Terminologia Anatomica

Last updated

Terminologia Anatomica (TA) is the international standard on human anatomic terminology. It was developed by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT) and the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA) and was released in 1998. [1] It supersedes the previous standard, Nomina Anatomica . [2] Terminologia Anatomica contains terminology for about 7500 human gross (macroscopic) anatomical structures. [3] In April 2011, Terminologia Anatomica was published online [4] by the Federative International Programme on Anatomical Terminologies (FIPAT), the successor of FCAT.

The International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA) is an umbrella scientific organization of national and multinational Anatomy Associations, dedicated to anatomy and biomorphological sciences.

Nomina Anatomica (NA) was the international standard on human anatomic terminology from 1955 until it was replaced by Terminologia Anatomica in 1998.

Contents

Categories of anatomical structures

The TA divides anatomical structures into the following main categories (Latin standard in parentheses) :

Latin Indo-European language of the Italic family

Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet.

A01: General anatomy (anatomia generalis)

  1. Parts of human body
  2. Planes, lines and regions

A02: Bones (ossa)

  1. Cranium
  2. Bones of cranium
  3. Vertebral column
  4. Bones of upper limb
  5. Bones of lower limb

A03: Joints (juncturae)

  1. Joints of skull
  2. Vertebral joints
  3. Thoracic joint
  4. Joints of pelvic girdle
  5. Joints of upper limb
  6. Joints of lower limb

A04: Muscles (musculi)

  1. Muscles of head
  2. Muscles of neck
  3. Muscles of back
  4. Muscles of thorax
  5. Muscles of abdomen
  6. Muscles of upper limb
  7. Muscles of lower limb
  8. Tendon sheaths and bursae

A05: Alimentary system (systema digestorium)

  1. Mouth
  2. Fauces
  3. Pharynx
  4. Oesophagus
  5. Stomach
  6. Small intestine
  7. Large intestine
  8. Liver, Gallbladder
  9. Pancreas

A06: Respiratory system (systema respiratorium)

  1. Nose
  2. Larynx
  3. Trachea
  4. Bronchi
  5. Lungs

A07: Thoracic cavity (cavitas thoracis)

A08: Urinary system (systema urinarium)

  1. Kidney
  2. Ureter
  3. Urinary bladder
  4. Female urethra
  5. Male urethra

A09: Genital systems (systemata genitalia)

  1. Female internal genitalia
  2. Female external genitalia
  3. Male internal genitalia
  4. Male external genitalia
  5. Perineum

A10: Abdominopelvic cavity (cavitas abdominis et pelvis)

Source: [9]

A11: Endocrine glands (glandulae endocrinae)

  1. Pituitary gland
  2. Pineal gland
  3. Thyroid gland
  4. Parathyroid gland
  5. Suprarenal gland
  6. Pancreatic islets

A12: Cardiovascular system (systema cardiovasculare)

  1. Heart
  2. Arteries
  3. Veins
  4. Lymphatic trunks and ducts

A13: Lymphoid system (systema lymphoideum)

  1. Primary lymphoid organs
  2. Secondary lymphoid organs
  3. Regional lymph nodes

A14: Nervous system (systema nervosum)

  1. Central nervous system
    1. Meninges
    2. Spinal cord
    3. Brain
    4. Medulla oblongata
    5. Pons
    6. Mesencephalon
    7. Cerebellum
    8. Diencephalon
    9. Telencephalon
  2. Peripheral nervous system
    1. Cranial nerves
    2. Spinal nerves
  3. Autonomic nervous system

A15: Sense organs (organa sensuum)

  1. Olfactory organ (the nose and related structures)
  2. Eye and related structures (visual system)
  3. Ear (auditory system)
  4. Gustatory organ (the tongue and related structures)

A16: The integument (integumentum commune)

  1. Subcutaneous tissue

See also

The Terminologia Embryologica (TE) is a standardized list of words used in the description of human embryologic and fetal structures. It was produced by the Federative International Committee on Anatomical Terminology on behalf of the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists and posted on the Internet since 2010. It has been approved by the General Assembly of the IFAA during the seventeenth International Congress of Anatomy in Cape Town.

The Foundational Model of Anatomy Ontology (FMA) is a reference ontology for the domain of anatomy. It is a symbolic representation of the canonical, phenotypic structure of an organism; a spatial-structural ontology of anatomical entities and relations which form the physical organization of an organism at all salient levels of granularity.

Related Research Articles

Coccyx bone of the pelvis

The coccyx, commonly referred to as the tailbone, is the final segment of the vertebral column in all apes, and analogous structures in certain other mammals such as horses. In tailless primates since Nacholapithecus, the coccyx is the remnant of a vestigial tail. In animals with bony tails, it is known as tailhead or dock, in bird anatomy as tailfan. It comprises three to five separate or fused coccygeal vertebrae below the sacrum, attached to the sacrum by a fibrocartilaginous joint, the sacrococcygeal symphysis, which permits limited movement between the sacrum and the coccyx.

Brachialis muscle muscle in the upper arm

The brachialis is a muscle in the upper arm that flexes the elbow joint. It lies deeper than the biceps brachii, and makes up part of the floor of the region known as the cubital fossa. The brachialis is the prime mover of elbow flexion. While the biceps brachii appears as a large anterior bulge on the arm and commands considerable interest among body builders, the brachialis underlying it actually generates about 50% more power and is thus the prime mover of elbow flexion.

