. 664 (1–2): 77–83. doi:10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2009.03.011. PMC   2807731 . PMID   19428384.
  77. Theruvathu JA, Jaruga P, Nath RG, Dizdaroglu M, Brooks PJ (2005). "Polyamines stimulate the formation of mutagenic 1,N2-propanodeoxyguanosine adducts from acetaldehyde". Nucleic Acids Res. 33 (11): 3513–20. doi:10.1093/nar/gki661. PMC   1156964 . PMID   15972793.
  78. Wooster R, Weber BL (June 2003). "Breast and ovarian cancer". N. Engl. J. Med. 348 (23): 2339–47. doi:10.1056/NEJMra012284. PMID   12788999.
  79. Levin B, Lech D, Friedenson B (2012). "Evidence that BRCA1- or BRCA2-associated cancers are not inevitable". Mol. Med. 18 (9): 1327–37. doi:10.2119/molmed.2012.00280. PMC   3521784 . PMID   22972572.
  80. Kouros-Mehr H, Kim JW, Bechis SK, Werb Z (April 2008). "GATA-3 and the regulation of the mammary luminal cell fate". Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 20 (2): 164–70. doi:10.1016/j.ceb.2008.02.003. PMC   2397451 . PMID   18358709.
  81. Saslow D, Hannan J, Osuch J, Alciati MH, Baines C, Barton M, Bobo JK, Coleman C, Dolan M, Gaumer G, Kopans D, Kutner S, Lane DS, Lawson H, Meissner H, Moorman C, Pennypacker H, Pierce P, Sciandra E, Smith R, Coates R (2004). "Clinical breast examination: practical recommendations for optimizing performance and reporting". CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 54 (6): 327–344. doi:10.3322/canjclin.54.6.327. PMID   15537576.
  82. Yu YH, Liang C, Yuan XZ (2010). "Diagnostic value of vacuum-assisted breast biopsy for breast carcinoma: a meta-analysis and systematic review". Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. 120 (2): 469–79. doi:10.1007/s10549-010-0750-1. PMID   20130983.
  83. Merck Manual, Professional Edition Archived 10 November 2011 at the Wayback Machine , Ch. 253, Breast Cancer.
  84. American Society of Clinical Oncology, "Five Things Physicians and Patients Should Question" (PDF), Choosing Wisely: an initiative of the ABIM Foundation , American Society of Clinical Oncology, archived from the original (PDF) on 31 July 2012, retrieved 14 August 2012
  85. Carlson RW, Allred DC, Anderson BO, Burstein HJ, Carter WB, Edge SB, Erban JK, Farrar WB, Goldstein LJ, Gradishar WJ, Hayes DF, Hudis CA, Jahanzeb M, Kiel K, Ljung BM, Marcom PK, Mayer IA, McCormick B, Nabell LM, Pierce LJ, Reed EC, Smith ML, Somlo G, Theriault RL, Topham NS, Ward JH, Winer EP, Wolff AC (2009). "Breast cancer. Clinical practice guidelines in oncology". Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN. 7 (2): 122–192. doi:10.6004/jnccn.2009.0012. PMID   19200416.
  86. Kumar, Vinay; Abul Abbas (2010). Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease. Philadelphia: Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier inc. p. 1090. ISBN   978-1-4160-3121-5.
  87. Sotiriou C, Pusztai L (February 2009). "Gene-expression signatures in breast cancer". N. Engl. J. Med. 360 (8): 790–800. doi:10.1056/NEJMra0801289. PMID   19228622.
  88. Romond EH, Perez EA, Bryant J, Suman VJ, Geyer CE, Davidson NE, Tan-Chiu E, Martino S, Paik S, Kaufman PA, Swain SM, Pisansky TM, Fehrenbacher L, Kutteh LA, Vogel VG, Visscher DW, Yothers G, Jenkins RB, Brown AM, Dakhil SR, Mamounas EP, Lingle WL, Klein PM, Ingle JN, Wolmark N (October 2005). "Trastuzumab plus adjuvant chemotherapy for operable HER2-positive breast cancer". N. Engl. J. Med. 353 (16): 1673–84. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa052122. PMID   16236738.
  89. 1 2 3 "Lifestyle-related Breast Cancer Risk Factors". www.cancer.org. Retrieved 18 April 2018.
