East Village, Manhattan

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East Village
East Village Second Avenue.jpg
Second Avenue and 6th Street, facing south.
Location in New York City
Coordinates: 40°43′41″N73°59′10″W / 40.728°N 73.986°W / 40.728; -73.986 Coordinates: 40°43′41″N73°59′10″W / 40.728°N 73.986°W / 40.728; -73.986
Country Flag of the United States.svg  United States
State Flag of New York.svg  New York
City Flag of New York City.svg New York City
Borough Flag of Manhattan.png Manhattan
Community District Manhattan 3 [1]
Named1960s [2]
Area
[3]
  Total1.99 km2 (0.768 sq mi)
Population
 (2016) [3]
  Total63,347
  Density32,000/km2 (82,000/sq mi)
Ethnicity
[4]
  White65.5%
  Asian14.9
  Hispanic12.4
  Black3.9
  Other3.3
Economics
[3]
   Median income $74,265
Time zone UTC−5 (Eastern)
  Summer (DST) UTC−4 (EDT)
ZIP code
10003, 10009
Area code(s) 212, 332, 646, and 917

The East Village is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Manhattan. It is roughly defined as the neighborhood east of the Bowery and Third Avenue, between 14th Street on the north and Houston Street on the south. [2]

New York City Largest city in the United States

The City of New York, usually called either New York City (NYC) or simply New York (NY), is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2018 population of 8,398,748 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles (784 km2), New York is also the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 19,979,477 people in its 2018 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 22,679,948 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural, financial, and media capital of the world, and exerts a significant impact upon commerce, entertainment, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, art, fashion, and sports. The city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.

Manhattan Borough in New York City and county in New York, United States

Manhattan, often referred to locally as the City, is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City and its economic and administrative center, cultural identifier, and historical birthplace. The borough is coextensive with New York County, one of the original counties of the U.S. state of New York. The borough consists mostly of Manhattan Island, bounded by the Hudson, East, and Harlem rivers; several small adjacent islands; and Marble Hill, a small neighborhood now on the U.S. mainland, physically connected to the Bronx and separated from the rest of Manhattan by the Harlem River. Manhattan Island is divided into three informally bounded components, each aligned with the borough's long axis: Lower, Midtown, and Upper Manhattan.

Bowery street and neighborhood in Manhattan

The Bowery is a street and neighborhood in the southern portion of the New York City borough of Manhattan. The street runs from Chatham Square at Park Row, Worth Street, and Mott Street in the south to Cooper Square at 4th Street in the north. The eponymous neighborhood runs roughly from the Bowery east to Allen Street and First Avenue, and from Canal Street north to Cooper Square/East Fourth Street. To the south is Chinatown, to the east are the Lower East Side and the East Village, and to the west are Little Italy and NoHo. It has historically been considered a part of the Lower East Side.

Contents

The area was once generally considered to be part of the Lower East Side, with a large Russian, Ukrainian and Jewish population, but gradually changed and by the late 1960s, many artists, musicians, students and hippies began to move into the area, attracted by cheap rents and the base of Beatniks who had lived there since the 1950s. The neighborhood became a center of the counterculture in New York, and is known as the birthplace and historical home of many artistic movements, including punk rock [5] and the Nuyorican literary movement. [6] It has also been the site of protests and riots. Since at least the 2000s, some have argued that gentrification has changed the character of the neighborhood. [7]

Lower East Side Neighborhood of Manhattan in New York City

The Lower East Side, sometimes abbreviated as LES, is a neighborhood in the southeastern part of the New York City borough of Manhattan, roughly located between the Bowery and the East River, and Canal Street and Houston Street. Traditionally an immigrant, working class neighborhood, it began rapid gentrification in the mid-2000s, prompting the National Trust for Historic Preservation to place the neighborhood on their list of America's Most Endangered Places.

Hippie Member of the counterculture of the 1960s

A hippie is a member of the counterculture of the 1960s, originally a youth movement that began in the United States during the mid-1960s and spread to other countries around the world. The word hippie came from hipster and was used to describe beatniks who moved into New York City's Greenwich Village and San Francisco's Haight-Ashbury district. The term hippie first found popularity in San Francisco with Herb Caen, who was a journalist for the San Francisco Chronicle.

Counterculture Subculture whose values and norms of behavior deviate from those of mainstream society

A counterculture is a subculture whose values and norms of behavior differ substantially from those of mainstream society, often in opposition to mainstream cultural mores. A countercultural movement expresses the ethos and aspirations of a specific population during a well-defined era. When oppositional forces reach critical mass, countercultures can trigger dramatic cultural changes. Prominent examples of countercultures in Europe and North America include Romanticism (1790–1840), Bohemianism (1850–1910), the more fragmentary counterculture of the Beat Generation (1944–1964), followed by the globalized counterculture of the 1960s (1964–1974), usually associated with the hippie subculture and the diversified punk subculture of the 1970s and 1980s.

East Village is part of Manhattan Community District 3 and its primary ZIP Codes are 10003 and 10009. [1] It is patrolled by the 9th Precinct of the New York City Police Department.

Manhattan Community Board 3

The Manhattan Community Board 3 is a New York City community board encompassing the Manhattan neighborhoods of Alphabet City, the East Village, the Lower East Side, Two Bridges, and a large portion of Chinatown. It is delimited by the East River on the east, the Brooklyn Bridge on the south, Pearl Street, Baxter Street, Canal Street, Bowery and Fourth Avenue on the west, as well as by the 14th Street on the north.

A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service (USPS) in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; it was chosen to suggest that the mail travels more efficiently and quickly when senders use the code in the postal address. The basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location.

9th Precinct, New York City Police Department

The 9th Precinct of the New York City Police Department is a police precinct in New York City. It is one of 77 NYPD patrol areas. Its boundaries are East 14th Street to the north, Broadway to the west, East Houston Street to the south and the East River to the east. It is three-quarters of a square mile in area, and it covers the neighborhoods commonly referred to as the East Village, Alphabet City, Loisaida and NoHo.

