Washington Square Park

Last updated

Washington Square Park
Washington Square Arch-Isabella.jpg
The Washington Square Arch, from the park's southern end
Washington Square Park
Type Municipal public park
Coordinates 40°43′51″N73°59′51″W / 40.73083°N 73.99750°W / 40.73083; -73.99750
Area9.75 acres (4 ha)
Operated by New York City Department of Parks and Recreation
Public transit access Subway : NYCS-bull-trans-A-Std.svg NYCS-bull-trans-B-Std.svg NYCS-bull-trans-C-Std.svg NYCS-bull-trans-D-Std.svg NYCS-bull-trans-E-Std.svg NYCS-bull-trans-F-Std.svg NYCS-bull-trans-Fd-Std.svg NYCS-bull-trans-M-Std.svg to West Fourth Street–Washington Square, NYCS-bull-trans-N-Std.svg NYCS-bull-trans-R-Std.svg NYCS-bull-trans-W-Std.svg to Eighth Street–New York University
Bus : M1, M2, M3, M8, M55

Washington Square Park is a 9.75-acre (39,500 m2) public park in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Lower Manhattan, New York City. One of the best known of New York City's public parks, it is an icon as well as a meeting place and center for cultural activity. [1] It is operated by the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation (NYC Parks).


The park is an open space, dominated by the Washington Square Arch at the northern gateway to the park, with a tradition of celebrating nonconformity. The park's fountain area has long been one of the city's popular spots, and many of the local buildings have at one time served as homes and studios for artists. Many buildings have been built by New York University, while others have been converted from their former uses into academic and residential buildings.

Location and features

Located at the foot of Fifth Avenue, the park is bordered by Washington Square North (known as Waverly Place east and west of the park), Washington Square East (known as University Place north of the park), Washington Square South (known as West 4th Street east and west of the park), and Washington Square West (known as MacDougal Street north and south of the park).

While the park contains many flower beds and trees, little of the park is used for plantings due to the paving. The two prominent features are the Washington Square Arch and a large fountain. It includes children's play areas, trees and gardens, paths to stroll on, a chess and scrabble playing area, park benches, picnic tables, commemorative statuary and two dog runs. [1]

Statue of Giuseppe Garibaldi Garibaldi Washington Square Park.jpg
Statue of Giuseppe Garibaldi

Those commemorated by statues and monuments include George Washington; Italian patriot and soldier Giuseppe Garibaldi, commander of the insurrectionist forces in Italy's struggle for unification; and Alexander Lyman Holley, a talented engineer who helped start the American steel industry after the invention of the Bessemer process for mass-producing steel. [1]

The New York City Police Department operates security cameras in the park., [2] and NYC Parks has security officer. The area has a low crime rate in the "safest big city in the United States." [3]


Early usage

Hangman's Elm Hangman's Elm by David Shankbone.jpg
Hangman's Elm

The land was once divided by a narrow marshy valley through which Minetta Creek (or Brook) ran. [4] In the early 17th century, a Native American village known as Sapohanikan [5] or "Tobacco Field" was nearby. By the mid-17th century, the land on each side of the Minetta was used as farm land by the Dutch. The Dutch gave the land, then outside the city limits (Wall Street) to Angolan residents of the colony, intending for their plots and settlement to serve as a buffer zone to Native Americans outside the settlement. In 1643, a group of "half-freed" slaves and elders such as Domingo Anthony, Manuel Trumpeter and Catalina Anthony, received land grants to build and maintain farms in the areas containing and surrounding Washington Square Park. [6] The families who received the land were no longer slaves, but had to give a portion of the profits they received from the land to the Dutch West India Company and pay annual land fees. Their children would be born as slaves, rather than free. The area became the core of an early African American community in New York, then called the Land of the Blacks and later "Little Africa". [7] Among those who owned parcels in what is now Washington Square Park was Paulo D'Angola. [8]

It remained farmland until April 1797, when the Common Council of New York purchased the fields to the east of the Minetta (which were not yet within city limits) for a new potter's field, or public burial ground. It was used mainly for burying unknown or indigent people when they died. [4] But when New York (which did not include this area yet) went through yellow fever epidemics in the early 19th century, most of those who died from yellow fever were also buried here, safely away from town, as a hygienic measure. [9]

