|Type||Public policy think tank|
|Headquarters||1775 Massachusetts Avenue NW|
|John R. Allen|
|Expenses (2020)||$93.372 million|
|Endowment||$355.2 million (2020)|
|Institute for Government Research|
The Brookings Institution, often simply called Brookings, is an American research group founded in 1916 on Think Tank Row in Washington, D.C.It conducts research and education in the social sciences, primarily in economics (and tax policy), metropolitan policy, governance, foreign policy, global economy, and economic development. Its stated mission is to "provide innovative and practical recommendations that advance three broad goals: strengthen American democracy; foster the economic and social welfare, security and opportunity of all Americans; and secure a more open, safe, prosperous, and cooperative international system."
Brookings has five research programs at its Washington campus (Economic Studies,Foreign Policy, Governance Studies, Global Economy and Development, and Metropolitan Policy). It also established three international centers based in Doha, Qatar (Brookings Doha Center, and since 2021, the Middle East Council on Global Affairs or MECGA); Beijing, China (Brookings-Tsinghua Center for Public Policy, and since 2020, the Brookings-Tsinghua China Office at Tsinghua University); and New Delhi, India (Brookings India, and since 2020, the Centre for Social and Economic Progress or CSEP).
The University of Pennsylvania's Global Go To Think Tank Index Report has named Brookings "Think Tank of the Year" and "Top Think Tank in the World" every year since 2008.The Economist describes Brookings as "perhaps America’s most prestigious think-tank."
Brookings states that its staff "represent diverse points of view" and describes itself as nonpartisan,and various media outlets have alternately described Brookings as centrist, liberal, or right-wing. An academic analysis of congressional records from 1993 to 2002 found that Brookings was cited by conservative politicians almost as often as by liberal politicians, earning a score of 53 on a 1–100 scale, 100 representing the most liberal score. The same study found Brookings to be the most frequently cited think tank by U.S. media and politicians.
Brookings was founded in 1916 as the Institute for Government Research (IGR), with the mission of becoming "the first private organization devoted to analyzing public policy issues at the national level."
The Institution's founder, philanthropist Robert S. Brookings (1850–1932), originally created three organizations: the Institute for Government Research, the Institute of Economics (with funds from the Carnegie Corporation), and the Robert Brookings Graduate School affiliated with Washington University in St. Louis. The three were merged into the Brookings Institution on December 8, 1927.
During the Great Depression, economists at Brookings embarked on a large-scale study commissioned by President Franklin D. Roosevelt to understand its underlying causes. Brookings's first president, Harold Moulton, and other Brookings scholars later led an effort to oppose Roosevelt's National Recovery Administration because they thought it impeded economic recovery.
With the U.S. entry into World War II in 1941, Brookings researchers turned their attention to aiding the administration with a series of studies on mobilization. In 1948, Brookings was asked to submit a plan for administering the European Recovery Program. The resulting organization scheme assured that the Marshall Plan was run carefully and on a businesslike basis.
In 1952, Robert Calkins succeeded Moulton as president of the Brookings Institution. He secured grants from the Rockefeller Foundation and the Ford Foundation that put Brookings on a strong financial basis. He reorganized it around the Economic Studies, Government Studies, and Foreign Policy Programs. In 1957, Brookings moved from Jackson Avenue to a new research center near Dupont Circle in Washington, D.C.
Kermit Gordon assumed the presidency of Brookings in 1967. He began a series of studies of program choices for the federal budget in 1969 titled "Setting National Priorities." He also expanded the Foreign Policy Studies Program to include research in national security and defense. After Richard Nixon was elected president in 1968, the relationship between Brookings and the White House deteriorated; at one point Nixon's aide Charles Colson proposed a firebombing of the institution.Yet throughout the 1970s, Brookings was offered more federal research contracts than it could handle.
After Gordon died in 1976, Gilbert Y. Steiner, director of the governmental studies program, was appointed the fourth and acting president of the Brookings Institution by the board of trustees.As director of the governmental studies program, Steiner brought in numerous scholars whose research ranges from administrative reform to urban policy, not only enhancing the visibility and influence of the Brookings program in Washington and nationally, but also producing works that have survived as classics in the field of political science.