History

Early development

Former German-American Shooting Society Clubhouse at 12 St Mark's Place (1885). East Village once had a sizable Little Germany, an area within which this building is located. Little Germany House.jpg
Former German-American Shooting Society Clubhouse at 12 St Mark's Place (1885). East Village once had a sizable Little Germany, an area within which this building is located.

The area that is today known as the East Village was originally a farm owned by Dutch Governor-General Wouter van Twiller. Peter Stuyvesant received the deed to this farm in 1651, and his family held on to the land for over seven generations, until a descendant began selling off parcels of the property in the early 19th century. Wealthy townhouses dotted the dirt roads for a few decades until the great Irish and German immigration of the 1840s and 1850s.

Wouter van Twiller Dutch colonial administrator

Wouter van Twiller was an employee of the Dutch West India Company and the Director of New Netherland from 1632 until 1638. He succeeded Peter Minuit, who was recalled by the Dutch West India authorities in Amsterdam for unknown reasons.

Peter Stuyvesant Dutch politician

Peter Stuyvesant ; in Dutch also Pieter and Petrus Stuyvesant); (1592–1672) served as the last Dutch director-general of the colony of New Netherland from 1647 until it was ceded provisionally to the English in 1664, after which it was renamed New York. He was a major figure in the early history of New York City and his name has been given to various landmarks and points of interest throughout the city.

Speculative land owners began building multi-unit dwellings on lots meant for single family homes, and began renting out rooms and apartments to the growing working class, including many immigrants from Germany. From roughly the 1850s to first decade of the 20th century, the neighborhood has the third largest urban population of Germans outside of Vienna and Berlin, known as Klein Deutschland ("Little Germany"). It was America's first foreign language neighborhood; hundreds of political, social, sports and recreational clubs were set up during this period, and some of these buildings still exist. However, the vitality of the community was sapped by the General Slocum disaster on June 15, 1904, in which over a thousand German-Americans died.

Vienna Capital city and state of Austria

Vienna is the federal capital, largest city and one of nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primate city, with a population of about 1.9 million, and its cultural, economic, and political centre. It is the 7th-largest city by population within city limits in the European Union. Until the beginning of the 20th century, it was the largest German-speaking city in the world, and before the splitting of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in World War I, the city had 2 million inhabitants. Today, it has the second largest number of German speakers after Berlin. Vienna is host to many major international organizations, including the United Nations and OPEC. The city is located in the eastern part of Austria and is close to the borders of Czechia, Slovakia, and Hungary. These regions work together in a European Centrope border region. Along with nearby Bratislava, Vienna forms a metropolitan region with 3 million inhabitants. In 2001, the city centre was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In July 2017 it was moved to the list of World Heritage in Danger.

Little Germany, Manhattan neighborhood of New York City in the 1800s

Little Germany, known in German as Kleindeutschland and Deutschländle and called Dutchtown by contemporary non-Germans, was a German immigrant neighborhood on the Lower East Side of Manhattan in New York City. The neighborhood's ethnic cohesion began to decline in the late 19th century from the population dynamics of non-German immigrants settling in the area, and the loss of second-generation families to other German-American communities. The decline was exacerbated in 1904, when the General Slocum disaster wiped out the social core of the neighborhood.

Later waves of immigration also brought many Poles and, especially, Ukrainians to the area, creating a Ukrainian enclave in the city. Since the 1890s there has been a large concentration roughly from 10th Street to 5th Street, between 3rd Avenue and Avenue A. The post-World War II diaspora, consisting primarily of Western Ukrainian intelligentsia, also settled down in the area. Several churches, including St. George's Catholic Church; Ukrainian restaurants and butcher shops; The Ukrainian Museum; the Shevchenko Scientific Society; and the Ukrainian Cultural Center are evidence of the impact of this culture on the area. [8]

Poles people from Poland

The Poles, commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history, and are native speakers of the Polish language. The population of self-declared Poles in Poland is estimated at 37,394,000 out of an overall population of 38,538,000, of whom 36,522,000 declared Polish alone.

Ukrainian Americans in New York City

Ukrainian Americans have been present in New York City as early as the 17th century when the city was called New Amsterdam. However, the first Ukrainian mass immigration wave to New York City occurred during 1870-1899, coinciding with other mass European influxes into the city.

The Ukrainian diaspora is the global community of ethnic Ukrainians, especially those who maintain some kind of connection, even if ephemeral, to the land of their ancestors and maintain their feeling of Ukrainian national identity within their own local community.

The area originally ended at the East River, to the east of where Avenue D was later located, until landfill – including World War II debris and rubble shipped from London – was used to extend the shoreline to provide foundation for the Franklin D. Roosevelt Drive. [9]

New neighborhood

A wall in the East Village in 1998, featuring a mural of two men East Village, New York City, 1998.jpg
A wall in the East Village in 1998, featuring a mural of two men

Until the mid-1960s, the area was simply the northern part of the Lower East Side, with a similar culture of immigrant, working class life. In the 1950s, the migration of Beatniks into the neighborhood later attracted hippies, musicians and artists well into the 1960s. [2] The area was dubbed the "East Village", to dissociate it from the image of slums evoked by the Lower East Side. According to The New York Times , a 1964 guide called Earl Wilson's New York wrote that "artists, poets and promoters of coffeehouses from Greenwich Village are trying to remelt the neighborhood under the high-sounding name of 'East Village.'" [2]

Newcomers and real estate brokers popularized the new name, and the term was adopted by the popular media by the mid-1960s. [10] [11] In 1966 a weekly newspaper, The East Village Other , appeared and The New York Times declared that the neighborhood "had come to be known" as the East Village in the edition of June 5, 1967. [2]

Arts scenes

Music scene

Patti Smith, seen here in Copenhagen in 1976, is one of the many poets, musicians and artists who got their start in the East Village Patti Smith Copenhagen 1976.jpg
Patti Smith, seen here in Copenhagen in 1976, is one of the many poets, musicians and artists who got their start in the East Village

In 1966, Andy Warhol promoted a series of multimedia shows, entitled "The Exploding Plastic Inevitable", and featuring the music of the Velvet Underground, in a Polish ballroom on St. Marks Place. On June 27, 1967, the Electric Circus opened in the same space with a benefit for the Children's Recreation Foundation whose chairman was Bobby Kennedy. The Grateful Dead, The Chambers Brothers, Sly and the Family Stone, and the Allman Brothers Band were among the many rock bands that performed there before it closed in 1971.