  90. Eliassen AH, Hankinson SE, Rosner B, Holmes MD, Willett WC (October 2010). "Physical activity and risk of breast cancer among postmenopausal women". Arch. Intern. Med. 170 (19): 1758–64. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2010.363. PMC   3142573 . PMID   20975025.
  91. Kyu, Hmwe H; Bachman, Victoria F; Alexander, Lily T; Mumford, John Everett; Afshin, Ashkan; Estep, Kara; Veerman, J Lennert; Delwiche, Kristen; Iannarone, Marissa L; Moyer, Madeline L; Cercy, Kelly; Vos, Theo; Murray, Christopher J L; Forouzanfar, Mohammad H (9 August 2016). "Physical activity and risk of breast cancer, colon cancer, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, and ischemic stroke events: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". BMJ. 354: i3857. doi:10.1136/bmj.i3857. PMC   4979358 . PMID   27510511.
  92. Song, Jung-Kook; Bae, Jong-Myon (1 March 2013). "Citrus fruit intake and breast cancer risk: a quantitative systematic review". Journal of Breast Cancer. 16 (1): 72–76. doi:10.4048/jbc.2013.16.1.72. ISSN   1738-6756. PMC   3625773 . PMID   23593085.
  93. Zheng JS, Hu XJ, Zhao YM, Yang J, Li D (2013). "Intake of fish and marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and risk of breast cancer: meta-analysis of data from 21 independent prospective cohort studies". BMJ. 346: f3706. doi:10.1136/bmj.f3706. PMID   23814120.
  94. Wu, AH; Yu, MC; Tseng, CC; Pike, MC (15 January 2008). "Epidemiology of soy exposures and breast cancer risk". British Journal of Cancer. 98 (1): 9–14. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6604145. PMC   2359677 . PMID   18182974.
  95. Hartmann LC, Schaid DJ, Woods JE, Crotty TP, Myers JL, Arnold PG, Petty PM, Sellers TA, Johnson JL, McDonnell SK, Frost MH, Jenkins RB (1999). "Efficacy of bilateral prophylactic mastectomy in women with a family history of breast cancer". N Engl J Med. 340 (2): 77–84. doi:10.1056/NEJM199901143400201. PMID   9887158.
  96. Meijers-Heijboer H, van Geel B, van Putten WL, Henzen-Logmans SC, Seynaeve C, Menke-Pluymers MB, Bartels CC, Verhoog LC, van den Ouweland AM, Niermeijer MF, Brekelmans CT, Klijn JG (2001). "Breast cancer after prophylactic bilateral mastectomy in women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations". N Engl J Med. 345 (3): 159–164. doi:10.1056/NEJM200107193450301. PMID   11463009.
  97. 1 2 Carbine, Nora E; Lostumbo, Liz; Wallace, Judi; Ko, Henry (5 April 2018). "Risk-reducing mastectomy for the prevention of primary breast cancer". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 4: CD002748. doi:10.1002/14651858.cd002748.pub4. ISSN   1465-1858. PMID   29620792.
  98. Moyer, Virginia A (24 December 2013). "Risk Assessment, Genetic Counseling, and Genetic Testing for BRCA-Related Cancer in Women: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement". Annals of Internal Medicine. 160 (4): 271–281. doi:10.7326/M13-2747. PMID   24366376.
  99. Moyer, Virginia A. (18 February 2014). "Risk Assessment, Genetic Counseling, and Genetic Testing for BRCA-Related Cancer in Women: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement". Annals of Internal Medicine. 160 (4): 271–281. doi:10.7326/M13-2747.
  100. 1 2 Nelson HD, Smith ME, Griffin JC, Fu R (16 April 2013). "Use of medications to reduce risk for primary breast cancer: a systematic review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force". Annals of Internal Medicine. 158 (8): 604–14. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-158-8-201304160-00005. PMID   23588749.
  101. Cuzick J, Sestak I, Bonanni B, Costantino JP, Cummings S, DeCensi A, Dowsett M, Forbes JF, Ford L, LaCroix AZ, Mershon J, Mitlak BH, Powles T, Veronesi U, Vogel V, Wickerham DL (25 May 2013). "Selective oestrogen receptor modulators in prevention of breast cancer: an updated meta-analysis of individual participant data". Lancet. 381 (9880): 1827–34. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60140-3. PMC   3671272 . PMID   23639488.
