World Health Assembly

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The World Health Assembly meets in the assembly hall of the Palace of Nations, in Geneva (Switzerland). Assembly Hall View.jpg
The World Health Assembly meets in the assembly hall of the Palace of Nations, in Geneva (Switzerland).

The World Health Assembly (WHA) is the forum through which the World Health Organization (WHO) is governed by its 194 member states. It is the world's highest health policy setting body and is composed of health ministers from member states.

World Health Organization Specialised agency of the United Nations

The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health. It was established on 7 April 1948, and is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. The WHO is a member of the United Nations Development Group. Its predecessor, the Health Organisation, was an agency of the League of Nations.

Health policy policy area, which deals with the planning, organization, management and financing of the health system

Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific healthcare goals within a society". According to the World Health Organization, an explicit health policy can achieve several things: it defines a vision for the future; it outlines priorities and the expected roles of different groups; and it builds consensus and informs people.

A health minister is the member of a country's government typically responsible for protecting and promoting public health and providing welfare and other social security services.

Contents

The members of the WHA generally meet every year in May in Geneva at the palace of nations , the location of WHO Headquarters. The main tasks of the WHA are to decide major policy questions, as well as to approve the WHO work programme and budget and elect its Director General. [1]

Members and observers

The original membership of the WHA, at the first assembly held in 1948, numbered 55 member states. [2] The WHA has, currently, 194 member states. [3]

In addition, seven agencies have observer status at the WHA – the Vatican, the Palestinian Authority, the Order of Malta, the International Committee of the Red Cross, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, the Inter-Parliamentary Union, and The Department of Health of the Republic of China, commonly known as Taiwan, was invited on 28 April 2009 to participate in the WHA 2009 as an observer for the first time since losing its China seat in United Nations to People's Republic of China in 1971. The invitation was extended to "the Department of Health, Chinese Taipei." [4] [5]

Observer status is a privilege granted by some organizations to non-members to give them an ability to participate in the organization's activities. Observer status is often granted by intergovernmental organizations (IGO) to non-member parties and international nongovernmental organizations (INGO) that have an interest in the IGO's activities. Observers generally have a limited ability to participate in the IGO, lacking the ability to vote or propose resolutions.

Holy See episcopal jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, Italy

The Holy See, also called the See of Rome, is the apostolic episcopal see of the bishop of Rome, known as the Pope, ex cathedra the universal ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, and a sovereign entity of international law. Founded in the 1st century by Saints Peter and Paul, by virtue of Petrine and Papal primacy according to Catholic tradition, it is the focal point of full communion for Catholic bishops and Catholics around the world organised in polities of the Latin Church, the 23 Eastern Catholic Churches, and their dioceses and religious institutes.

International Committee of the Red Cross humanitarian institution

The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland, and a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate. State parties (signatories) to the four Geneva Conventions of 1949 and their Additional Protocols of 1977 and 2005 have given the ICRC a mandate to protect victims of international and internal armed conflicts. Such victims include war wounded, prisoners, refugees, civilians, and other non-combatants.

Resolutions

The main international policy frameworks adopted through WHA resolutions include:

In law, resolution is a written motion adopted by a deliberative body. The substance of the resolution can be anything that can normally be proposed as a motion. For long or important motions, though, it is often better to have them written out so that discussion is easier or so that it can be distributed outside the body after its adoption. An alternate term for a resolution is a resolve.

The International Health Regulations (2005) are a legally binding instrument of international law that aim to a) assist countries to work together to save lives and livelihoods endangered by the international spread of diseases and other health risks, and b) avoid unnecessary interference with international trade and travel.

The International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes is an international health policy framework for breastfeeding promotion adopted by the World Health Assembly (WHA) of the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1981. The Code was developed as a global public health strategy and recommends restrictions on the marketing of breast milk substitutes, such as infant formula, to ensure that mothers are not discouraged from breastfeeding and that substitutes are used safely if needed. The Code also covers ethical considerations and regulations for the marketing of feeding bottles and teats. A number of subsequent WHA resolutions have further clarified or extended certain provisions of the Code.

In addition, the WHA has endorsed through resolutions a number of WHO action plans dealing with different areas to improve health around the world, such as:

The WHA is also responsible for the endorsement of the WHO Family of International Classifications, a series of internationally standardized medical classifications, including the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) and the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF).