On March 8, 1968, Bill Graham opened the Fillmore East in what had been a Yiddish Theatre on Second Avenue at East 6th Street in the Yiddish Theater District. The venue quickly became known as "The Church of Rock and Roll", with two-show concerts several nights a week. While booking many of the same bands that had played the Electric Circus, Graham particularly used the venue, as well as its West Coast counterpart, to establish in the US British bands such as The Who, Pink Floyd, The Jimi Hendrix Experience, Cream and Led Zeppelin. The Fillmore East closed in 1971.

CBGB, the nightclub considered by some to be the birthplace of punk music, was located in the neighborhood, as was the early punk standby A7. No Wave and New York hardcore also emerged in the area's clubs. Among the many important bands and singers who got their start at these clubs and other venues in downtown Manhattan were Patti Smith, Arto Lindsay, the Ramones, Blondie, Richard Hell and the Voidoids, Madonna, Talking Heads, Television, the Plasmatics, Glenn Danzig, Sonic Youth, the Beastie Boys, Anthrax, and The Strokes.

Few icons of the punk scene remain in the neighborhood as it changed. Richard Hell lives in the same apartment he has lived in since the 1970s, and Handsome Dick Manitoba of The Dictators owns Manitoba's bar on Avenue B.

Art scene

Performer Murray Hill with the "Downtown Legends" wall at Mo Pitkins' House Of Satisfaction, depicting artists of the East Village performance scene, including the Reverend Jen, Nick Zedd, Allen Ginsberg, Reverend Billy Murray Hill at Mo Pitkins with Legends Wall.jpg
Performer Murray Hill with the "Downtown Legends" wall at Mo Pitkins' House Of Satisfaction, depicting artists of the East Village performance scene, including the Reverend Jen, Nick Zedd, Allen Ginsberg, Reverend Billy

Over the last 100 years, the East Village and the Lower East Side have contributed significantly to American arts and culture in New York. [13] The neighborhood has been the birthplace of cultural icons and movements from the American gangster to the Warhol Superstars, folk music to punk rock, anti-folk to hip-hop, advanced education to organized activism, experimental theater to the Beat Generation and the community of experimental musicians, composers and improvisers now loosely known as the Downtown Scene.

Club 57, on St. Marks Place, was an important incubator for performance art and visual art in the late 1970s and early 1980s; followed by Now Gallery, 8BC and ABC No Rio.

During the 1980s, the East Village art gallery scene helped to galvanize a new post-modern art in America; showing such artists as Kiki Smith, Peter Halley, Keith Haring, Kenny Scharf, Stephen Lack, Greer Lankton, Joseph Nechvatal, Jim Radakovich, Nan Goldin, Jean-Michel Basquiat, David Wojnarowicz, James Romberger, Jeff Koons, Kevin Larmee, and Dave Vulcan.

The East Village, specifically the area known as Alphabet City, is also the setting for Jonathan Larson's musical Rent , which captures the neighborhood in the early 1990s; it opened at the New York Theatre Workshop in February 1996. [14] Rent describes a city devastated by the AIDS epidemic, drugs and high crime, and follows several characters in their efforts to make livings as artists. [15] [16]

Decline

The East Village's performance and art scene has declined since its height in the 1970s and 1980s. [17] One club that tried to resurrect the neighborhood's past artistic prominence was Mo Pitkins' House of Satisfaction, part-owned by Jimmy Fallon of the Tonight Show and formerly of Saturday Night Live . The venue's past performers include figures such as Murray Hill, Rob Corddry, Rachel Dratch, Amy Poehler, Moby, and Debbie Harry. [18] It closed its doors in 2007. A study done by Fordham University notes the decline of the East Village performance and art scene, and how "the young, liberal culture that once found its place on the Manhattan side of the East River" has shifted in part to new neighborhoods like Williamsburg in Brooklyn. [19] [20] Rapture Cafe also shut down in April 2008, and the neighborhood lost an important performance space and gathering ground for the gay community. There are still some performance spaces, such as Sidewalk Cafe on 6th Street and Avenue A, where downtown acts find space to exhibit their talent, and the poetry clubs Bowery Poetry Club and Nuyorican Poets Café. [21]

Photograph of St. Nicholas showing Second Street, just west of Avenue A. The church and almost all buildings on the street were demolished in the 1960s and replaced with parking lots St Nicholas Manhattan NYC 1914.png
Photograph of St. Nicholas showing Second Street, just west of Avenue A. The church and almost all buildings on the street were demolished in the 1960s and replaced with parking lots

From 2004 to 2009, the art gallery American Painting, located on East 6th St., between 2nd and 3rd Avenues, exhibited the works of several New York and American artists, namely Andrei Kushnir, Michele Martin Taylor, Carol Spils, Barbara Nuss, Joachim Marx, Stevens Jay Carter and Michael Francis. [22] One of their last exhibits, "East Village Afternoon", depicted local interiors, exteriors, and scenes of the changing neighborhood. [23]

Gentrification and preservation

Gentrification and effects

As has often been the pattern in Manhattan, a neighborhood that is "discovered" by artists and bohemians and then becomes "hip" will often begin to attract more affluent residents, which drives up the price of housing, and begins to drive out the residents who "turned over" the neighborhood. This is one theory of gentrification, [24] and some argue that it has also occurred in the New York City neighborhoods SoHo and Tribeca in Manhattan, as well as Williamsburg in Brooklyn. Over the course of time, this demographic shift begins to change the essential character of the neighborhood: it becomes safer, more comfortable, less tolerant of noise, and less "edgy". Some gentrification opponents say that this process causes the neighborhood to lose its unique identity for the sake of money. [25]