By the 1980s, Brookings faced an increasingly competitive and ideologically charged intellectual environment.The need to reduce the federal budget deficit became a major research theme, as did problems with national security and government inefficiency. Bruce MacLaury, Brookings's fifth president, also established the Center for Public Policy Education to develop workshop conferences and public forums to broaden the audience for research programs.
In 1995, Michael Armacost became the sixth president of the Brookings Institution and led an effort to refocus its mission heading into the 21st century.Under his direction, Brookings created several interdisciplinary research centers, such as the Center on Urban and Metropolitan Policy (now the Metropolitan Policy Program, led by Bruce J. Katz), which brought attention to the strengths of cities and metropolitan areas; and the Center for Northeast Asian Policy Studies, which brings together specialists from different Asian countries to examine regional problems.
Strobe Talbott became president of Brookings in 2002.Shortly thereafter, Brookings launched the Saban Center for Middle East Policy and the John L. Thornton China Center. In 2006, Brookings announced the establishment of the Brookings-Tsinghua Center in Beijing. In July 2007, Brookings announced the creation of the Engelberg Center for Health Care Reform to be directed by senior fellow Mark McClellan, and in October 2007 the creation of the Brookings Doha Center directed by fellow Hady Amr in Qatar. During this period the funding of Brookings by foreign governments and corporations came under public scrutiny (see Funding controversies below).
In 2011, Talbott inaugurated the Brookings India Office.
In October 2017, former general John R. Allen became the eighth president of Brookings.
As of June 30, 2019, Brookings had an endowment of $377.2 million.
Brookings as an institution produces an Annual Report. 0745-1253), America Unbound: The Bush Revolution in Foreign Policy, Globalphobia: Confronting Fears about Open Trade, India: Emerging Power, Through Their Eyes, Taking the High Road, Masses in Flight, US Public Policy Regarding Sovereign Wealth Fund Investment in the United States and Stalemate. In addition, books, papers, articles, reports, policy briefs and opinion pieces are produced by Brookings research programs, centers, projects and, for the most part, by experts. Brookings also cooperates with the Lawfare Institute in publishing the Lawfare blog.The Brookings Institution Press publishes books and journals from the institution's own research as well as authors outside the organization. The books and journals it publishes include Brookings Papers on Economic Activity , Brookings Review (1982–2003, ISSN
Brookings traces its history to 1916 and has contributed to the creation of the United Nations, the Marshall Plan, and the Congressional Budget Office, as well as to the development of influential policies for deregulation, broad-based tax reform, welfare reform, and foreign aid.The annual think tank index published by Foreign Policy ranks it the number one think tank in the U.S. and the Global Go To Think Tank Index believes it is the number one such tank in the world. Moreover, in spite of an overall decline in the number of times information or opinions developed by think tanks are cited by U.S. media, of the 200 most prominent think tanks in the U.S., the Brookings Institution's research remains the most frequently cited.
In a 1997 survey of congressional staff and journalists, Brookings ranked as the most influential and first in credibility among 27 think tanks considered.Yet "Brookings and its researchers are not so concerned, in their work, in affecting the ideological direction of the nation" and rather tend "to be staffed by researchers with strong academic credentials". Along with the Council on Foreign Relations and Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Brookings is generally considered one of the most influential policy institutes in the U.S.
As a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization, Brookings describes itself as independent and nonpartisan. A 2005 UCLA study concluded it was "centrist" because it was referenced as an authority almost equally by both conservative and liberal politicians in congressional records from 1993 to 2002.The New York Times has called Brookings liberal, liberal-centrist, and centrist. The Washington Post has called Brookings centrist and liberal. The Los Angeles Times called Brookings liberal-leaning and centrist before opining that it did not believe such labels mattered.
In 1977, Time magazine called Brookings the "nation's pre-eminent liberal think tank".Newsweek has called it centrist and Politico has used the term "center-left".
The media watchdog group Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting, which describes itself as "progressive",has called Brookings "centrist", "conservative", "center-right", and right-wing "extremist."
Journalists at The Atlantic and Salon have argued that Brookings foreign policy scholars were overly supportive of Bush administration policies abroad.Blogger Matthew Yglesias has stated that Brookings's Michael E. O'Hanlon frequently agrees with scholars from conservative organizations such as the American Enterprise Institute, The Weekly Standard , and the Project for the New American Century. Similarly, Brookings fellow and research director Benjamin Wittes is a member of the conservative Hoover Institution's Task Force on National Security and Law.