Annual Assemblies

2009: Sixty-second WHA

In her role as global patron of The White Ribbon Alliance for Safe Motherhood, and chair of the Maternal Mortality Campaign, Sarah Brown gave the keynote speech at the World Health Organization's 62nd WHA, alongside United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, [9] asking "Where is the M in MCH?’ [maternal and child health]" in an echo of Allan Rosenfield's landmark Lancet article of 1985 – and highlighting that the numbers of women dying in pregnancy and childbirth were still the same 14 years later. [10]

2012: Sixty-fifth WHA

Among other actions, the 65th Assembly endorsed the Rio Political Declaration to address the social determinants of health, intended to spearhead support for all countries to adopt inclusive ‘ Health For All ’ approaches to health promotion. [11] It also endorsed the first World Immunization Week. [12]

2013: Sixty-sixth WHA

In her address to the 66th WHA in May 2013, WHO Director-General Margaret Chan traced a brief history of revisions to the International Health Regulations following the SARS outbreak in 2002-3, the "first severe new disease of the 21st century." She observed that the two new diseases WHO is dealing with in 2013 are the novel coronavirus (MERS), from the same family as SARS, detected in 2012 in Saudi Arabia, and the first-ever human infections with the H7N9 avian influenza virus reported in China in 2013. [13] She attributed the positive report by the World Health Statistics (May 2013) on dramatic improvement in health in the world's poorest countries from 1993–2013, to the emphasis placed on poverty alleviation by the Millennium Development Goals. [13] She announced the emergence of global action plans for noncommunicable diseases, mental health, and the prevention of avoidable blindness and visual impairment calling for a life-course approach which includes "equity through universal health coverage," preventive strategies and "integrated service delivery." [13]

Dr. Margaret Chan declared at the Assembly that Intellectual Property, or patents on strains of new virus, should not impede nations from protecting their citizens by limiting scientific investigations. Following the 2012 MERS outbreak in Saudi Arabia, Deputy Health Minister Ziad Memish raised concerns that scientists who applied for a patent would not allow the MERS-coronavirus to be used for investigations by other scientists and were therefore delaying the development of diagnostic tests. Ten of the 22 people who died and 22 of 44 cases reported were in Saudi Arabia. [14] Saudi Arabia–based microbiologist Ali Mohamed Zaki reported the first known case, a 60-year-old Saudi man who got sick in June, 2012 on ProMed-mail, a public health on-line forum [15] then published more details including the virus’s genetic makeup and closest relatives. [15] [16] The Erasmus Medical Center "tested, sequenced and identified" a sample provided by Ali Mohamed Zaki. [17] Erasmus MC and Dr. Zaki strongly refuted all allegations concerning a presumed lack of willingness to cooperate in research into the new MERS coronavirus, making diagnostic tests and virus specimens freely available to all research institutions around the globe. [18]

2014: Sixty-seventh WHA

The 67th WHA took place in Geneva on 19–24 May 2014. Among the more than 20 resolutions adopted by the Assembly included ones concerning strengthening of national drug management systems to address antimicrobial resistance; implementation of the Minamata Convention to protect human health and the environment from effects of exposure to mercury and mercury compounds; and improving access to essential medicines worldwide. [19] Also endorsed was a global monitoring framework for maternal, infant and child nutrition. [20] [21]

Following the 67th WHA, the WHO's Director-General Dr Margaret Chan was criticized by the Association of Correspondents Accredited to the United Nations (ACANU) for not having spoken directly to the media during the course of the Assembly. [22]

2015: Sixty-eighth WHA

The 68th session of the World Health Assembly (WHA) took place in Geneva 18–26 May 2015. The Health Assembly is the supreme decision-making body of WHO. It is attended by delegations from all WHO Member States. Its main functions are to determine the policies of the Organization, supervise financial policies, and review and approve the proposed programme budget. Jagat Prakash Nadda assumed new presidency of WHA. India assumed the presidency after a gap of 19 years.[ citation needed ]

During the assembly the WHA agreed to the Global Malaria Strategy and Programme Budget for 2016–2017, polio, International Health Regulations, strengthening surgical care, WHO's reform of its emergency and response programme, antimicrobial resistance, immunization gaps, malnutrition, air pollution, and epilepsy. Annual health awards were given by the Director-General of WHO and the President of WHA. [23]

2016: Sixty-ninth WHA

The 69th World Health Assembly took place 23–28 May 2016, and agreed to pursue the health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) through a comprehensive set of foundational steps, prioritizing universal health coverage, working with actors outside the health sector to address the social, economic and environmental root causes of antimicrobial resistance and other human health problems, to continue expanding efforts to address poor maternal and child health and infectious diseases in developing countries, and to focus upon equity within and between countries. Delegates decided to invite the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control’s (WHO FCTC) Conference of the Parties (COP) to provide information on outcomes of this biennial event to future World Health Assembly meetings.[ citation needed ]

2017: Seventieth WHA

WHO President, May 2017, 69th WHA Tedros Adhanom first actions as WHO President.png
WHO President, May 2017, 69th WHA

The 70th World Health Assembly took place 22–31 May 2017.