The term "gentrification" is often used to reflect this, [26] and the gentrification of the neighborhood has resulted in people being pushed out and some buildings in the area being torn down and replaced by newer buildings. [27] For instance, actor David Schwimmer bought an 1852 townhouse on East 6th Street in 2010 and got several notices of its possible landmark status the next year; however, he had the building torn down and rebuilt, which angered some of his neighbors. [28]

Rezoning

1st Avenue, looking north at 10th Street 1st Avenue 9171.JPG
1st Avenue, looking north at 10th Street

In 2008 a rezoning modified much of the zoning in East Village. The area affected by the rezoning roughly bounded by East 13th Street on the north, Third Avenue on the west, Delancey Street on the south, and Avenue D on the east. [29] [30] It was the first time that a rezoning had occurred in the area since 1961.

The rezoning was done in response to concerns about the character and scale of some of the new buildings in the neighborhood. [31] The previous zoning limited the area of floor space that a building could have, but there were no limits on building heights or on setbacks from the street. The new zoning established height limits for new development throughout the affected area, decreased allowable density in much of the midblock residential areas but increased it along wider thoroughfares, capped air rights transfers, eliminated the current zoning bonus for dorms and hotels, and created incentives for the creation and retention of affordable housing. [32]

The city first released a draft rezoning in July 2006, after hearing input from neighborhood advocates including the Greenwich Village Society for Historic Preservation (GVSHP), Community Board 3, the East Village Community Coalition, and City Councilmember Rosie Mendez. Concerned that the Third Avenue corridor, where much of the most out-of-scale development was occurring, was left out of that draft, advocates continued to push for an expansion of the rezoning, [33] eventually securing the 3rd/4th Avenue Corridor Downzoning in 2010. The GVSHP report "Keeping in Character" summed up the changes this way:

"Under the new zoning, development tends to be shorter and much more similar in height to surrounding buildings, must maintain the all-important street wall, is usually less bulky than could have been built under the old zoning, and is more likely to be for residential use than a hotel or dormitory.

"In fact, in many cases the new zoning makes it more desirable to retain existing buildings rather than tear them down and replace them as the old zoning had encouraged. The rezoning does contain some zoning bulk bonuses for the creation or retention of affordable housing. But even in these cases the new developments are nevertheless required to maintain the same height limits as all other new developments in their zoning district." [34]

The rezoning process and hearings were marked by protests and accusations of promoting gentrification and increased property values over the Lower East Side's historic status as a home to New York's low-income immigrant communities and their needs for affordable housing. Residents of Chinatown, which is adjacent to the southern boundary of the rezoning area, were worried that by blocking the construction of tall, slender towers in the East Village, developers wishing to build in that style would turn their sights to Chinatown. Most of Chinatown is zoned as commercial districts, which are relatively lax in terms of building character and land use regulations. This led the Community Boards in the area (Boards 1, 2, and 3) to create the Chinatown Working Group in order to address the concerns of residents and to work to preserve Chinatown's particular character, employment opportunities, and affordable housing.

Landmark efforts

Successes
"Extra Place", an obscure side street off of East 1st Street, just east of the Bowery Extra Place from 1st Street.jpg
"Extra Place", an obscure side street off of East 1st Street, just east of the Bowery

Local community groups actively are working to gain individual and district landmark designations for the East Village to preserve and protect the architectural and cultural identity of the neighborhood. One such group is the Greenwich Village Society for Historic Preservation (GVSHP). It has undertaken a complete survey of the East Village, documenting the history of every single building in the area. [35] In the spring of 2011, the Landmarks Preservation Commission (LPC) proposed two East Village historic districts: one small district covering the block of East 10th Street known as Tompkins Square North, and one larger district focused around lower Second Avenue that would encompass 15 blocks and 330 buildings. [36] The original proposal for the larger district excluded buildings such as the Pyramid Club and the Russian Orthodox Cathedral on East 2nd Street. As a result of the efforts made by local community groups such as GVSHP, the Lower East Side Preservation Initiative, East Village Community Coalition, and Historic Districts Council, however, the proposed district now includes these buildings. [37]

In January 2012, the East 10th Street Historic District was designated by the LPC. Minutes before the designation, an out-of-scale rooftop addition on one of the included buildings was approved by the Department of Buildings. [38] In October 2012 the East Village/Lower East Side Historic District – the larger district – was also designated by the LPC. Preservation and community groups of the East Village seek to have other buildings landmarked, including parts of St. Mark's Place, the blocks to the north, and more of the streets bordering Tompkins Square Park. [39] Other successful efforts to retain the neighborhood's low-rise character by controlling development include the East Village downzoning of 2008 and the 3rd/4th Avenue Corridor downzoning, effective in 2010. [40]

GVSHP and allied groups have rallied to get some notable buildings designated as individual landmarks, while other structures have been demolished over community objections. Individual landmarks include Webster Hall, a Romanesque Revival concert hall and nightclub designed in 1886 with an "extraordinary cultural history." According to GVSHP's 2007 request for evaluation for the building, "Over the last 120 years, the space has hosted everything from debutante balls and society dinners to wrestling matches, political rallies, union meetings, and bohemian costume dances." [41] Less than one year later, in 2007, the building was designated an individual landmark. A year earlier, the LPC designated P.S. 64, a French Renaissance Revival public school built in 1904-6 by architect and school superintendent C.B.J. Snyder. [42] Supporters hoped the 2006 vote would serve the practical purpose of ending the owner's removal of architectural details; it was but one chapter in a heated, ongoing controversy over the building, which had been used as the CHARAS/El Bohio community center until New York City sold it to developer Gregg Singer. The year 2006 also saw GVSHP call for the Landmarks Preservation Commission to prevent the demolition of the former Van Tassell and Kearney Horse Auction Mart, a building described as both stately and humble, built for horse trade but eventually used as a factory for "Rosie the Riveter"-type women working during World War II, then a studio of the major abstract expressionist Frank Stella. [43] The Commission did so by calendaring the building, and designated it a New York City landmark in 2012.

