Last updated
International Classification of Diseases Version 10
International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision
Year started1983
First published1994
Preview version1990
Organization World Health Organization
Domain Medical classification
Website icd.who.int/browse10/2019/en

ICD-10 is the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), a medical classification list by the World Health Organization (WHO). It contains codes for diseases, signs and symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances, and external causes of injury or diseases. [1] Work on ICD-10 began in 1983, [2] became endorsed by the Forty-third World Health Assembly in 1990, and was first used by member states in 1994. [1] It was replaced by ICD-11 on January 1, 2022. [3] [4]


While WHO manages and publishes the base version of the ICD, several member states have modified it to better suit their needs. In the base classification, the code set allows for more than 14,000 different codes [5] and permits the tracking of many new diagnoses compared to the preceding ICD-9. Through the use of optional sub-classifications, ICD-10 allows for specificity regarding the cause, manifestation, location, severity, and type of injury or disease. [6] The adapted versions may differ in a number of ways, and some national editions have expanded the code set even further; with some going so far as to add procedure codes. ICD-10-CM, for example, has over 70,000 codes. [7]

The WHO provides detailed information regarding the ICD via its website – including an ICD-10 online browser [8] and ICD training materials. [9] The online training includes a support forum, a self-learning tool [9] and user guide. [10]


The following table lists the chapter number (using Roman numerals), the code range of each chapter, and the chapter's title from the international version of the ICD-10. [11]

ICD-10 chapters
IA00–B99Certain infectious and parasitic diseases
IIID50–D89Diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs and certain disorders involving the immune mechanism
IVE00–E90Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases
VF00–F99Mental and behavioural disorders
VIG00–G99Diseases of the nervous system
VIIH00–H59Diseases of the eye and adnexa
VIIIH60–H95Diseases of the ear and mastoid process
IXI00–I99Diseases of the circulatory system
XJ00–J99Diseases of the respiratory system
XIK00–K93Diseases of the digestive system
XIIL00–L99Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue
XIIIM00–M99Diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue
XIVN00–N99Diseases of the genitourinary system
XVO00–O99Pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium
XVIP00–P96Certain conditions originating in the perinatal period
XVIIQ00–Q99Congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities
XVIIIR00–R99Symptoms, signs and abnormal clinical and laboratory findings, not elsewhere classified
XIXS00–T98Injury, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes
XXV01–Y98External causes of morbidity and mortality
XXIZ00–Z99Factors influencing health status and contact with health services
XXIIU00–U99Codes for special purposes

National adoptions

Approximately 27 [12] [13] countries use ICD-10 for reimbursement and resource allocation in their health system, and some have made modifications to ICD to better accommodate its utility. The unchanged international version of ICD-10 is used in 117 countries for performing cause of death reporting and statistics. [1]

The national versions may differ from the base classification in the level of detail, incomplete adoption of a category, [14] or the addition of procedure codes.


Introduced in 1998, ICD-10 Australian Modification (ICD-10-AM) was developed by the National Centre for Classification in Health at the University of Sydney. [15] It is currently maintained by the Australian Consortium for Classification Development. [16]

ICD-10-AM has also been adopted by New Zealand, [17] the Republic of Ireland, [18] Saudi Arabia [19] and several other countries. [20]


Brazil introduced ICD-10 in 1996. [21]


Canada began using ICD-10 for mortality reporting in 2000. [22] A six-year, phased implementation of ICD-10-CA for morbidity reporting began in 2001. [23] It was staggered across Canada's ten provinces, with Quebec the last to make the switch. [23]

ICD-10-CA is available in both English- and French-language versions. [22]


China adopted ICD-10 in 2002. [24]

Czech Republic

The Czech Republic adopted ICD-10 in 1994, one year after its official release by WHO. [25] Revisions to the international edition are adopted continuously. [26] [27] The official Czech translation of ICD-10 2016 10th Revision was published in 2018. [25]


ICD-10 was first introduced into the psychiatric health service system on 1 January 1994. [28]


Estonia adopted ICD-10 from January 1, 1997, via a ministerial degree. [29] However, chapter V "Mental and behavioural disorders" had already been in use from January 1, 1994, also via a ministerial degree. [30]


France introduced a clinical addendum to ICD-10 in 1997. [31] See also website of the ATIH.