A legend in many tourist guides says that the large elm at the northwest corner of the park, Hangman's Elm, was the old hanging tree. [9] However, research indicates the tree was on the side of the former Minetta Creek that was the back garden of a private house. [4] Records of only one public hanging at the potter's field exist. Two eyewitnesses to the recorded hanging differed on the location of the gallows. One said it had been put up at a spot where the fountain was prior to 2007 park redesign. Others placed the gallows closer to where the arch is now. However, the cemetery was closed in 1825. To this day, the remains of more than 20,000 bodies rest under Washington Square. [4] Excavations have found tombstones under the park dating as far back as 1799. [10]

Creation of Washington Square

Washington Square, in the New York Public Library collection Washington Square (NYPL b13476046-EM11344).tiff
Washington Square, in the New York Public Library collection

In 1826 Alderman Abraham Valentine "introduced a resolution to re-appropriate an old potter’s field into a military parade ground," [11] and the city bought the land west of Minetta Creek, the square was laid out and leveled, and it was turned into the Washington Military Parade Ground. Military parade grounds were public spaces specified by the city where volunteer militia companies responsible for the nation's defense would train.

The streets surrounding the square became one of the city's most desirable residential areas in the 1830s. The protected row of Greek Revival style houses on the north side of the park remains from that time. [12]

In 1849 and 1850, the parade ground was reworked into the first park on the site. More paths were added and a new fence was built around it. In 1871, it came under the control of the newly formed New York City Department of Parks, and it was redesigned again, with curving rather than straight secondary paths. [4]

Construction of the arch

Washington Square Arch NYC - Washington Square Park - Arch.jpg
Washington Square Arch

In 1889, to celebrate the centennial of George Washington's inauguration as president of the United States, a large plaster and wood Memorial Arch was erected over Fifth Avenue just north of the park. The temporary plaster and wood arch was so popular that in 1892, a permanent Tuckahoe marble arch, designed by the New York architect Stanford White, was erected, [13] standing 77 feet (23 m) and modeled after the Arc de Triomphe, built in Paris in 1806. During the excavations for the eastern part of the arch, human remains, a coffin, and a gravestone dated to 1803 were uncovered 10 feet (3.0 m) below ground level. [4]

The first fountain next to the arch was completed in 1852 and replaced in 1872. In 1851, it was described as having "a very large circular basin, with a central jet and several side jets." A story on the completion of the fountain appeared in the first edition of the New-York Daily Times, which would eventually become the New York Times . [14] The statue of Giuseppe Garibaldi was unveiled in 1888. [4] In 1918, two statues of George Washington were added to the north side.

Early 20th-century renovation

Washington Arch, circa 1893 by Childe Hassam Hassam Washington Arch Spring.jpg
Washington Arch, circa 1893 by Childe Hassam
Close-up of the Washington Square Arch Closeup washarch.jpg
Close-up of the Washington Square Arch

Robert Moses became the parks commissioner in 1934. He embarked on a crusade to fully redesign the park, and local activists began an opposing fight that lasted three decades.

In 1934, Robert Moses had the fountain renovated to also serve as a wading pool. In 1952, Moses finalized plans to extend 5th Avenue through the park. He intended to eventually push it through the neighborhood south of the park, as part of an urban renewal project. Area residents, including Eleanor Roosevelt, opposed the plans. The urbanist Jane Jacobs became an activist and is credited with stopping the Moses plan and closing Washington Square Park to all auto traffic, but Jacobs, in her book The Death and Life of Great American Cities , praised another local advocate in the fight against park traffic, Shirley Hayes: "[Hayes and the Washington Square Park Committee] advocated eliminating the existing road, that is, closing the park to all automobile traffic – but at the same time, not widening the perimeter roads either. In short, they proposed closing off a roadbed without compensating for it." [15]

Hayes, former Chairman of the Washington Square Park Committee and member of the Greenwich Village Community Planning Board, a local resident and mother of four sons, started a public outcry for the park when large apartment buildings were raised on one of its borders. When then-Manhattan borough president Hulan E. Jack suggested an elevated pedestrian walkway over a four-lane road through the park, Ms. Hayes initiated "Save the Square!", a seven-year battle to keep automobiles out of the quiet area. [16] [17] [18] Though several different proposals were given for a roadway in the park, Hayes and her followers rejected them all. Seeking to "best serve the needs of children and adults of this family community," Hayes in turn presented her own proposal: 1.75 acres (700 m2) of roadway would be converted to parkland, a paved area would be created for emergency access only, and all other vehicles would be permanently banned from the park. This plan received widespread support, including that of then-Congressman John Lindsay, as well as Washington Square Park West resident Eleanor Roosevelt. After a public hearing in 1958, a "ribbon tying" ceremony was held to mark the inception of a trial period in which the park would be free of vehicular traffic. In August 1959, the efforts of Ms. Hayes and her allies paid off; from that time forward Washington Square Park has been completely closed to traffic. A plaque commemorating her tireless crusade can be seen in the park today. Hayes's papers are archived at the New-York Historical Society. [19]