Other individual landmarks in the neighborhood include the former Yiddish Art Theater, now in use as a movie theater, which also is an interior landmark (a relatively rare distinction), designated in 1993; the Stuyvesant Polyclinic, built in 1884 and designated in 1976; the Children's Aid Society's Elizabeth Home for Girls, designated in 2008; and the First Houses, the country's first public housing development, built in 1935, designated in 1974, and still used as low-income housing today.

Failures
Looking south from East 6th Street down Second Avenue, one of the main thoroughfares through the East Village East Village Second Avenue.jpg
Looking south from East 6th Street down Second Avenue, one of the main thoroughfares through the East Village
East 5th Street between Second Avenue and Cooper Square is a typical side street in the heart of the East Village East 5th Street streetscape.jpg
East 5th Street between Second Avenue and Cooper Square is a typical side street in the heart of the East Village

Landmark efforts have included a number of losses as well. Despite the request of GVSHP and allied groups in 2012 for landmarking of Mary Help of Christians school, church and rectory, with parts dating to 1850 and designed by Nicholas Serracino, by July 2013 demolition had begun. A new development including residences and ground-floor retail is slated to fill the site. [44] In 2011, an early 19th-century Federal house at 35 Cooper Square — one of the oldest on the Bowery and in the East Village — was demolished to make way for a college dorm, over requests of community groups and elected officials. [45]

The Landmarks Preservation Commission acts on no particular schedule, leaving some "calendared" requests for designation open indefinitely, such as the 1886 Tifereth Israel synagogue. [46] Sometimes it simply declines requests for consideration, [47] as it did regarding an unusually intact Italianate tenement at 143 E. 13th Street.

2015 gas explosion

On March 26, 2015, a gas explosion occurred on Second Avenue. The explosion was caused by the leaky gas line, which might have been tapped. [48]

The explosion and resulting fire destroyed three buildings at 119, 121 and 123 Second Avenue, between East 7th Street and St. Marks Place. At least twenty-two people were injured, four critically, and two people were initially listed as missing. One body, as yet unidentified, was found in the rubble several days later. [49] Later, two men were found dead in the debris of the explosion; these men are presumed to be the ones listed as missing. [50] Three restaurants were also destroyed in the explosion. [51]

Geography

Neighboring the East Village are the Lower East Side to the south, NoHo to the west, Stuyvesant Park to the northwest, and Stuyvesant Town to the northeast. [52]

Subsections

The East Village contains several smaller vibrant communities, each with its own character.

Alphabet City

A Loisaida street fair in the summer of 2008. Avenue C Loisaida Street Festival.JPG
A Loisaida street fair in the summer of 2008.
St. Marks Place is a major shopping street, with many businesses that cater to the tourist trade St. Marks Place.jpg
St. Marks Place is a major shopping street, with many businesses that cater to the tourist trade

Alphabet City, comprising nearly two-thirds of the East Village, was once the archetype of a dangerous New York City neighborhood. Its turn-around was cause for The New York Times to observe in 2005 that Alphabet City went "from a drug-infested no man's land to the epicenter of downtown cool." [53] Its name comes from Avenues A, B, C, and D, the only avenues in Manhattan to have single-letter names. It is bordered by Houston Street to the south and 14th Street to the north. Landmarks within Alphabet City include Tompkins Square Park and the Nuyorican Poets Café. [54] [55] [56] This part of the neighborhood has long been an ethnic enclave for Manhattan's German, Polish, Hispanic, and Jewish populations. Crime went up in the area in the late 20th century but then declined in the 21st century, as the area became gentrified. [57]

Loisaida is a term derived from the Latino, and especially Nuyorican, pronunciation of "Lower East Side". The term was originally coined by poet/activist, Bittman "Bimbo" Rivas in his 1974 poem "Loisaida". Loisaida Avenue is now an alternative name for Avenue C in the Alphabet City neighborhood of New York City, whose population has largely been Hispanic (mainly Nuyorican) since the late 1960s. During the 1980s many of the old, vacant, tenement buildings in this area became inhabited by squatters. [58]

In Alphabet City, Eighth Street becomes St. Marks Place east of Third Avenue. It once had the cachet of Sutton Place, and was known as a secluded rich enclave in Manhattan, but by the 1850s had become a place for boarding houses and a German immigrant community. [59] It is named after St. Mark's Church in-the-Bowery, which was built on Stuyvesant Street but is now on 10th Street. St. Marks Place once began at the intersection of the Bowery and Stuyvesant Street, but today the street runs from Third Avenue to Avenue A. Japanese street culture and a Japanese expatriate scene forms in the noodle shops and bars that line the street, also home to an aged punk culture and CBGB's new store. It is home to one of the only Automats in New York City (it has since closed). [60] St. Marks Place is along the "Mosaic Trail", a trail of 80 mosaic-encrusted lampposts that runs from Broadway down Eighth Street to Avenue A, to Fourth Street and then back to Eighth Street. The project was undertaken by East Village public artist Jim Power, known as the "Mosaic Man". [61]

Bowery

Once synonymous with "Bowery Bums", the Bowery area has become a magnet for luxury condominiums as the East Village neighborhood's rapid gentrification continues Street Sleeper 8 by DS.JPG
Once synonymous with "Bowery Bums", the Bowery area has become a magnet for luxury condominiums as the East Village neighborhood's rapid gentrification continues

The Bowery, former home to the punk-rock nightclub CBGB that closed in 2006, was once known for its many homeless shelters, drug rehabilitation centers and bars. The phrase "On the Bowery", which has since fallen into disuse, was a generic way to say one was down-and-out. [62]

The Bow’ry, The Bow’ry!
They say such things,
and they do strange things
on the Bow’ry

From the musical A Trip to Chinatown , 1891 [63]

Today, the Bowery has become a boulevard of new luxury condominiums. It is the location of the Bowery Poetry Club, contributing to the neighborhood's reputation as a place for artistic pursuit; artists Amiri Baraka and Taylor Mead held regular readings and performances in the space. [64]

Redevelopment of the avenue from flophouses to luxury condominiums has met resistance from long-term residents, who agree the neighborhood has improved but its unique, gritty character is disappearing. [65]

Little Ukraine

Taras Shevchenko Place, with St. George's Church on the north side, and St. George Academy on the south side. Taras Shevchenko Place.JPG
Taras Shevchenko Place, with St. George's Church on the north side, and St. George Academy on the south side.