Germany's ICD-10 German Modification (ICD-10-GM) is based on ICD-10-AM. [20] ICD-10-GM was developed between 2003 and 2004, by the German Institute for Medical Documentation and Information. [20]


Hungary introduced the use of ICD-10 from January 1, 1996, via a ministerial decree. [32]


A Korean modification has existed since 2008. [33]


The Dutch translation of ICD-10 is ICD10-nl, which was created by the WHO-FIC Network in 1994. [34] There is an online dictionary. [35]


The Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation ordered in 1997 to transfer all health organizations to ICD-10. [36]

South Africa

ICD-10 was implemented in July 2005 under the auspice of the National ICD-10 Implementation Task Team which is a joint task team between the National Department of Health and the Council for Medical Schemes. [37]


The current Swedish translation of ICD-10 was created in 1997. [28]


The ICD-10-TM (Thai Modification) is a Thai language version based on the 2016 ICD-10.[ citation needed ] An unusual feature of the index of ICD-10-TM is that it is bilingual, containing both Thai and English trails. [38]

United Kingdom

ICD-10 was first mandated for use in the UK in 1995. [39] In 2010 the UK Government made a commitment to update the UK version of ICD-10 every three years. [40] On 1 April 2016, following a year's delay, [40] ICD-10 5th Edition [note 1] replaced the 4th Edition as the mandated diagnostic classification within the UK, [41] and remains the current version for use within the UK. [42]

United States

For disease reporting, the US utilizes its own national variant of ICD-10 called the ICD-10 Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM). [43] A procedural classification called ICD-10 Procedure Coding System (ICD-10-PCS) [note 2] has also been developed for capturing inpatient procedures. [43] The ICD-10-CM and ICD-10-PCS were developed by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). [43] [44] There are over 70,000 ICD-10-PCS procedure codes and over 69,000 ICD-10-CM diagnosis codes, compared to about 3,800 procedure codes and roughly 14,000 diagnosis codes found in the previous ICD-9-CM. [7]

There was much controversy when the transition from the ICD-9-CM to the ICD-10-CM was first announced in the US. Many providers were concerned about the vast number of codes being added, the complexity of the new coding system, and the costs associated with the transition. [45] The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) weighed these concerns against the benefits of having more accurate data collection, clearer documentation of diagnoses and procedures, and more accurate claims processing. [45] CMS decided the financial and public health cost associated with continuing to use the ICD-9-CM was too high and mandated the switch to ICD-10-CM. [45]

The deadline for the United States to begin using ICD-10-CM for diagnosis coding and Procedure Coding System ICD-10-PCS for inpatient hospital procedure coding was set at October 1, 2015, [46] [47] a year later than the previous 2014 deadline. [48] Before the 2014 deadline, the previous deadline had been a year before that on October 1, 2013. [49] [50] All HIPAA "covered entities" were required to make the change; a pre-requisite to ICD-10-CM is the adoption of EDI Version 5010 by January 1, 2012.[ citation needed ] Enforcement of 5010 transition by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), however, was postponed by CMS until March 31, 2012, with the federal agency citing numerous factors, including slow software upgrades. [51] The implementation of ICD-10-CM has been subject to previous delays. In January 2009, the date was pushed back to October 1, 2013, rather than an earlier proposal of October 1, 2011. [52]

Two common complaints in the United States about the ICD-10-CM are 1) the long list of potentially relevant codes for a given condition (such as rheumatoid arthritis) which can be confusing and reduce efficiency and 2) the assigned codes for seldom seen conditions (e.g. W55.22XA: Struck by cow, initial encounter; and V91.07XA: Burn due to water-skis on fire, initial encounter). [53] [54]


The expansion of healthcare delivery systems and changes in global health trends prompted a need for codes with improved clinical accuracy and specificity. [44] The alphanumeric coding in ICD-10 is an improvement from ICD-9 which had a limited number of codes and a restrictive structure. [44] Early concerns in the implementation of ICD-10 included the cost and the availability of resources for training healthcare workers and professional coders. [55]

See also


  1. The numbering system of editions only refers to those used in the UK; not those issued by WHO. For example, whilst the 5th edition is based on ICD-10 version:2016, the 4th edition was based on the version from 2010 (skipping the versions of ICD-10 from 2014 and 2015).
  2. Although named ICD-10-PCS, this volume is not based on any of the WHO-FIC publications.