Mid and late 20th century

The central fountain, with the Philip Johnson-designed Bobst Library on the right Central Fountain Wash Square Park by David Shankbone.jpg
The central fountain, with the Philip Johnson-designed Bobst Library on the right

Since around the end of World War II, folksingers had been congregating on warm Sunday afternoons at the fountain in the center of the park. Tension and conflicts began to develop between the bohemian element and the remaining working-class residents of the neighborhood. The city government began showing an increasing hostility to the use of public facilities by the public and, in 1947, began requiring permits before public performances could be given in any city park.

In the spring of 1961, the new parks commissioner refused a permit to the folksingers for their Sunday afternoon gatherings, because "the folksingers have been bringing too many undesirable [ beatnik ] elements into the park." [20] On April 9, 1961, folk music pioneer Izzy Young, owner of the Folklore Center—who had been trying to get permits for the folksingers—and about 500 musicians and supporters gathered in the park and sang songs without a permit, then held a procession from the park through the arch at Fifth Avenue, and marched to the Judson Memorial Church on the other side of the park. At about the time the musicians and friends reached the church, the New York City Police Department Riot Squad was sent into the park, attacked civilians with billy clubs, and arrested 10 people. The incident made the front pages of newspapers as far away as Washington, DC. The New York Mirror initially reported it as a "Beatnik Riot", but retracted the headline in the next edition, although tensions remained for a while.

Early 21st-century renovation

Visitors wading in the fountain Washington Square Park Grand Reopening.jpg
Visitors wading in the fountain

In December 2007, NYC Parks began construction on a project to redesign and refurbish Washington Square Park, which at the time was projected to cost $16 million. [21] [22] Changes to the park included moving the fountain off center to improve its visual alignment with the arch when viewed from above, replacing the perimeter fence with a taller fence, and flattening and shrinking the central plaza, the park's politically contested gathering space. The plan also called for felling dozens of mature trees and installing ornamental water plumes in the fountain. [23]

A spectrum of opponents had charged the mayor variously with privatizing the park and with social engineering park use, as part of a broader web of speculation schemes threatening nearby South Village and East Village communities and architecture. Five lawsuits were filed to challenge NYC Parks' renovation plans. In July 2006, New York County Supreme Court Justice Emily Jane Goodman enjoined any renovation work on the fountain or fountain plaza area, pending further review of the plans by the local community board, the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission, and the Art Commission, stating that NYC Parks had intentionally misrepresented the project in a scheme to secure its approval. The ruling was reversed on appeal. [24] Another lawsuit challenging the art commission's approval of the plan was dismissed. Two more lawsuits questioning the environmental review of the renovation project were heard in 2007 by the New York County Supreme Court, then dismissed.

Upon the completion of phase one of the park's renovation on May 22, 2009, the Coalition for a Better Washington Square Park, a private organization, began raising money to "hire off-duty cops and maintenance workers to patrol the park" by the summer of 2010. [25] On June 2, 2011, the eastern half of the park was reopened to the public, leaving only the park's southwest corner under construction. In mid-August 2012, the new granite benches heated up to 125 °F (52 °C) in the sun, seemingly vindicating community members who had charged that the renovations were primarily to discourage public use of the park. [26] The entire renovation was completed in 2014 for $30.6 million. [23]

In July 2020, the northwest lawn was reopened after a yearlong restoration which included new grass and sod for the over 39,000 square feet of green space. Funding for the $170,000 project was provided by Ray Dalio's Dalio Philanthropies. [27]

Cultural importance

Washington Square has long been a hub for politics and culture in New York City. The first neighborhood organization established in New York City was created in support of the park. For over 100 years, the Washington Square Association has been helping to support and better the park and the surrounding neighborhood. [28]