Metacarpal bones bone of hand

In human anatomy, the metacarpal bones or metacarpus, form the intermediate part of the skeletal hand located between the phalanges of the fingers and the carpal bones of the wrist which forms the connection to the forearm. The metacarpal bones are analogous to the metatarsal bones in the foot.

Fascia layer of fibrous connective tissue that surrounds muscles, blood vessels and nerves

A fascia is a band or sheet of connective tissue, primarily collagen, beneath the skin that attaches, stabilizes, encloses, and separates muscles and other internal organs. Fascia is classified by layer, as superficial fascia, deep fascia, and visceral or parietal fascia, or by its function and anatomical location.

Buccinator muscle

The buccinator is a thin quadrilateral muscle occupying the interval between the maxilla and the mandible at the side of the face. It forms the anterior part of the cheek or the lateral wall of the oral cavity.

Thyroid cartilage

The thyroid cartilage is the largest of the nine cartilages that make up the laryngeal skeleton, the cartilage structure in and around the trachea that contains the larynx. It does not completely encircle the larynx; only the cricoid cartilage does.

Lobes of the brain part of the cerebral cortex

The lobes of the brain were originally a purely anatomical classification, but have been shown also to be related to different brain functions. The cerebrum, the largest portion of the human brain, is divided into lobes, but so is the cerebellum. If not specified, the expression "lobes of the brain" refers to the cerebrum.

Iris dilator muscle

The iris dilator muscle, is a smooth muscle of the eye, running radially in the iris and therefore fit as a dilator. The pupillary dilator consists of a spokelike arrangement of modified contractile cells called myoepithelial cells. These cells are stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system. When stimulated, the cells contract, widening the pupil and allowing for more light to pass through the eye.

Anconeus muscle

The anconeus muscle is a small muscle on the posterior aspect of the elbow joint.

Nucleus raphe magnus nucleus raphe magnus

The nucleus raphe magnus, is located directly rostral to the nucleus raphe obscurus, and receives input from the spinal cord and cerebellum.

Annular ligament of radius

The annular ligament is a strong band of fibers that encircles the head of the radius, and retains it in contact with the radial notch of the ulna.

Inferior tibiofibular joint

The distal tibiofibular joint is formed by the rough, convex surface of the medial side of the distal end of the fibula, and a rough concave surface on the lateral side of the tibia.

Accessory meningeal artery branch of the maxillary artery

The accessory meningeal artery is a branch of the maxillary artery, sometimes derived from the middle meningeal artery.

Cruciate ligament of atlas

The cruciform ligament of atlas is a cruciate ligament in the neck forming part of the atlanto-axial joint. The ligament is named as such because it is in the shape of a cross.

Outline of human anatomy Overview of and topical guide to human anatomy

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to human anatomy:

The Terminologia Histologica (TH) is a controlled vocabulary for use in cytology and histology. In April 2011, Terminologia Histologica was published online by the Federative International Programme on Anatomical Terminologies (FIPAT), the successor of FCAT.

The Federative International Committee for Anatomical Terminology (FICAT) is a group of experts who review, analyze and discuss the terms of the morphological structures of the human body. It was created by the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, and was originally known as the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT).

Anatomical terminology Wikimedia list article

Anatomical terminology is a form of scientific terminology used by anatomists, zoologists, and health professionals such as doctors.

References

  1. " Terminologia Anatomica " at Dorland's Medical Dictionary [ dead link ]
  2. Terminologia Anatomica: International Anatomical Terminology. New York: Thieme Medical Publishers. 1998. ISBN   0-86577-808-6.
  3. Connecting Medical Informatics and Bio-informatics: Proceedings of MIE2005 : the XIXth International Congress of the European Federation for Medical Informatics - Google Book Preview. books.google.com. p. 666. Retrieved March 9, 2017.
  4. published online
  5. http://www.unifr.ch/ifaa/Public/EntryPage/ViewTA/TAa01.html
  6. http://www.unifr.ch/ifaa/Public/EntryPage/ViewTA/TAa02.html
  7. http://www.unifr.ch/ifaa/Public/EntryPage/ViewTA/TAa03.html
  8. http://www.unifr.ch/ifaa/Public/EntryPage/ViewTA/TAa04.html
  9. http://www.unifr.ch/ifaa/Public/EntryPage/ViewTA/TAa10.html
  10. http://www.unifr.ch/ifaa/Public/EntryPage/ViewTA/TAa12.html
  11. http://www.unifr.ch/ifaa/Public/EntryPage/ViewTA/TAa14.html
Keio University private university in Tokyo, Japan

Keio University, abbreviated as Keio (慶應) or Keidai (慶大), is a private university located in Minato, Tokyo, Japan. It is known as the oldest institute of modern higher education in Japan. Founder Fukuzawa Yukichi originally established it as a school for Western studies in 1858 in Edo. It has eleven campuses in Tokyo and Kanagawa. It has ten faculties: Letters, Economics, Law, Business and Commerce, Medicine, Science and Technology, Policy Management, Environment and Information Studies, Nursing and Medical Care, and Pharmacy.