Related Research Articles

The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is a globally used medical classification used in epidemiology, health management and for clinical purposes. The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization (WHO), which is the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System. The ICD is originally designed as a health care classification system, providing a system of diagnostic codes for classifying diseases, including nuanced classifications of a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances, and external causes of injury or disease. This system is designed to map health conditions to corresponding generic categories together with specific variations, assigning for these a designated code, up to six characters long. Thus, major categories are designed to include a set of similar diseases.

Diagnosis-related group (DRG) is a system to classify hospital cases into one of originally 467 groups, with the last group being "Ungroupable". This system of classification was developed as a collaborative project by Robert B Fetter, PhD, of the Yale School of Management, and John D. Thompson, MPH, of the Yale School of Public Health. The system is also referred to as "the DRGs", and its intent was to identify the "products" that a hospital provides. One example of a "product" is an appendectomy. The system was developed in anticipation of convincing Congress to use it for reimbursement, to replace "cost based" reimbursement that had been used up to that point. DRGs are assigned by a "grouper" program based on ICD diagnoses, procedures, age, sex, discharge status, and the presence of complications or comorbidities. DRGs have been used in the US since 1982 to determine how much Medicare pays the hospital for each "product", since patients within each category are clinically similar and are expected to use the same level of hospital resources. DRGs may be further grouped into Major Diagnostic Categories (MDCs). DRGs are also standard practice for establishing reimbursements for other Medicare related reimbursements such as to home healthcare providers.

A medical classification is used to transform descriptions of medical diagnoses or procedures into standardized statistical code in a process known as clinical coding. Diagnosis classifications list diagnosis codes, which are used to track diseases and other health conditions, inclusive of chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus and heart disease, and infectious diseases such as norovirus, the flu, and athlete's foot. Procedure classifications list procedure code, which are used to capture interventional data. These diagnosis and procedure codes are used by health care providers, government health programs, private health insurance companies, workers' compensation carriers, software developers, and others for a variety of applications in medicine, public health and medical informatics, including:

The Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code set is a procedural code set developed by the American Medical Association (AMA). It is maintained by the CPT Editorial Panel. The CPT code set describes medical, surgical, and diagnostic services and is designed to communicate uniform information about medical services and procedures among physicians, coders, patients, accreditation organizations, and payers for administrative, financial, and analytical purposes. New editions are released each October, with CPT 2021 being in use since October 2021. It is available in both a standard edition and a professional edition.

The ICD-10 Procedure Coding System (ICD-10-PCS) is a US system of medical classification used for procedural coding. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, the agency responsible for maintaining the inpatient procedure code set in the U.S., contracted with 3M Health Information Systems in 1995 to design and then develop a procedure classification system to replace Volume 3 of ICD-9-CM. ICD-9-CM contains a procedure classification; ICD-10-CM does not. ICD-10-PCS is the result. ICD-10-PCS was initially released in 1998. It has been updated annually since that time. Despite being named after the WHO's International Classification of Diseases, it is a US-developed standard which is not used outside the United States.

Procedure codes are a sub-type of medical classification used to identify specific surgical, medical, or diagnostic interventions. The structure of the codes will depend on the classification; for example some use a numerical system, others alphanumeric.

The International Classification of Health Interventions (ICHI) is a system of classifying procedure codes being developed by the World Health Organization (WHO). It is currently available as a beta 3 release. The components for clinical documentation are stable. The component on public health interventions is in the process of being finalized. Updates on development and status of the classification are listed on WHO home page.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">SNOMED CT</span> System for medical classification

SNOMED CT or SNOMED Clinical Terms is a systematically organized computer-processable collection of medical terms providing codes, terms, synonyms and definitions used in clinical documentation and reporting. SNOMED CT is considered to be the most comprehensive, multilingual clinical healthcare terminology in the world. The primary purpose of SNOMED CT is to encode the meanings that are used in health information and to support the effective clinical recording of data with the aim of improving patient care. SNOMED CT provides the core general terminology for electronic health records. SNOMED CT comprehensive coverage includes: clinical findings, symptoms, diagnoses, procedures, body structures, organisms and other etiologies, substances, pharmaceuticals, devices and specimens.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">AAPC (healthcare)</span> U.S. professional association for healthcare administrators

The AAPC, previously known by the full title of the American Academy of Professional Coders, is a professional association for people working in specific areas of administration within healthcare businesses in the United States. AAPC is one of a number of providers who offer services such as certification and training to medical coders, medical billers, auditors, compliance managers, and practice managers in the United States. As of April 2019, AAPC has over 190,000 worldwide members, of which nearly 155,000 are certified.