Performers and entertainers

Street Entertainer in Washington Square Park.jpg
A street entertainer in Washington Square Park
Colin Huggins playing piano with listeners.jpg
Colin Huggins performs piano for an audience in 2021
Acrobats in 1993 Final-jump.jpg
Acrobats in 1993

The presence of street performers has been one of the defining characteristics of Washington Square Park. [29] For many years, people visiting the park have mingled with the buskers, performers, musicians, and poets. [30] Because of a change in policy on a 2010 rule that involved artists, the new ruling that was to come in on May 8, 2013, would involve entertainers. This could mean that performers could be fined $250 for the first offense and up to $1,000 for further violations. The 2010 rule on which the 2013 ruling was based stated that artists could not sell within 50 feet of a monument or five feet from any bench or fence. [29]

Some holiday traditions in the park date back to 1924. Each December, the park is home to an annual tree-lighting ceremony as well as a Christmas Eve sing-along with carolers and festive music. Also, the Washington Square Music Festival, which began in 1953, has brought chamber music concerts to park-goers every summer. [28]

Protests and demonstrations

In 1834, New York University decided to use prison labor to dress the stone for a new building, across from the park, as prison labor from Sing Sing was cheaper than hiring local stonemasons. This, the stonecutters of the city said, was taking the bread out of their mouths. They held a rally in Washington Square Park, and then held the first labor march in the city. That turned into a riot, and the 27th New York regiment was called out to quell the stonecutters. The regiment camped in Washington Square for four days and nights until the excitement subsided. New York University continued their use of prison labor. [31]

On Labor Day September 2, 1912, approximately 20,000 workers (including 5,000 women) marched to the park to commemorate the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory fire, which had killed 146 workers the year before. [32] Many of the women wore fitted tucked-front blouses like those manufactured by the Triangle Shirtwaist Company. [33] This clothing style became the working woman's uniform and a symbol of female independence, reflecting the alliance of labor and suffrage movements. Over 25,000 people marched up Fifth avenue from the park demanding women's suffrage in 1915. [34]

Notable people

Chess players in the southwest corner of the park Washington Square Park Chess Players by David Shankbone.jpg
Chess players in the southwest corner of the park

In 1888, Robert Louis Stevenson, visiting the U.S. to seek medical help for his battle with consumption, talked to Mark Twain in the park. [35]

In the years before and after World War I, the park was a center for many American artists, writers, and activists, including the photographer André Kertész, who photographed the square during winter. Later, the park was a gathering area for the Beat generation, folk, and hippie movements in the 1950s and 1960s; in 1958, musician Buddy Holly, a nearby resident of Greenwich Village, spent time in the park both listening to people play and helping guitarists with musical chords. [36]

On September 27, 2007, Democratic Presidential candidate Barack Obama held a rally at Washington Square; 20,000 people registered for the event, and the crowds overflowed past security gates set up as a cordon. The New York Times described the rally "as one of the largest campaign events of the year." [37]

On television and film

Washington Square Park has appeared in many popular films and television shows, including Barefoot in the Park, [38] Kids , [39] Searching for Bobby Fischer , [40] Fresh , [41] Law & Order , [42] The Astronaut's Wife , [43] I Am Legend , [44] August Rush , [45] The Marvelous Mrs. Maisel , [46] and The Amazing Race . [47]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Central Park</span> Public park in Manhattan, New York

Central Park is an urban park between the Upper West Side and Upper East Side neighborhoods of Manhattan in New York City, United States. It is the fifth-largest park in the city, containing 843 acres (341 ha), and the most visited urban park in the United States, with an estimated 42 million visitors annually as of 2016.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Riverside Park (Manhattan)</span> Public park in Manhattan, New York

Riverside Park is a scenic waterfront public park in the Upper West Side, Morningside Heights, and Hamilton Heights neighborhoods of the borough of Manhattan in New York City. The park measures 4-mile (6.4 km) long and 100 to 500 feet wide, running between the Hudson River/Henry Hudson Parkway and the serpentine Riverside Drive.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Prospect Park (Brooklyn)</span> Public park in Brooklyn, New York