Little Ukraine is an ethnic enclave in the East Village, which has served as a spiritual, political and cultural epicenter for several waves of Ukrainian Americans in New York City as far back as the late 19th century. At the beginning of the 20th century, Ukrainian immigrants began moving into areas previously dominated by fellow Eastern European and Galician Jews, as well as the Lower East Side's German enclave. After World War II, the Ukrainian population of the neighborhood reached 60,000, [66] but as with the city's Little Italy, today the neighborhood consists of only a few Ukrainian stores and restaurants. Today, the East Village between Houston and 14th Street, and Third Avenue and Avenue A [67] still houses nearly a third of New York City's Ukrainian population. [68]

Little Ukraine itself is traditionally defined as

Since the early 20th century, St. George Ukrainian Catholic Church has served as the anchor of Little Ukraine, offering daily liturgies and penances, and operating the adjoining St. George Academy, a coeducational parochial school. Starting in 1976, the church has sponsored an annual Ukrainian Heritage Festival, regularly described as one of the few remaining authentic New York City street fairs. [69] In April 1978, the New York City Council renamed a small connecting street between East 7th Street and East 6th Street after Taras Shevchenko, Ukraine's national bard. [70]

Political representation

Politically, East Village is in New York's 7th and 12th congressional districts. [71] [72] It is also in the New York State Senate's 27th and 28th districts, [73] [74] the New York State Assembly's 65th, 66th, and 74th districts, [75] [76] and the New York City Council's 1st and 2nd districts. [77]

Demographics

Based on data from the 2010 United States Census, the population of East Village was 44,136, a change of 2,390 (5.4%) from the 41,746 counted in 2000. Covering an area of 250.02 acres (101.18 ha), the neighborhood had a population density of 176.5 inhabitants per acre (113,000/sq mi; 43,600/km2). [78] The racial makeup of the neighborhood was 65.5% (28,888) White, 3.9% (1,743) African American, 0.1% (64) Native American, 14.9% (6,560) Asian, 0% (22) Pacific Islander, 0.4% (182) from other races, and 2.8% (1,214) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 12.4% (5,463) of the population. [4]

The entirety of Community District 3, which comprises East Village and the Lower East Side, had 171,103 inhabitants as of NYC Health's 2018 Community Health Profile, with an average life expectancy of 82.2 years. [79] :2, 20 This is higher than the median life expectancy of 81.2 for all New York City neighborhoods. [80] :53 (PDF p. 84) [81] Most inhabitants are adults: a plurality (35%) are between the ages of 25–44, while 25% are between 45–64, and 16% are 65 or older. The ratio of youth and college-aged residents was lower, at 13% and 11% respectively. [79] :2

As of 2017, the median household income in Community District 3 was $39,584, [82] though the median income in East Village individually was $74,265. [3] In 2018, an estimated 18% of East Village and Lower East Side residents lived in poverty, compared to 14% in all of Manhattan and 20% in all of New York City. One in twelve residents (8%) were unemployed, compared to 7% in Manhattan and 9% in New York City. Rent burden, or the percentage of residents who have difficulty paying their rent, is 48% in East Village and the Lower East Side, compared to the boroughwide and citywide rates of 45% and 51% respectively. Based on this calculation, as of 2018, East Village and the Lower East Side are considered to be gentrifying. [79] :7

Culture

Ethnicity and religion

On October 9, 1966, A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, founder of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness, held the first recorded outdoor chanting session of the Hare Krishna mantra outside of the Indian subcontinent at Tompkins Square Park. [83] This is considered the founding of the Hare Krishna religion in the United States, and the large tree close to the center of the Park is demarcated as a special religious site for Krishna adherents. [83] The late poet Allen Ginsberg, who lived and died in the East Village, attended the ceremony.

Several Roman Catholic churches in the East Village have fallen victim to financial hardship in the last decade. Unable or unwilling to maintain them, the Roman Catholic Church has shuttered St. Mary's Help of Christians on East 12th Street, as well as St. Ann's. There has recently been much controversy over St. Brigid's, the historic parish on Tompkins Square Park. One of the mainstays that remains active is St. Stanislaus, just steps from Tompkins Square Park.[ citation needed ]

Cultural institutions

Neighborhood festivals

Sherry Vine and Joey Arias during the 2009 HOWL! Festival Joey Arias and Sherry Vine 2009 Howl Festival by DS.jpg
Sherry Vine and Joey Arias during the 2009 HOWL! Festival

Parks and gardens

Tompkins Square Park

Tompkins Square Park Central Knoll.jpg
Tompkins Square Park is the recreational and geographic heart of the East Village. It has historically been a part of counterculture, protest and riots
Tompkins Square Big Dog Run.JPG
The Tompkins Square dog run was the first in New York City, and is a social scene unto itself [99]

Tompkins Square Park is a 10.5 acres (42,000 m2) public park in the Alphabet City section of East Village. Square in shape, it is bounded on the north by East 10th Street, on the east by Avenue B, on the south by East 7th Street, and on the west by Avenue A. St. Marks Place abuts the park to the west. [100]