A clinical coder—also known as clinical coding officer, diagnostic coder, medical coder, or nosologist—is a health information professional whose main duties are to analyse clinical statements and assign standardized codes using a classification system. The health data produced are an integral part of health information management, and are used by local and national governments, private healthcare organizations and international agencies for various purposes, including medical and health services research, epidemiological studies, health resource allocation, case mix management, public health programming, medical billing, and public education.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project</span>

The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project is a family of healthcare databases and related software tools and products from the United States that is developed through a Federal-State-Industry partnership and sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ).

The ICD-11 is the eleventh revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). It replaces the ICD-10 as the global standard for recording health information and causes of death. The ICD is developed and annually updated by the World Health Organization (WHO). Development of the ICD-11 started in 2007 and spanned over a decade of work, involving over 300 specialists from 55 countries divided into 30 work groups, with an additional 10,000 proposals from people all over the world. Following an alpha version in May 2011 and a beta draft in May 2012, a stable version of the ICD-11 was released on 18 June 2018, and officially endorsed by all WHO members during the 72nd World Health Assembly on 25 May 2019.

A hospital-acquired condition (HAC) is an undesirable situation or condition that affects a patient and that arose during a stay in a hospital or medical facility. It is a designation used by Medicare/Medicaid in the US for determining MS-DRG reimbursement beginning with version 26. Not only hospital-acquired infections but also any other situation or condition, such as pressure ulcers, blood type mismatch, or iatrogenic injury, can be a HAC.

Current Dental Terminology (CDT) is a code set with descriptive terms developed and updated by the American Dental Association (ADA) for reporting dental services and procedures to dental benefits plans. Prior to 2010 many of the codes were published by Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) as HCPCS D-codes under arrangement with the ADA. Ownership and copyright of CDT remained with the ADA. In 2010 the ADA ended the CMS distribution of CDT codes, which can now be purchased from the ADA.

The Healthcare Common Procedure Coding System is a set of health care procedure codes based on the American Medical Association's Current Procedural Terminology (CPT).

Nelly Leon-Chisen, RHIA is the director of coding and classification at the American Hospital Association (AHA), where she is responsible for the direction and overall management of the ANA Central Office on ICD-10-CM and ICD-10-PCS, which is the official United States clearinghouse on coding, sequencing, and reporting data items. She serves as the executive editor of the AHA's coding clinic publications, including the AHA Coding Clinic for ICD-10-CM and ICD-10-PCS and AHA Coding Clinic for HCPCS. She also authors the ICD-10-CM and ICD-10-PCS Coding Handbook with Answers and the ICD-10-CM and ICD-10-PCS Coding Handbook without Answers. Leon-Chisen represents the AHA as one of the ICD Cooperating Parties involved in the development of the ICD-10-CM and ICD-10-PCS Official Guidelines for Coding and Reporting. She also serves as a staff member to the AHA physician representative to the CPT Editorial Panel and is on the CPT Assistant's Editorial Board.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014</span>

The Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014 is a law that delayed until March 2015 a pending cut to Medicare physician payment, a cut that had been regularly delayed for over a decade. Because the law only delayed and did not repeal the physician payment cut, it was a source of controversy.

Clinical documentation improvement (CDI), also known as "clinical documentation integrity", is the best practices, processes, technology, people, and joint effort between providers and billers that advocates the completeness, precision, and validity of provider documentation inherent to transaction code sets sanctioned by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act in the United States.

The ICD coding for rare diseases is the International Classification of Diseases code used for the purpose of documenting rare diseases. It is important for health insurance reimbursement, administration, epidemiology, and research. Of the approximately 7,000 rare diseases, only about 500 have a specific code. However, more than 5400 rare diseases are included in ICD-11 and can be recorded using an ICD-11 URI. An ICD code is needed for a person's medical records—it is important for health insurance reimbursement, administration, epidemiology, and research. Finding the best ICD code for a patient who has a rare disease can be a challenge.

The ICD-10 Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) is a set of diagnosis codes used in the United States of America. It was developed by a component of the U.S. Department of Health and Human services, as an adaption of the ICD-10 with authorization from the World Health Organization. In 2015, ICD-10-CM replaced ICD-9-CM as the federally mandated classification. Annual updates are provided.


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