Prospect Park is an urban park in Brooklyn, New York City. The park is situated between the neighborhoods of Park Slope, Prospect Heights, Prospect Lefferts Gardens, Flatbush, and Windsor Terrace, and is adjacent to the Brooklyn Museum, Grand Army Plaza, and the Brooklyn Botanic Garden. With an area of 526 acres (213 ha), Prospect Park is the second largest public park in Brooklyn, behind Marine Park. Designated as a New York City scenic landmark and listed on the National Register of Historic Places, Prospect Park is operated by the Prospect Park Alliance and NYC Parks.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">New York City Department of Parks and Recreation</span> Government agency

The New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, also called the Parks Department or NYC Parks, is the department of the government of New York City responsible for maintaining the city's parks system, preserving and maintaining the ecological diversity of the city's natural areas, and furnishing recreational opportunities for city's residents and visitors.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Union Square, Manhattan</span> Intersection and neighborhood in New York City

Union Square is a historic intersection and surrounding neighborhood in Manhattan, New York City, located where Broadway and the former Bowery Road – now Fourth Avenue – came together in the early 19th century. Its name denotes that "here was the union of the two principal thoroughfares of the island". The current Union Square Park is bounded by 14th Street on the south, 17th Street on the north, and Union Square West and Union Square East to the west and east respectively. 17th Street links together Broadway and Park Avenue South on the north end of the park, while Union Square East connects Park Avenue South to Fourth Avenue and the continuation of Broadway on the park's south side. The park is maintained by the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Tompkins Square Park</span> Public park in Manhattan, New York

Tompkins Square Park is a 10.5-acre (4.2 ha) public park in the Alphabet City portion of East Village, Manhattan, New York City. The square-shaped park, bounded on the north by East 10th Street, on the east by Avenue B, on the south by East 7th Street, and on the west by Avenue A, is abutted by St. Marks Place to the west. The park opened in 1834 and is named for Daniel D. Tompkins, Vice President of the United States.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Madison Square and Madison Square Park</span> Public square and park in Manhattan, New York City

Madison Square is a public square formed by the intersection of Fifth Avenue and Broadway at 23rd Street in the New York City borough of Manhattan. The square was named for Founding Father James Madison, fourth President of the United States. The focus of the square is Madison Square Park, a 6.2-acre (2.5-hectare) public park, which is bounded on the east by Madison Avenue ; on the south by 23rd Street; on the north by 26th Street; and on the west by Fifth Avenue and Broadway as they cross.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">McCarren Park</span> Public park in Brooklyn, New York

McCarren Park is a public park in Brooklyn, New York City. It is located on the border of Williamsburg and Greenpoint and is bordered by Nassau Avenue, Bayard Street, Lorimer Street and North 12th Street. The park contains facilities for recreational softball, volleyball, soccer, handball, and other games. It is also used for sunbathing and dog-walking. It also includes the McCarren Play Center, which consists of a recreation center and a pool. McCarren Park is maintained by the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Van Cortlandt Park</span> Large public park in the Bronx, New York

Van Cortlandt Park is a 1,146-acre (464 ha) park located in the borough of the Bronx in New York City. Owned by the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, it is managed with assistance from the Van Cortlandt Park Alliance. The park, the city's third-largest, was named for the Van Cortlandt family, which was prominent in the area during the Dutch and English colonial periods.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Central Park Conservancy</span> Nonprofit park conservancy

The Central Park Conservancy is a private, nonprofit park conservancy that manages Central Park under a contract with the City of New York and NYC Parks. The conservancy employs most maintenance and operations staff in the park. It effectively oversees the work of both the private and public employees under the authority of the publicly appointed Central Park administrator, who reports to the parks commissioner and the conservancy's president.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Red Hook Park</span> Public park in Brooklyn, New York

Red Hook Recreation Area, also known as Red Hook Park, is a 58.5-acre (237,000 m2) public park in the Red Hook neighborhood of Brooklyn, New York City, composed of several segments centered around Bay Street. The park's recreational facilities include handball courts, softball fields, a soccer and football field, and a running track. The Sol Goldman Play Center, within the block bounded by Bay, Henry, Lorraine and Clinton Streets, consists of a brick bathhouse and two pools. The park is operated by the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, also known as NYC Parks.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Stuyvesant Square</span> Public park and neighborhood in Manhattan, New York

<span class="mw-page-title-main">The Ramble and Lake</span> Geographical features in New York Citys Central Park

The Ramble and Lake are two geographic features of Central Park in Manhattan, New York City. Part of Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux's 1857 Greensward Plan for Central Park, the features are located on the west side of the park between the 66th and 79th Street transverses.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Schenley Plaza</span>

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sheep Meadow</span> Meadow in New York Citys Central Park

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Minetta Creek</span> Buried stream in Manhattan, New York

Minetta Creek was one of the largest natural watercourses in Manhattan, New York City, United States. Minetta Creek was fed from two tributaries, one originating at Fifth Avenue and 21st Street, and the other originating at Sixth Avenue and 16th Street. They joined near Fifth Avenue and 11th Street then took a southwesterly course. Minetta Creek's name is thought to have originated from either the Native American term "Manette", meaning "Devil's Water", or the Dutch word "Minnetje", meaning "the little one".

