Terminologia Anatomica (TA) is the international standard on human anatomic terminology. It was developed by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT) and the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA) and was released in 1998.It supersedes the previous standard, Nomina Anatomica . Terminologia Anatomica contains terminology for about 7500 human gross (macroscopic) anatomical structures. In April 2011, Terminologia Anatomica was published online by the Federative International Programme on Anatomical Terminologies (FIPAT), the successor of FCAT.
The International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA) is an umbrella scientific organization of national and multinational Anatomy Associations, dedicated to anatomy and biomorphological sciences.
Nomina Anatomica (NA) was the international standard on human anatomic terminology from 1955 until it was replaced by Terminologia Anatomica in 1998.
The TA divides anatomical structures into the following main categories (Latin standard in parentheses) :
Latin is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. The Latin alphabet is derived from the Etruscan and Greek alphabets and ultimately from the Phoenician alphabet.
The Terminologia Embryologica (TE) is a standardized list of words used in the description of human embryologic and fetal structures. It was produced by the Federative International Committee on Anatomical Terminology on behalf of the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists and posted on the Internet since 2010. It has been approved by the General Assembly of the IFAA during the seventeenth International Congress of Anatomy in Cape Town.
The Foundational Model of Anatomy Ontology (FMA) is a reference ontology for the domain of anatomy. It is a symbolic representation of the canonical, phenotypic structure of an organism; a spatial-structural ontology of anatomical entities and relations which form the physical organization of an organism at all salient levels of granularity.
The coccyx, commonly referred to as the tailbone, is the final segment of the vertebral column in all apes, and analogous structures in certain other mammals such as horses. In tailless primates since Nacholapithecus, the coccyx is the remnant of a vestigial tail. In animals with bony tails, it is known as tailhead or dock, in bird anatomy as tailfan. It comprises three to five separate or fused coccygeal vertebrae below the sacrum, attached to the sacrum by a fibrocartilaginous joint, the sacrococcygeal symphysis, which permits limited movement between the sacrum and the coccyx.
The brachialis is a muscle in the upper arm that flexes the elbow joint. It lies deeper than the biceps brachii, and makes up part of the floor of the region known as the cubital fossa. The brachialis is the prime mover of elbow flexion. While the biceps brachii appears as a large anterior bulge on the arm and commands considerable interest among body builders, the brachialis underlying it actually generates about 50% more power and is thus the prime mover of elbow flexion.
In human anatomy, the metacarpal bones or metacarpus, form the intermediate part of the skeletal hand located between the phalanges of the fingers and the carpal bones of the wrist which forms the connection to the forearm. The metacarpal bones are analogous to the metatarsal bones in the foot.
A fascia is a band or sheet of connective tissue, primarily collagen, beneath the skin that attaches, stabilizes, encloses, and separates muscles and other internal organs. Fascia is classified by layer, as superficial fascia, deep fascia, and visceral or parietal fascia, or by its function and anatomical location.
The buccinator is a thin quadrilateral muscle occupying the interval between the maxilla and the mandible at the side of the face. It forms the anterior part of the cheek or the lateral wall of the oral cavity.
The thyroid cartilage is the largest of the nine cartilages that make up the laryngeal skeleton, the cartilage structure in and around the trachea that contains the larynx. It does not completely encircle the larynx; only the cricoid cartilage does.
The lobes of the brain were originally a purely anatomical classification, but have been shown also to be related to different brain functions. The cerebrum, the largest portion of the human brain, is divided into lobes, but so is the cerebellum. If not specified, the expression "lobes of the brain" refers to the cerebrum.
The iris dilator muscle, is a smooth muscle of the eye, running radially in the iris and therefore fit as a dilator. The pupillary dilator consists of a spokelike arrangement of modified contractile cells called myoepithelial cells. These cells are stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system. When stimulated, the cells contract, widening the pupil and allowing for more light to pass through the eye.
The anconeus muscle is a small muscle on the posterior aspect of the elbow joint.
The nucleus raphe magnus, is located directly rostral to the nucleus raphe obscurus, and receives input from the spinal cord and cerebellum.
The annular ligament is a strong band of fibers that encircles the head of the radius, and retains it in contact with the radial notch of the ulna.
The distal tibiofibular joint is formed by the rough, convex surface of the medial side of the distal end of the fibula, and a rough concave surface on the lateral side of the tibia.
The accessory meningeal artery is a branch of the maxillary artery, sometimes derived from the middle meningeal artery.
The cruciform ligament of atlas is a cruciate ligament in the neck forming part of the atlanto-axial joint. The ligament is named as such because it is in the shape of a cross.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to human anatomy:
The Terminologia Histologica (TH) is a controlled vocabulary for use in cytology and histology. In April 2011, Terminologia Histologica was published online by the Federative International Programme on Anatomical Terminologies (FIPAT), the successor of FCAT.
The Federative International Committee for Anatomical Terminology (FICAT) is a group of experts who review, analyze and discuss the terms of the morphological structures of the human body. It was created by the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists, and was originally known as the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT).
Anatomical terminology is a form of scientific terminology used by anatomists, zoologists, and health professionals such as doctors.
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Keio University, abbreviated as Keio (慶應) or Keidai (慶大), is a private university located in Minato, Tokyo, Japan. It is known as the oldest institute of modern higher education in Japan. Founder Fukuzawa Yukichi originally established it as a school for Western studies in 1858 in Edo. It has eleven campuses in Tokyo and Kanagawa. It has ten faculties: Letters, Economics, Law, Business and Commerce, Medicine, Science and Technology, Policy Management, Environment and Information Studies, Nursing and Medical Care, and Pharmacy.