Brookings scholars have served in Republican and Democratic administrations, including Mark McClellan,Ron Haskins and Martin Indyk.
Brookings's board of trustees is composed of 53 trustees and more than three dozen honorary trustees, including Kenneth Duberstein, a former chief of staff to Ronald Reagan. Aside from political figures, the board of trustees includes leaders in business and industry, including Haim Saban, Philip H. Knight (chairman of Nike, Inc), Robert Bass, Hanzade Doğan Boyner, Paul L. Cejas, W. Edmund Clark, Abby Joseph Cohen, Betsy Cohen, Susan Crown, Arthur B. Culvahouse Jr., Jason Cummins, Paul Desmarais Jr., Kenneth M. Duberstein, Glenn Hutchins.
Starting with the 1990 election cycle, Brookings employees gave $853,017 to Democratic candidates and $26,104 to Republican candidates. In total, since 1990, 96% of its political donations have gone to Democrats.
Notable current and former Brookings scholars include former Federal Reserve chairs Janet Yellenand Ben Bernanke; former Federal Reserve vice chairs Donald Kohn, Alice Rivlin, and Alan Blinder; former chairs of the White House Council of Economic Advisers (CEA) Jason Furman and Martin Neil Baily; former CEA members Sandra Black, Jay Shambaugh, and James H. Stock; former director of the Congressional Budget Office Douglas Elmendorf; former US secretary of education Arne Duncan; former Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern Affairs Martin Indyk; dean of the University of Michigan's Ford School of Public Policy Susan M. Collins; former Federal Communications Commission chairman Tom Wheeler; Washington Post columnist E. J. Dionne; Wall Street Journal columnist William Galston; former NSC official Fiona Hill; and Eurasia analyst Igor Danchenko.
In 2002, the Brookings Institution established the Center for Middle East Policy "to promote a better understanding of the policy choices facing American decision-makers in the Middle East".
In 2006, the Brookings Institution established the Brookings-Tsinghua Center (BTC) for Public Policy as a partnership between the Brookings Institution in Washington, DC and Tsinghua University's School of Public Policy and Management in Beijing, China. The Center seeks to produce research in areas of fundamental importance for China's development and for US-China relations.The BTC was directed by Qi Ye until 2019.
The 21st Century Defense Initiative (21CDI) is aimed at producing research, analysis, and outreach that address three core issues: the future of war, the future of U.S. defense needs and priorities, and the future of the US defense system.
The Initiative draws on the knowledge from regional centers, including the Center on the United States and Europe, the Center for Northeast Asian Policy Studies, the Thornton China Center, and the Center for Middle East Policy, allowing the integration of regional knowledge.
P. W. Singer, author of Wired for War , serves as Director of the 21st Century Defense Initiative, and Michael O'Hanlon serves as Director of Research.Senior Fellow Stephen P. Cohen and Vanda Felbab-Brown are also affiliated with 21CDI.
Under MacLaury's leadership in the 1980s, the Center for Public Policy Education (CPPE) was formed to develop workshop conferences and public forums to broaden the audience for research programs. In 2005, the Center was renamed the Brookings Center for Executive Education (BCEE), which was shortened to Brookings Executive Education (BEE) with the launch of a partnership with the Olin Business School at Washington University in St. Louis. The academic partnership is now known as "WashU at Brookings".
As of 2017 the Brookings Institution had assets of $524.2 million.Its largest contributors include the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, the Hutchins Family Foundation, JPMorgan Chase, the LEGO Foundation, David Rubenstein, State of Qatar, and John L. Thornton.
A 2014 investigation by The New York Times found Brookings to be among more than a dozen Washington research groups to have received payments from foreign governments while encouraging U.S. officials to encourage support for policies aligned with those foreign governments' agendas.
The Times published documents showing that Brookings accepted grants from Norway with specific policy requests and helped it gain access to U.S. government officials, as well as other "deliverables".In June 2014, Norway agreed to make an additional $4 million donation to Brookings. Several legal specialists who examined the documents told the paper that the language of the transactions "appeared to necessitate Brookings filing as a foreign agent" under the Foreign Agent Registration Act.