<span class="mw-page-title-main">North Woods and North Meadow</span> Geographical features in New York Citys Central Park

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Heckscher Playground</span>

<span class="mw-page-title-main">St. Vartan Park</span> Public park in Manhattan, New York

St. Vartan Park is a 2.76-acre (1.12 ha) public park in the Murray Hill neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City. Located on the block bounded by First Avenue, Second Avenue, and 35th and 36th streets, the park is named after the nearby St. Vartan Armenian Cathedral. St. Vartan Park includes basketball and handball courts, a turf athletic field, a playground, and a garden.


  1. 1 2 3 "Washington Square Park Highlights : NYC Parks". Nycgovparks.org. Retrieved March 5, 2016.
  2. Moore, Evan (July 7, 2007). "Safety and Security in Washington Square Park". xcp.bfn.org. Archived from the original on July 7, 2007. Retrieved April 13, 2020.
  3. "KELLY'S HEROES". The New York Observer . Archived from the original on October 17, 2006. Retrieved August 25, 2006.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Geismar, Joan H. Washington Square Park: Phase 1A Archaeological Assessment Archived July 3, 2007, at the Wayback Machine , New York City Department of Parks and Recreation, August 2005. Accessed October 1, 2007. See page 24 of the cited document (page number 30 in the attached PDF.)
  5. Jackson, Kenneth T., ed. (1995). The Encyclopedia of New York City . New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN   0300055366., p. 1381
  6. "Washington Square Park Conservancy". Archived from the original on June 17, 2018. Retrieved June 17, 2018.
  7. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on December 15, 2019. Retrieved May 6, 2009.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  8. "Washington Square Park, in the heart of Greenwich Village - EC New York Blog". EC New York Blog. August 22, 2011. Retrieved October 12, 2016.
    More information can be found at the exhibit "Slavery in New York" at the New-York Historical Society of Manhattan.
  9. 1 2 "Washington Square Park Council". Archived from the original on December 13, 2014. Retrieved March 5, 2016.
  10. Sulzberger, A. G. "Gravestone From 1799 Is Found in Washington Square Park", The New York Times , October 28, 2009. Accessed April 14, 2016.
  11. "FROM POTTER’S FIELD TO PARADE GROUND" January 12 2021 https://washingtonsqpark.org/news/2021/01/12/from-potters-field-to-parade-ground/
  12. "New York Architecture Images-1-3 Washington Square North". Nyc-architecture.com. Retrieved March 5, 2016.
  13. "Architectural Homage". Teachinghistory.org. Retrieved March 5, 2016.
  14. "New York City". New-York Daily Times. Vol. 1, no. 1. Henry Jarvis Raymond and George Jones. September 18, 1851. Retrieved April 13, 2020.
  15. Jacobs, Jane (1961). The Death and Life of Great American cities, p.471. Modern Library, New York. ISBN   0-679-60047-7.
  16. "Shirley Hayes and the Battle of Washington Square Park, 1952–1959". New-York Historical Society: Behind The Scenes. August 3, 2016. Retrieved March 1, 2020.
  17. Fishman, Robert (2007). "Revolt of the urbs: Robert Moses and his critics". In Ballon, Hilary; Jackson, Kenneth T. (eds.). Robert Moses and the modern city : the transformation of New York (1st ed.). New York: W.W. Norton & Co. ISBN   978-0-393-73206-1. OCLC   76167277.
  18. Papacosma, Kate (February 2008). "Robert Moses and the Modern City: Remaking the Metropolis; Exhibition catalogue". The Public Historian. 30 (1): 146–149. doi:10.1525/tph.2008.30.1.146. ISSN   0272-3433.
  19. "Shirley Hayes Papers, 1948-2001 (bulk 1952-1979)". bobcat.library.nyu.edu. Retrieved March 1, 2020.
  20. "Ted White: Balladeers & Billy Clubs". Ftldesign.com. Retrieved March 5, 2016.