  102. Moyer VA (24 September 2013). "Medications for Risk Reduction of Primary Breast Cancer in Women: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement". Annals of Internal Medicine. 159 (10): 698–708. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-159-10-201311190-00718. PMID   24061412.
  103. Cuzick J, Sestak I, Bonanni B, Costantino JP, Cummings S, DeCensi A, Dowsett M, Forbes JF, Ford L, LaCroix AZ, Mershon J, Mitlak BH, Powles T, Veronesi U, Vogel V, Wickerham DL (31 March 2013). "Selective oestrogen receptor modulators in prevention of breast cancer: an updated meta-analysis of individual participant data". The Lancet. 381 (9880): 1827–34. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60140-3. PMC   3671272 . PMID   23639488.
  104. "Screening". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 11 September 2018. Archived from the original on 18 November 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
  105. "Screening for Breast Cancer". US Preventative Services Task Force. December 2009. Archived from the original on 2 January 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
  106. Kösters JP, Gøtzsche PC (2003). "Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2): CD003373. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003373. PMID   12804462.
  107. "Breast Cancer and Mammograms". WebMD. Archived from the original on 28 December 2012. Retrieved 24 December 2012.
  108. Biesheuvel C, Weigel S, Heindel W (2011). "Mammography Screening: Evidence, History and Current Practice in Germany and Other European Countries". Breast Care (Basel, Switzerland). 6 (2): 104–109. doi:10.1159/000327493. PMC   3104900 . PMID   21673820.
  109. Tonelli M, Connor Gorber S, Joffres M, Dickinson J, Singh H, Lewin G, Birtwhistle R, Fitzpatrick-Lewis D, Hodgson N, Ciliska D, Gauld M, Liu YY (22 November 2011). "Recommendations on screening for breast cancer in average-risk women aged 40–74 years". Canadian Medical Association Journal. 183 (17): 1991–2001. doi:10.1503/cmaj.110334. PMC   3225421 . PMID   22106103.
  110. "Breast Cancer: Screening". United States Preventive Services Task Force. Archived from the original on 16 June 2013.
  111. Welch HG, Passow HJ (30 December 2013). "Quantifying the Benefits and Harms of Screening Mammography". JAMA Internal Medicine. 174 (3): 448–54. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2013.13635. PMID   24380095.
  112. "Screening for breast cancer with mammography". Cochrane Nordic. 27 August 2015. Archived from the original on 29 October 2015. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
  113. US Preventive Services Task Force (17 November 2009). "Screening for breast cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement". Annals of Internal Medicine. 151 (10): 716–26, W–236. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-151-10-200911170-00008. PMID   19920272. Archived from the original on 2 January 2013.
  114. Saini KS, Taylor C, Ramirez AJ, Palmieri C, Gunnarsson U, Schmoll HJ, Dolci SM, Ghenne C, Metzger-Filho O, Skrzypski M, Paesmans M, Ameye L, Piccart-Gebhart MJ, de Azambuja E (August 2011). "Role of the multidisciplinary team in breast cancer management: results from a large international survey involving 39 countries". Annals of Oncology. 23 (4): 853–9. doi:10.1093/annonc/mdr352. PMID   21821551.
  115. Khalil, Danny N.; Smith, Eric L.; Brentjens, Renier J.; Wolchok, Jedd D. (15 March 2016). "The future of cancer treatment: immunomodulation, CARs and combination immunotherapy". Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology. 13 (5): 273–290. doi:10.1038/nrclinonc.2016.25.
  116. Leite, AM; Macedo, AVS; Jorge, AJL; Martins, WA (August 2018). "Antiplatelet Therapy in Breast Cancer Patients Using Hormonal Therapy: Myths, Evidence and Potentialities - Systematic Review". Arquivos brasileiros de cardiologia. 111 (2): 205–212. doi:10.5935/abc.20180138. PMID   30183988.
  117. Holmes MD, Chen WY, Li L, Hertzmark E, Spiegelman D, Hankinson SE (2010). "Aspirin Intake and Survival After Breast Cancer". Journal of Clinical Oncology. 28 (9): 1467–72. doi:10.1200/JCO.2009.22.7918. PMC   2849768 . PMID   20159825.
  118. Ting Bao; Michelle A Rudek (2011). "The Clinical Pharmacology of Anastrozole". European Oncology & Haematology. 7 (2): 106–8. doi:10.17925/EOH.2011.07.02.106. Archived from the original on 19 April 2012.