The Qatari government, named by The New York Times as "the single biggest foreign donor to Brookings", reportedly made a $14.8 million, four-year contribution in 2013. A former visiting fellow at a Brookings affiliate in Qatar reportedly said that "he had been told during his job interview that he could not take positions critical of the Qatar government in papers".Brookings officials denied any connection between the views of their funders and their scholars' work, citing reports that questioned the Qatari government's education reform efforts and criticized its support of militants in Syria. But Brookings officials reportedly acknowledged that they meet with Qatari government officials regularly.
In 2018, The Washington Post reported that Brookings accepted funding from Huawei from 2012 to 2018.A report by the Center for International Policy's Foreign Influence Transparency Initiative of the top 50 think tanks on the University of Pennsylvania's Global Go-To Think Tanks rating index found that between 2014 and 2018, Brookings received the third-highest amount of funding from outside the United States compared to other think tanks, with a total of more than $27 million.
The main building of the Institution was erected in 1959 on 1775 Massachusetts Avenue. In 2009, Brookings acquired a building across the street, a former mansion built by the Ingalls family in 1922 on a design by Jules Henri de Sibour. [ citation needed ]This extension now houses the office of the President of the Brookings Institution.
A think tank, or policy institute, is a research institute that performs research and advocacy concerning topics such as social policy, political strategy, economics, military, technology, and culture. Most think tanks are non-governmental organizations, but some are semi-autonomous agencies within government or are associated with particular political parties, businesses or the military. Think-tank funding often includes a combination of donations from wealthy individuals and personal contributions, with many also accepting government grants.
Tsinghua University is a major public research university in Beijing, and a member of the C9 League. It is also a member of Project 985 and Project 211. Since its establishment in 1911, it has produced many notable leaders in science, engineering, politics, business, academia, and culture. The university is ranked as the 15th best university in the world in the QS World University Rankings, and is ranked No.1 in Asia by the THE Asia University Rankings and the U.S. News and World Report.
The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, known simply as the American Enterprise Institute (AEI), is a right-leaning Washington, D.C.–based think tank that researches government, politics, economics, and social welfare. AEI is an independent nonprofit organization supported primarily by contributions from foundations, corporations, and individuals. Founded in 1938, AEI is commonly associated with conservatism and neoconservatism but does not support political candidates. AEI advocates in favor of private enterprise, limited government, and democratic capitalism.
Radical centrism is a concept that arose in Western nations in the late 20th century. At first, it was defined in a variety of ways, but at the beginning of the 21st century a number of political science texts gave it a more developed cast.
New America, formerly the New America Foundation, is a think tank in the United States. It focuses on a range of public policy issues, including national security studies, technology, asset building, health, gender, energy, education, and the economy. The organization is based in Washington, D.C. and Oakland, California. Anne-Marie Slaughter is the chief executive officer (CEO) of the think tank.
The Center for American Progress (CAP) is a public policy research and advocacy organization which presents a liberal viewpoint on economic and social issues. It has its headquarters in Washington, D.C.
The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (CEIP) is a nonpartisan international affairs think tank with centers in Washington D.C., Moscow, Beirut, Beijing, Brussels, and New Delhi. Founded in 1910 by Andrew Carnegie, the organization describes itself as being dedicated to advancing cooperation between nations and promoting active international engagement by the United States.
The Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) is a think tank based in Washington, D.C., in the United States. CSIS was founded as the Center for Strategic and International Studies of Georgetown University in 1962. The center conducts policy studies and strategic analyses of political, economic and security issues throughout the world, with a specific focus on issues concerning international relations, trade, technology, finance, energy and geostrategy.
The Economic Policy Institute (EPI) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit American, left-leaning think tank based in Washington, D.C., that carries out economic research and analyzes the economic impact of policies and proposals. The EPI describes itself as a non-partisan think tank that "seeks to include the needs of low- and middle-income workers in economic policy discussions". It is affiliated with the labor movement and is usually described as presenting a left-leaning and pro-union viewpoint on public policy issues. The EPI has a sister organization, the EPI Policy Center, which is a 501(c)(4) organization for advocacy and education.