  21. Bowley, Graham (November 21, 2008). "The Battle of Washington Square". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved September 9, 2020.
  22. "Washington Square Park Reconstruction : NYC Parks". www.nycgovparks.org. Retrieved September 9, 2020.
  23. 1 2 Gregory, Kia (May 9, 2014). "Blooms Return to Washington Square Park After Years of Renovation". The New York Times. ISSN   0362-4331 . Retrieved September 9, 2020.
  24. "Matter of Greenberg v City of New York (2007 NY Slip Op 01943)" . Retrieved March 5, 2016.
  25. Edroso, Roy (June 22, 2009). "Washington Square Park to Get Private Security Force". The Village Voice . Archived from the original on June 23, 2009. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
  26. "Hot stuff! Park benches are unfit to sit, as they hit 125 °F". The Villager. August 16, 2012.
  27. Washington Square Park Conservancy (August 3, 2020). "Bringing a Landscape Back to Life". Washington Square Park. Retrieved September 9, 2020.
  28. 1 2 "The Washington Square Association". washingtonsquarenyc.org. Retrieved March 11, 2023.
  29. 1 2 "WSN : Park performers' to lose stage in Washington Square". Nyunews.com. May 1, 2013. Retrieved March 5, 2016.
  30. The New York Times , December 4, 2011 City Cracking Down on Performers in Washington Square Park, Lisa W. Foderaro
  31. The Great Riots of New York, 1712 to 1873 by Joel Tyler Headley – Free Ebook. Gutenberg.org. November 1, 2004. Retrieved March 5, 2016.
  32. "A Short History of Washington Square Park". Washington Square Park Conservancy. October 10, 2012. Retrieved April 13, 2020.
  33. Folpe, E.K. (2002). It Happened on Washington Square. Center books on space, place, and time. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 212. ISBN   978-0-8018-7088-0 . Retrieved April 13, 2020.
  34. "Suffragettes on Parade! In 1915, thousands march for right to vote". The Bowery Boys: New York City History. October 23, 2015. Retrieved April 13, 2020.
  35. Bruce Sterling. "Mark Twain and Robert Louis Stevenson". Wired. 2021 Condé Nast. Retrieved July 15, 2021.
  36. Kerns, William (August 15, 2008). "Buddy and Maria Elena Holly married 50 years ago". Lubbock Avalanche-Journal . Retrieved February 2, 2009.
  37. Jeff, Zeleny (September 28, 2007). "Obama Distances Himself From Clinton, on Her Turf". The New York Times . Retrieved December 18, 2007. Mr. Obama's aides said more than 20,000 people registered for the event through the campaign's Web site. While it was impossible to determine even a reliable attendance estimate, a view from the vantage point of an elevated lift seemed to reveal the gathering as one of the largest campaign events of the year.
  38. "Barefoot in the Park Film Locations - [otsoNY.com]". onthesetofnewyork.com. Retrieved October 17, 2022.
  39. Kids (1995) - IMDb , retrieved October 17, 2022
  40. "Searching for Bobby Fischer Film Locations - [otsoNY.com]". onthesetofnewyork.com. Retrieved October 17, 2022.
  41. "Fresh Film Locations - [otsoNY.com]". onthesetofnewyork.com. Retrieved October 17, 2022.
  42. Minsky, Tequila (December 1, 2021). "'Law & Order: SVU' spotted filming in Washington Square Park | amNewYork". www.amny.com. Retrieved October 17, 2022.
  43. New York Film Locations - http://www.onthesetofnewyork.com/theastronautswife.html
  44. "I Am Legend Apartment - [otsoNY.com]". onthesetofnewyork.com. Retrieved October 17, 2022.
  45. "August Rush Film Locations - [otsoNY.com]". onthesetofnewyork.com. Retrieved October 17, 2022.
  46. Young, Michelle (February 18, 2022). "Filming Locations for The Marvelous Mrs. Maisel on Amazon - Page 43 of 48". Untapped New York. Retrieved October 17, 2022.
  47. "Big Brother 19's Jessica And Cody Bring Their Showmance To The Amazing Race - CBS.com". CBS. Retrieved October 2, 2017.