  119. Burstein, HJ; Temin, S; Anderson, H; Buchholz, TA; Davidson, NE; Gelmon, KE; Giordano, SH; Hudis, CA; Rowden, D; Solky, AJ; Stearns, V; Winer, EP; Griggs, JJ (27 May 2014). "Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy for Women With Hormone Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology Clinical Practice Guideline Focused Update". Journal of Clinical Oncology. 32 (21): 2255–69. doi:10.1200/JCO.2013.54.2258. PMC   4876310 . PMID   24868023.
  120. Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group (23 July 2015). "Aromatase inhibitors versus tamoxifen in early breast cancer: patient-level meta-analysis of the randomised trials". The Lancet. 386 (10001): 1341–1352. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)61074-1. PMID   26211827.
  121. Petit T, Dufour P, Tannock I (June 2011). "A critical evaluation of the role of aromatase inhibitors as adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal women with breast cancer". Endocr. Relat. Cancer. 18 (3): R79–89. doi:10.1530/ERC-10-0162. PMID   21502311.
  122. "Treatment of metastatic breast cancer". www.uptodate.com. Archived from the original on 4 September 2017. Retrieved 4 September 2017.
  123. "Combination of Ribociclib and Letrozole Is a Home Run in Advanced Breast Cancer - The ASCO Post". ascopost.com. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  124. Jahanzeb M (August 2008). "Adjuvant trastuzumab therapy for HER2-positive breast cancer". Clin. Breast Cancer. 8 (4): 324–33. doi:10.3816/CBC.2008.n.037. PMID   18757259.
  125. "Entrez Gene: ERBB2 v-erb-b2 erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2, neuro/glioblastoma derived oncogene homolog (avian)". Archived from the original on 26 October 2009. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
  126. "Herceptin (trastuzumab) Adjuvant HER2+ Breast Cancer Therapy Pivotal Studies and Efficacy Data". Herceptin.com. Archived from the original on 6 April 2010. Retrieved 8 May 2010.
  127. "New ASCO Guidelines on Treating Advanced-Stage HER2-Positive Breast Cancer". Breastcancer.org. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  128. Slamon, Dennis J.; Leyland-Jones, Brian; Shak, Steven; Fuchs, Hank; Paton, Virginia; Bajamonde, Alex; Fleming, Thomas; Eiermann, Wolfgang; Wolter, Janet; Pegram, Mark; Baselga, Jose; Norton, Larry (15 March 2001). "Use of Chemotherapy plus a Monoclonal Antibody against HER2 for Metastatic Breast Cancer That Overexpresses HER2". New England Journal of Medicine. 344 (11): 783–792. doi:10.1056/NEJM200103153441101.
  129. Massarut S, Baldassare G, Belleti B, Reccanello S, D'Andrea S, Ezio C, Perin T, Roncadin M, Vaidya JS (2006). "Intraoperative radiotherapy impairs breast cancer cell motility induced by surgical wound fluid". J Clin Oncol. 24 (18S): 10611. Archived from the original on 12 January 2012.
  130. Belletti B, Vaidya JS, D'Andrea S, Entschladen F, Roncadin M, Lovat F, Berton S, Perin T, Candiani E, Reccanello S, Veronesi A, Canzonieri V, Trovò MG, Zaenker KS, Colombatti A, Baldassarre G, Massarut S (March 2008). "Targeted intraoperative radiotherapy impairs the stimulation of breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion caused by surgical wounding". Clin. Cancer Res. 14 (5): 1325–32. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-07-4453. PMID   18316551.
  131. "Radiation Therapy". Breastcancer.org. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
  132. "Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Professional". Merck.com. Archived from the original on 10 November 2011. Retrieved 8 May 2010.
  133. "Surgery Choices for Women with Early Stage Breast Cancer" (PDF). National Cancer Institute and the National Research Center for Women & Families. August 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 August 2013.
  134. "Breast Cancer: Breast Disorders: Merck Manual Professional". Merck.com. Archived from the original on 10 November 2011. Retrieved 14 November 2010.
  135. Elston CW, Ellis IO (November 1991). "Pathological prognostic factors in breast cancer. I. The value of histological grade in breast cancer: experience from a large study with long-term follow-up". Histopathology. 19 (5): 403–10. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2559.1991.tb00229.x. PMID   1757079.