For the first time since 2009, Taiwan was completely excluded from the WHA, following political pressure from the People's Republic of China.

2018: Seventy-first WHA

The 71st World Health Assembly took place 21–26 May 2018. [24]

Controversies

Taiwan was invited as an observer to the WHA for 8 years between 2008 and 2016. However, since the 71st WHA in 2017, China has continued to block Taiwan's participation in WHA as an observer. [25] United States Secretary of Health and Human Services Alex Azar have voiced support for Taiwan's inclusion in WHA as an observer. [26]

See also

Notes and references

  1. World Health Organization. World Health Assembly. Geneva. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
  2. WHO. Working for health: an introduction to the World Health Organization. Geneva.
  3. WHO. Countries. Retrieved 27 October 2011.
  4. Beijing may help Taipei in WHO role. Posted by China Daily, 2009-03-26.
  5. Taiwan invited to attend World Health Assembly. Posted by The China Post, April 29, 2009.
  6. WHO. Milestones in the eradication of smallpox. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
  7. WHO. Poliomyelitis. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
  8. 1 2 WHO. Sixty-fourth World Health Assembly closes after passing multiple resolutions. Geneva, 24 May 2011. Retrieved 21 June 2011.
  9. "World Health Organization". 19 May 2009. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
  10. "World Health Organization, Keynote address to 62nd World Health Assembly by Sarah Brown, Patron of the White Ribbon Alliance for Safe Motherhood". 19 May 2009. Retrieved 5 August 2014.
  11. WHO. 65th World Health Assembly closes with new global health measures. Retrieved 9 April 2014.
  12. World Health Organization, World Immunization Week essentials. Retrieved 9 April 2014.
  13. 1 2 3 Dr Margaret Chan, Director-General of the World Health Organization (20 May 2013). WHO Director-General addresses the sixty-sixth World Health Assembly (Report). Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization (WHO).
  14. "WHO urges information sharing over novel coronavirus". BBC News. 23 May 2013.
  15. 1 2 Saey, Tina Hesman (27 February 2013). "Scientists race to understand deadly new virus: SARS-like infection causes severe illness, but may not spread quickly". 183 (6). Science News. p. 5.
  16. Ali Mohamed Zaki; et al. (8 November 2012). "Isolation of a novel coronavirus from a man with pneumonia in Saudi Arabia". New England Journal of Medicine. 367 (19): 1814–20. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1211721. PMID   23075143.
  17. Heilprin, John (23 May 2013). The Associated Press (AP) (ed.). "WHO: Probe into deadly coronavirus delayed by sample dispute". Geneva: CTV.
  18. Erasmus MC, Erasmus MC: no restrictions for public health research into MERS coronavirus. Rotterdam, 24 May 2013.
  19. World Health Organization, World Health Assembly closes. Geneva, 24 May 2014. Retrieved 20 June 2014.
  20. World Health Organization, Informal consultation with Member States and UN Agencies on proposed set of indicators for the Global Monitoring Framework for Maternal, Infant and Young Child Nutrition. Retrieved 9 April 2014.
  21. WHO, World Health Assembly approves monitoring framework for maternal and child nutrition. Geneva, 21 May 2014. Retrieved 20 June 2014.
  22. Pamela Das, Gabriela Sotomayor, WHO and the media: a major impediment to global health? The Lancet, 383(9935):2102–2104, 21 June 2014.
  23. WHO, Geneva, 26 May 2015. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
  24. "WHA71 side events: Technical briefings, official side events and other meetings at the Palais des Nations and in town". Geneva Global Health Hub. Retrieved July 9, 2018.
  25. "China Bars Taiwan From World Health Assembly" Retrieved 21 May 2019.
  26. "US backs calls for Taiwan to get role at UN health assembly."

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