Communist Rally, 1877

In July 1877, railroad workers received their second wage cut of the year by the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad. On July 14, railroad employees in Martinsburg, West Virginia, began what came to be known as the Great Railroad Strike of 1877. On July 25, 1877, twenty thousand people gathered in Tompkins Square Park to hear communist orators speak about revolution, the strike, and the policies of President Hayes. All speeches were repeated in German at a second stand, as the neighborhood had such a large German population at that time. David Conroy, Chairman of the Working Man's Organization in NYC and organizer of the rally, stated that the purpose of the meeting was to harmonize the differences between the strikers and the railroad companies, and to urge the citizen soldiery to refrain from acting against the strikers. Although the rally did not get out of hand, New York City police and National Guardsmen eventually charged the crowd with billy clubs, later claiming that the rally was not being held in a peaceful manner. In the wake of this "riot," the City, in conjunction with the War Department, established an official city armory program led by the 7th Regiment. [101]

Police Riot, 1988

The Tompkins Square Park Police Riot was a defining moment for the neighborhood. In the late hours of August 6 into the morning hours of August 7, 1988 a riot broke out in Alphabet City's Tompkins Square Park. Groups of "drug pushers, homeless people and young people known as 'skinheads'" had largely taken over the East Village park, but the neighborhood was divided about what, if anything, should be done about it. [102] The local governing body, Manhattan Community Board 3, adopted a 1 am curfew for the previously 24-hour park, in an attempt to bring it under control. [103] On July 31, a rally against the curfew resulted in several clashes between protesters and police. [104]

East River Park

The park is 57 acres (230,000 m2) and runs between the Franklin D. Roosevelt Drive and the East River from Montgomery Street to East 12th Street. [105] It was designed in the 1930s by Robert Moses, who wanted to ensure there was parkland on the Lower East Side. [105] In 2010, construction was completed on the East River Promenade, which now runs from East 12th Street to Grand Street and continues to be expanded south. [106]

Community gardens

There are reportedly over 640 community gardens in New York City—gardens run by local collectives within the neighborhood who are responsible for the gardens' upkeep—and an estimated 10 percent of those are located on the Lower East Side and East Village alone. [107]

Open Road Park

A former cemetery and bus depot, Open Road Park is a garden and a playground occupying the width of a city block.

Tower of Toys on Avenue B

The Avenue B and 6th Street Community Garden is one of the neighborhood's more notable for a now-removed outdoor sculpture, the Tower of Toys, designed by artist and long-time garden gate-keeper Eddie Boros. Boros died April 27, 2007. [108] The Tower was controversial in the neighborhood; some viewed it as a masterpiece, others as an eyesore. [108] [109] It was a makeshift structure, 65 feet high, assembled of wooden planks. The "toys" suspended from it were an amalgamation of fanciful objects found on the street (Boros was a strong voice for reusing and recycling). The fantastical, childlike feeling of this installation was fitting, considering that the garden boasts a children's adventure playground and garden. [110] The tower appeared in the opening credits for the television show NYPD Blue and also appears in the musical Rent . [108] In May 2008, it was dismantled. According to NYC Parks Commissioner Adrian Benepe, the tower was rotting and thus a safety hazard. [111] Its removal was seen by some as a symbol of the neighborhood's fading past. [111]

Toyota Children's Learning Garden

Located at 603 East 11th Street, the Toyota Children's Learning Garden is not technically a community garden, but it also fails to fit in the park category. Designed by landscape architect Michael Van Valkenburgh, the garden opened in May 2008 as part of the New York Restoration Project and is designed to teach children about plants. [112]

La Plaza Cultural

La Plaza Cultural de Armando Perez (La Plaza Cultural) is a community garden, open-air theater and green space in the East Village

Marble cemeteries

A production of John Reed's All the World's a Grave in the New York Marble Cemetery, which does not contain headstones Marble Cemetery - All the Worlds a Grave.JPG
A production of John Reed's All the World's a Grave in the New York Marble Cemetery, which does not contain headstones

The New York City Marble Cemetery, located on 2nd Street between First Avenue and Second Avenue, is the second oldest nonsectarian cemetery in New York City. The cemetery opened in 1831. U.S. President James Monroe was interred there. [113] Others interred there include Stephen Allen, mayor (1821–1824); James Lenox, whose personal library became part of the New York Public Library; Isaac Varian, mayor (1839–1841); Marinus Willet, Revolutionary War hero; and Preserved Fish, a well-known merchant. [113]

Nearby, on Second Avenue between 2nd and 3rd Streets, is the oldest public cemetery in New York City not affiliated with any religion, the similarly named New York Marble Cemetery. [114] It is open the fourth Sunday of every month. [115]

Police and crime

East Village is patrolled by the 9th Precinct of the NYPD, located at 321 East 5th Street. [116] The 9th Precinct ranked 58th safest out of 69 patrol areas for per-capita crime in 2010. [117] With a non-fatal assault rate of 42 per 100,000 people, East Village and the Lower East Side's rate of violent crimes per capita is less than that of the city as a whole. The incarceration rate of 449 per 100,000 people is higher than that of the city as a whole. [79] :8

The 9th Precinct has a lower crime rate than in the 1990s, with crimes across all categories having decreased by 78.3% between 1990 and 2018. The precinct saw 0 murders, 40 rapes, 85 robberies, 149 felony assaults, 161 burglaries, 835 grand larcenies, and 32 grand larcenies auto in 2018. [118]

Fire safety

Ladder Co. 3/Battalion 6 Firehouse 108 East 13th St.jpg
Ladder Co. 3/Battalion 6

East Village is served by four New York City Fire Department (FDNY) fire stations: [119]

Health

Preterm and teenage births are less common in East Village and the Lower East Side than in other places citywide. In East Village and the Lower East Side, there were 82 preterm births per 1,000 live births (compared to 87 per 1,000 citywide), and 10.1 teenage births per 1,000 live births (compared to 19.3 per 1,000 citywide). [79] :11 East Village and the Lower East Side have a low population of residents who are uninsured. In 2018, this population of uninsured residents was estimated to be 11%, slightly less than the citywide rate of 12%. [79] :14