  136. Peppercorn J (2009). "Breast Cancer in Women Under 40". Oncology. 23 (6). Archived from the original on 16 June 2009.
  137. Pritchard KI (2009). "Ovarian Suppression/Ablation in Premenopausal ER-Positive Breast Cancer Patients". Oncology. 23 (1). Archived from the original on 5 July 2009.
  138. "WHO Disease and injury country estimates". World Health Organization. 2009. Archived from the original on 11 November 2009. Retrieved 11 November 2009.
  139. 1 2 3 McGuire, A; Brown, JA; Malone, C; McLaughlin, R; Kerin, MJ (22 May 2015). "Effects of age on the detection and management of breast cancer". Cancers. 7 (2): 908–29. doi:10.3390/cancers7020815. PMC   4491690 . PMID   26010605.
  140. 1 2 3 "World Cancer Report". International Agency for Research on Cancer. 2008. Archived from the original on 31 December 2011. Retrieved 26 February 2011. (cancer statistics often exclude non-melanoma skin cancers such as basal-cell carcinoma, which are common but rarely fatal)
  141. "Breast cancer: prevention and control". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015.
  142. World Cancer Report 2014. International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization. 2014. ISBN   978-92-832-0432-9.
  143. Stewart B. W. and Kleihues P. (Eds): World Cancer Report. IARCPress. Lyon 2003 Archived 20 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  144. Wyld (2018). Breast cancer management for surgeons : a European multidisciplinary textbook. Springer. p. 580. ISBN   978-3-319-56671-9.
  145. Laurance, Jeremy (29 September 2006). "Breast cancer cases rise 80% since Seventies". The Independent . London. Archived from the original on 25 April 2008. Retrieved 9 October 2006.
  146. "Breast Cancer: Statistics on Incidence, Survival, and Screening". Imaginis Corporation. 2006. Archived from the original on 24 October 2006. Retrieved 9 October 2006.
  147. Breast Cancer: Breast Cancer in Young Women Archived 10 September 2009 at the Wayback Machine WebMD. Retrieved 9 September 2009
  148. Nearly 85% of women diagnosed with breast cancer now survive for 5 year or more Archived 5 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine Office for National Statistics, 2013
  149. Cancer Stat Facts: Female Breast Cancer, U.S. National Cancer Institute, accessed February 16, 2018
  150. 1 2 3 Olson, James Stuart (2002). Bathsheba's breast: women, cancer & history. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 9–13. ISBN   978-0-8018-6936-5.
  151. 1 2 "Oldest evidence of breast cancer found in Egyptian skeleton". Reuters. Reuters. 24 March 2015. Archived from the original on 27 March 2015. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
  152. "The History of Cancer". American Cancer Society. 25 March 2002. Archived from the original on 9 October 2006. Retrieved 9 October 2006.
  153. 1 2 Olson 2002 , pp. 32–33
  154. Yalom, Marilyn (1997). A history of the breast. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 234. ISBN   978-0-679-43459-7.
  155. 1 2 3 4 Aronowitz, Robert A. (2007). Unnatural history: breast cancer and American society. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 22–24. ISBN   978-0-521-82249-7.
  156. Faguet, Guy (2015). "Chapter 2: An Historical Overview: From Prehistory to WWII. From Medieval Europe to World War II". The Conquest of Cancer: A Distant Goal. p. 24. ISBN   9789401791656.
  157. Kaartinen, Marjo (2013). "Chapter 2: "But Sad Resources": Treating Cancer in the Eighteenth Century". Breast cancer in the eighteenth century. London: Pickering & Chatto. p. 53. ISBN   978-1-84893-364-4.
  158. Macintyre, IM (June 2011). "Scientific surgeon of the Enlightenment or 'plagiarist in everything': a reappraisal of Benjamin Bell (1749-1806)". The Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. 41 (2): 174–81. doi:10.4997/JRCPE.2011.211. PMID   21677925. Open Access logo PLoS transparent.svg
  159. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Olson 2002 , pp. 102–6
  160. Olson 2002 , p. 1
  161. Marc Lacroix (2011). A Concise History of Breast Cancer. USA: Nova Science Publishers. pp. 59–68. ISBN   978-1-61122-305-7.
  162. Olson 2002 , pp. 26,28,229
  163. Alfredo Morabia (2004). A History of Epidemiologic Methods and Concepts. Boston: Birkhauser. pp. 301–302. ISBN   978-3-7643-6818-0 . Retrieved 31 December 2007.