The Washington Institute for Near East Policy is an American pro-Israel think tank based in Washington, D.C., focused on the foreign policy of the United States in the Near East. It was established in 1985 with the support of AIPAC and the funding of many AIPAC donors, in order to provide higher quality research than AIPAC's publications. The institute's mission statement says that it seeks "to advance a balanced and realistic understanding of American interests in the Middle East and to promote the policies that secure them."
The Peterson Institute for International Economics (PIIE), previously known as the Institute for International Economics (IIE), is an American think tank based in Washington, D.C. It was founded by C. Fred Bergsten in 1981 and is currently led by Adam S. Posen. The institute conducts research, provides policy recommendations, and publishes books and articles on a wide range of topics related to the US economy and international economics.
The Urban Institute is a Washington, D.C.–based think tank that carries out economic and social policy research to "open minds, shape decisions, and offer solutions". The institute receives funding from government contracts, foundations and private donors. The Urban Institute measures policy effects, compares options, shows which stakeholders get the most and least, tests conventional wisdom, reveals trends, and makes costs, benefits, and risks explicit. The Urban Institute has been referred to as "independent" and as "liberal". In 2020, the Urban Institute co-hosted the second annual Sadie T.M. Alexander Conference for Economics and Related Fields with The Sadie Collective in Washington D.C.
William Arthur Galston holds the Ezra K. Zilkha Chair in Governance Studies and is a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution; he joined the think tank on January 1, 2006. Formerly the Saul Stern Professor and Dean at the School of Public Policy at the University of Maryland and a professor of political science at the University of Texas, Austin, Galston specializes in issues of U.S. public philosophy and political institutions.
Martin Sean Indyk is a diplomat and foreign relations analyst with expertise in the Middle East. He was a distinguished fellow in International Diplomacy and later executive vice president at the Brookings Institution in Washington, D.C from 2001-2018. He took leave from the Brookings Institution to serve as the U.S. Special Envoy for Israeli–Palestinian Negotiations from 2013 to 2014. He is currently a distinguished fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations.
ThinkProgress was an American progressive news website that was active from 2005 to 2019. It was a project of the Center for American Progress Action Fund, a progressive public policy research and advocacy organization. Founded by Judd Legum in 2005, the site's reports were regularly discussed by mainstream news outlets and peer-reviewed academic journals. ThinkProgress also hosted a climate section called Climate Progress, which was founded by Joe Romm.
The Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies is an American public policy think tank headquartered in Washington, DC. According to its mission statement, the Joint Center, through research, policy roundtables, and publications, produces innovative, high-impact ideas, research, and policy solutions that have a positive impact on people and communities of color. Ranking at #50 on the University of Pennsylvania's 2017 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report, the Joint Center served as the intellectual hub for a generation of post-Civil Rights era black thinkers, including Maynard Jackson, Mary Frances Berry, William Julius Wilson, Shirley Chisholm and John Hope Franklin. Originally founded in 1970 to provide training and technical assistance to newly elected African American officials, the Joint Center has since expanded its portfolio to include a range of public policy issues of concern to African-Americans, AAPIs, Latinos, and Native Americans.
The Center for the National Interest is a Washington, D.C.-based public policy think tank. It established by former U.S. President Richard Nixon on January 20, 1994, as the Nixon Center for Peace and Freedom.
The Fiscal Times (TFT) is an English-language digital news, news analysis and opinion publication based in New York City and Washington, D.C.. It was founded in 2010 with initial funding from businessman and investment banker Peter G. Peterson. Jacqueline Leo serves as the publication's editor-in-chief.
The Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program (TTCSP) is a non-profit program at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. TTCSP was originally established at the Foreign Policy Research Institute in 1989. The director is James McGann. The program conducts research on policy institutes around the world and maintains a database of over 8,200 think tanks from across the world.
James G. McGann is an American academic who is a Senior Lecturer in International Studies, Founder and Director of the Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program at the Lauder Institute, University of Pennsylvania and a Senior Fellow at the Foreign Policy Research Institute. He is the author of numerous publications, including the renowned annual Global Go To Think Tank Index which ranks think tanks in all regions of the world. His most recent book is "Think Tanks: The New Knowledge and Policy Brokers in Asia" published by the Brookings Institution Press. Dr. McGann is most notable for his extensive work on public policy research organizations, and he is a frequent adviser to numerous governments and international organizations worldwide.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Brookings Institution .|
| Library resources about |