The concentration of fine particulate matter, the deadliest type of air pollutant, in East Village and the Lower East Side is 0.0089 milligrams per cubic metre (8.9×10−9 oz/cu ft), more than the city average. [79] :9 Twenty percent of East Village and Lower East Side residents are smokers, which is more than the city average of 14% of residents being smokers. [79] :13 In East Village and the Lower East Side, 10% of residents are obese, 11% are diabetic, and 22% have high blood pressure—compared to the citywide averages of 24%, 11%, and 28% respectively. [79] :16 In addition, 16% of children are obese, compared to the citywide average of 20%. [79] :12

Eighty-eight percent of residents eat some fruits and vegetables every day, which is about the same as the city's average of 87%. In 2018, 70% of residents described their health as "good," "very good," or "excellent," less than the city's average of 78%. [79] :13 For every supermarket in East Village and the Lower East Side, there are 18 bodegas. [79] :10

The nearest major hospitals are Beth Israel Medical Center in Stuyvesant Town, as well as the Bellevue Hospital Center and NYU Langone Medical Center in Kips Bay, and NewYork-Presbyterian Lower Manhattan Hospital in the Civic Center area. [124] [125]

Post offices and ZIP codes

USPS Cooper Station post office Cooper Station Post Office.jpg
USPS Cooper Station post office

East Village is located within two primary ZIP Codes. The area east of First Avenue including Alphabet City is part of 10009, while the area west of First Avenue is part of 10003. [126] The United States Postal Service operates three post offices in East Village:

Education

East Village and the Lower East Side generally have a higher rate of college-educated residents than the rest of the city. A plurality of residents age 25 and older (48%) have a college education or higher, while 24% have less than a high school education and 28% are high school graduates or have some college education. By contrast, 64% of Manhattan residents and 43% of city residents have a college education or higher. [79] :6 The percentage of East Village and the Lower East Side students excelling in math rose from 61% in 2000 to 80% in 2011, and reading achievement increased from 66% to 68% during the same time period. [130]

East Village and the Lower East Side's rate of elementary school student absenteeism is lower than the rest of New York City. In East Village and the Lower East Side, 16% of elementary school students missed twenty or more days per school year, less than the citywide average of 20%. [80] :24 (PDF p. 55) [79] :6 Additionally, 77% of high school students in East Village and the Lower East Side graduate on time, more than the citywide average of 75%. [79] :6

Schools

The New York City Department of Education operates public schools in East Village as part of Community School District 1. [131] District 1 does not contain any zoned schools, which means that students living in District 1 can apply to any school in the district, including those in the Lower East Side. [132] [133]

The following public elementary schools are located in East Village and serve grades PK-5 unless otherwise indicated: [131]

  • PS 15 Roberto Clemente [134]
  • PS 19 Asher Levy [135]
  • PS 34 Franklin D Roosevelt (grades PK-8) [136]
  • PS 63 STAR Academy [137]
  • PS 64 Robert Simon [138]
  • PS 94 (grades K-8) [139]
  • PS 188 The Island School (grades PK-8) [140]
  • Earth School [141]
  • Neighborhood School [142]
  • The Children's Workshop School [143]
  • The East Village Community School [144]

The following middle and high schools are located in East Village: [131]

Libraries

New York Public Library, Ottendorfer branch Freie Bibliothek and Deutsches Dispensary.jpg
New York Public Library, Ottendorfer branch

The New York Public Library (NYPL) operates three branches near East Village.

Colleges

New York University

Along with gentrification, the East Village has seen an increase in the number of buildings owned and maintained by New York University, particularly dormitories for undergraduate students, and this influx has given rise to conflict between the community and the university. [151]

St. Ann's Church, a rusticated-stone structure with a Romanesque Revival tower on East 12th Street that dated to 1847, was sold to NYU to make way for a 26-story, 700-bed dormitory. After community protest, the university promised to protect and maintain the church's original facade; and so it did, literally, by having the facade stand alone in front of the building, now the tallest structure in the area. [151] According to many residents, NYU's alteration and demolition of historic buildings, such as the Peter Cooper Post Office, is spoiling the physical and socio-economic landscape that makes this neighborhood so interesting and attractive. [152]

NYU has often been at odds with residents of both the East and West Villages due to its expansive development plans; urban preservationist Jane Jacobs battled the school in the 1960s. [153] "She spoke of how universities and hospitals often had a special kind of hubris reflected in the fact that they often thought it was OK to destroy a neighborhood to suit their needs", said Andrew Berman of the Greenwich Village Society for Historic Preservation. [154]

Cooper Union

The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art, founded in 1859 by entrepreneur and philanthropist Peter Cooper and located on Cooper Square, [155] is one of the most selective colleges in the world, [156] and formerly offered tuition-free programs in engineering, art and architecture. [157] [158] Its Great Hall is famous as a platform for historic speeches, notably Abraham Lincoln's Cooper Union speech, [159] [160] and its New Academic Building is the first in New York City to achieve LEED Platinum Status. [161]

Transportation

The nearest New York City Subway stations are Second Avenue ( F train), Astor Place ( 6 and <6> trains), Eighth Street–New York University ( N , R , and W trains), and First Avenue ( L train). [162] Bus routes serving the area include the M1 , M2 , M3 , M8 , M9 , M14A , M14D , M15 , M15 SBS , M21 , M101 , M102 and M103. [163]

Media

Notable residents

Punk rock icon and writer Richard Hell still lives in the same apartment in Alphabet City that he has had since the 1970s Richard Hell 3 by David Shankbone.jpg
Punk rock icon and writer Richard Hell still lives in the same apartment in Alphabet City that he has had since the 1970s
Miss Understood stops a M15 bus in front of the Lucky Cheng's restaurant at 2nd Street on First Avenue. Miss Understood 7 by David Shankbone.jpg
Miss Understood stops a M15 bus in front of the Lucky Cheng's restaurant at 2nd Street on First Avenue.
Lotti Golden, Lower East Side, 1968 Lotti Golden, Lower East Side c.1968.jpg
Lotti Golden, Lower East Side, 1968

See also

Related Research Articles

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