  164. 1 2 Sulik, Gayle A. (2010). Pink Ribbon Blues: How Breast Cancer Culture Undermines Women's Health. USA: Oxford University Press. pp. 200–3. ISBN   978-0-19-974045-1. OCLC   535493589.
  165. Sulik 2010 , pp. 37–38
  166. Sulik 2010 , p. 4
  167. Bob Riter. "History of Breast Cancer Advocacy". Cancer Resource Center of the Finger Lakes. Archived from the original on 23 June 2013. Retrieved 29 June 2013.
  168. Sulik 2010 , pp. 27–72
  169. Sulik 2010 , pp. 359–361
  170. Sulik 2010 , pp. 366–8
  171. Landeman, Anne (11 June 2008). "Pinkwashing: Can Shopping Cure Breast Cancer?". Center for Media and Democracy. Archived from the original on 5 June 2011.
  172. Sulik 2010 , pp. 365–6
  173. Sulik 2010 , pp. 372–4
  174. Breast cancer month overshadowed by 'pinkwashing' Archived 12 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine 9 October 2010, Angela Mulholland, CTV.ca News
  175. 1 2 3 4 Ehrenreich, Barbara (November 2001). "Welcome to Cancerland". Harper's Magazine . Archived from the original on 20 November 2010.
  176. Sulik 2010 , p. 57
  177. 1 2 Browne, Anthony (7 October 2001). "Cancer bias puts breasts first". The Guardian . London. Archived from the original on 26 December 2016.
  178. Arnst, Catherine (13 June 2007). "A Gender Gap in Cancer". Bloomberg Businessweek . ISSN   0007-7135. Archived from the original on 6 August 2011.
  179. Olson 2002 , pp. 199–200
  180. Ave, Melanie (10 October 2006). "Tampabay: All May Not Be in the Pink". St. Petersburg Times . Archived from the original on 24 August 2009.
  181. 1 2 Aschwanden, Christie (17 August 2009). "The Trouble with Mammograms". The Los Angeles Times . Archived from the original on 4 December 2010.
  182. Azim HA, Jr; Santoro, L; Russell-Edu, W; Pentheroudakis, G; Pavlidis, N; Peccatori, FA (November 2012). "Prognosis of pregnancy-associated breast cancer: a meta-analysis of 30 studies". Cancer Treatment Reviews. 38 (7): 834–42. doi:10.1016/j.ctrv.2012.06.004. PMID   22785217.
  183. Schedin, P (April 2006). "Pregnancy-associated breast cancer and metastasis". Nature Reviews. Cancer. 6 (4): 281–91. doi:10.1038/nrc1839. PMID   16557280.
  184. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Connie Henke Yarbro; Debra Wujcik; Barbara Holmes Gobel, eds. (2011). Cancer nursing: principles and practice (7 ed.). Jones & Bartlett Publishers. pp. 901–905. ISBN   978-1-4496-1829-2.
  185. 1 2 Gonçalves V, Sehovic I, Quinn G (2013). "Childbearing attitudes and decisions of young breast cancer survivors: A systematic review". Human Reproduction Update. 20 (2): 279–92. doi:10.1093/humupd/dmt039. PMC   3922144 . PMID   24077938.
  186. McNaught J, Reid RL, Provencher DM, et al. (July 2006). "Progesterone-only and non-hormonal contraception in the breast cancer survivor: Joint Review and Committee Opinion of the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada and the Society of Gynecologic Oncologists of Canada". J Obstet Gynaecol Can. 28 (7): 616–39. doi:10.1016/S1701-2163(16)32195-8. PMID   16924781.
  187. Management of the menopause after breast cancer, from the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists. College Statement C-Gyn 15. 1st Endorsed: February 2003. Current: November 2011. Review: November 2014
  188. Venur, Vyshak Alva; Leone, José Pablo (13 September 2016). "Targeted Therapies for Brain Metastases from Breast Cancer". International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 17 (9): 1543. doi:10.3390/ijms17091543. PMC   5037817 . PMID   27649142. Archived from the original on 7 March 2017.
  189. Suryawanshi, Yogesh R.; Zhang, Tiantian; Essani, Karim (9 February 2017). "Oncolytic viruses: emerging options for the treatment of breast cancer". Medical Oncology. 34 (3): 43. doi:10.1007/s12032-017-0899-0. ISSN   1357-0560. PMID   28185165.
  190. Obermiller, P. S.; Tait, D. L.; Holt, J. T. (1999). "Gene therapy for carcinoma of the breast: Therapeutic genetic correction strategies". Breast Cancer Research : Bcr. 2 (1): 28–31. doi:10.1186/bcr26. PMC   521211 . PMID   11250690.
  191. Roth, J. A.; Swisher, S. G.; Meyn, R. E. (1999). "P53 tumor suppressor gene therapy for cancer". Oncology (Williston Park, N.y.). 13 (10 Suppl 5): 148–54. PMID   10550840.
  192. Yu, Lin-Yu; Tang, Jie; Zhang, Cong-Min; Zeng, Wen-Jing; Yan, Han; Li, Mu-Peng; Chen, Xiao-Ping (12 January 2017). "New Immunotherapy Strategies in Breast Cancer". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 14 (1): 68. doi:10.3390/ijerph14010068. PMC   5295319 . PMID   28085094. Archived from the original on 7 March 2017.
  193. San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium Archived 16 May 2010 at the Wayback Machine Abstracts, newsletters, and other reports of the meeting.
  194. Goldhirsch A, Ingle JN, Gelber RD, Coates AS, Thürlimann B, Senn HJ (August 2009). "Thresholds for therapies: highlights of the St Gallen International Expert Consensus on the primary therapy of early breast cancer 2009". Annals of Oncology. 20 (8): 1319–29. doi:10.1093/annonc/mdp322. PMC   2720818 . PMID   19535820.
  195. "What's new in breast cancer research and treatment?". Cancer. Archived from the original on 12 November 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
  196. "Fenretinide (4-HPR): A Preventive Chance for Women at Genetic and Familial Risk?". hindawi. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 17 November 2015.
  197. Sabel, MS (July 2014). "Nonsurgical ablation of breast cancer: future options for small breast tumors". Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America. 23 (3): 593–608. doi:10.1016/j.soc.2014.03.009. PMID   24882353.
  198. 1 2 Roubidoux, MA; Yang, W; Stafford, RJ (March 2014). "Image-guided ablation in breast cancer treatment". Techniques in Vascular and Interventional Radiology. 17 (1): 49–54. doi:10.1053/j.tvir.2013.12.008. PMID   24636331.
  199. Fornage, Bruno D; Hwang, Rosa F (August 2014). "Current Status of Imaging-Guided Percutaneous Ablation of Breast Cancer". American Journal of Roentgenology. 203 (2): 442–448. doi:10.2214/AJR.13.11600. PMID   25055283.
  200. Jauliac S, López-Rodriguez C, Shaw LM, Brown LF, Rao A, Toker A (July 2002). "The role of NFAT transcription factors in integrin-mediated carcinoma invasion". Nature Cell Biology. 4 (7): 540–4. doi:10.1038/ncb816. PMID   12080349.
  201. Yoeli-Lerner M, Yiu GK, Rabinovitz I, Erhardt P, Jauliac S, Toker A (23 November 2005). "Akt blocks breast cancer cell motility and invasion through the transcription factor NFAT". Molecular Cell. 20 (4): 539–50. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2005.10.033. PMID   16307918.
  202. 1 2 Fougère M, Gaudineau B, Barbier J, Guaddachi F, Feugeas JP, Auboeuf D, Jauliac S (15 April 2010). "NFAT3 transcription factor inhibits breast cancer cell motility by targeting the Lipocalin 2 gene". Oncogene. 29 (15): 2292–301. doi:10.1038/onc.2009.499. PMID   20101218.
  203. Gaudineau B, Fougère M, Guaddachi F, Lemoine F, de la Grange P, Jauliac S (1 October 2012). "Lipocalin 2 (LCN2), the TNF-like receptor TWEAKR and its ligand TWEAK act downstream of NFAT1 to regulate breast cancer cell invasion". Journal of Cell Science. 125 (19): 4475–4486. doi:10.1242/jcs.099879. PMID   22767506.
  204. Duffy MJ (2001). "Biochemical markers in breast cancer: which ones are clinically useful?". Clin Biochem. 34 (5): 347–52. doi:10.1016/s0009-9120(00)00201-0. PMID   11522269.
Classification
D
External resources