South Street Seaport

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South Street Seaport
South Street Seaport, Detroit Photographic Company (0616).jpg
South Street and Brooklyn Bridge (c.1900)
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LocationBounded by Burling (John St.) and Peck Slips, Water St. and East River in New York City, United States
Coordinates Coordinates: 40°42′22″N74°0′12″W / 40.70611°N 74.00333°W / 40.70611; -74.00333
Area3.5 acres (1.4 ha)
Architectmultiple
Architectural style Greek Revival
NRHP reference # 72000883 [1]
South Street Seaport Historic District
LocationRoughly bounded by East River, Brooklyn Bridge, Fletcher Alley, and Pearl and South Streets, Manhattan, New York City, United States
Area41 acres (17 ha)
Architectural styleGreek Revival, Romanesque
NRHP reference # 78001884 [1]
Added to NRHPDecember 12, 1978
Added to NRHPOctober 18, 1972

The South Street Seaport is a historic area in the New York City borough of Manhattan, centered where Fulton Street meets the East River, and adjacent to the Financial District. The Seaport is a designated historic district, and is distinct from the neighboring Financial District. It is part of Manhattan Community Board 1 in Lower Manhattan, and is bounded by the Financial District to the west, southwest, and north; the East River to the southeast; and Two Bridges to the northeast.

New York City Largest city in the United States

The City of New York, usually called either New York City (NYC) or simply New York (NY), is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2018 population of 8,398,748 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles (784 km2), New York is also the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 19,979,477 people in its 2018 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 22,679,948 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural, financial, and media capital of the world, and exerts a significant impact upon commerce, entertainment, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, art, fashion, and sports. The city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.

Manhattan Borough in New York City and county in New York, United States

Manhattan, often referred to locally as the City, is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City and its economic and administrative center, cultural identifier, and historical birthplace. The borough is coextensive with New York County, one of the original counties of the U.S. state of New York. The borough consists mostly of Manhattan Island, bounded by the Hudson, East, and Harlem rivers; several small adjacent islands; and Marble Hill, a small neighborhood now on the U.S. mainland, physically connected to the Bronx and separated from the rest of Manhattan by the Harlem River. Manhattan Island is divided into three informally bounded components, each aligned with the borough's long axis: Lower, Midtown, and Upper Manhattan.

Fulton Street (Manhattan) Street in Manhattan, New York

Fulton Street is a busy street located in Lower Manhattan in New York City. Located in the Financial District, a few blocks north of Wall Street, it runs from Church Street at the site of the World Trade Center to South Street, terminating in front of the South Street Seaport. The easternmost block is a pedestrian street. After the World Trade Center construction is completed, it will extend to West Street.

Contents

It features some of the oldest architecture in downtown Manhattan, and includes the largest concentration of restored early 19th-century commercial buildings in the city. This includes renovated original mercantile buildings, renovated sailing ships, the former Fulton Fish Market, and modern tourist malls featuring food, shopping, and nightlife.

Fulton Fish Market

The Fulton Fish Market is a fish market in Hunts Point, a section of the New York City borough of the Bronx, in New York, United States. It was originally a wing of the Fulton Market, established in 1822 to sell a variety of foodstuffs and produce. In November 2005, the Fish Market relocated to a new facility in Hunts Point in the Bronx, from its historic location near the Brooklyn Bridge along the East River waterfront at and above Fulton Street in the Financial District, Lower Manhattan.

History

As port

The first pier in the area appeared in 1625, when the Dutch West India Company founded an outpost here. [2] With the influx of the first settlers, the area was quickly developed. One of the first and busiest streets in the area was today's Pearl Street, so named for a variety of coastal pearl shells. [3] Due to its location, Pearl Street quickly gained popularity among traders. [4] [5] The East River was eventually narrowed. By the second half of the 17th century, the pier was extended to Water Street, then to Front Street, and by the beginning of the 19th century, to South Street. [2] The pier was well reputed, as it was protected from westerly winds and ice of the Hudson River. [3]

Dutch West India Company Dutch trading company

Dutch West India Company was a chartered company of Dutch merchants as well as foreign investors. Among its founders was Willem Usselincx (1567–1647). On June 3, 1621, it was granted a charter for a trade monopoly in the Dutch West Indies by the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands and given jurisdiction over Dutch participation in the Atlantic slave trade, Brazil, the Caribbean, and North America. The area where the company could operate consisted of West Africa and the Americas, which included the Pacific Ocean and the eastern part of New Guinea. The intended purpose of the charter was to eliminate competition, particularly Spanish or Portuguese, between the various trading posts established by the merchants. The company became instrumental in the largely ephemeral Dutch colonization of the Americas in the seventeenth century. From 1624 to 1654, in the context of the Dutch-Portuguese War, the WIC held Portuguese territory in northeast Brazil, but they were ousted from Dutch Brazil following fierce resistance.

Pearl Street (Manhattan) Street in Manhattan, New York

Pearl Street is a street in the Financial District in Lower Manhattan, running northeast from Battery Park to the Brooklyn Bridge with an interruption at Fulton Street, where Pearl Street's alignment west of Fulton Street shifts one block south of its alignment east of Fulton Street, then turning west and terminating at Centre Street.

Lower Manhattan Central business district in New York, United States

Lower Manhattan, also known as Downtown Manhattan or Downtown New York, is the southernmost part of Manhattan, the central borough for business, culture, and government in the City of New York, which itself originated at the southern tip of Manhattan Island in 1624, at a point which now constitutes the present-day Financial District. The population of the Financial District alone has grown to an estimated 61,000 residents as of 2018, up from 43,000 as of 2014, which in turn was nearly double the 23,000 recorded at the 2000 Census.

In 1728, the Schermerhorn Family established trade with the city of Charleston, South Carolina. Subsequently, rice and indigo came from Charleston. [6] At the time, the port was also the focal point of delivery of goods from England. In 1776, during the American Revolutionary War, the British occupied the port, adversely affecting port trade for eight years. In 1783, many traders returned to England, and most port enterprises collapsed. [2] The port quickly recovered from the post-war crisis. From 1797 until the middle of 19th century, New York had the country's largest system of maritime trade. [2] From 1815 to 1860 the port was called the Port of New York.

Schermerhorn Place in North Holland, Netherlands

Schermerhorn is a village in the Dutch province of North Holland. It is a part of the municipality of Alkmaar, and lies about 9 km south of Heerhugowaard.

Charleston, South Carolina City in the United States

Charleston is the oldest and largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina, the county seat of Charleston County, and the principal city in the Charleston–North Charleston–Summerville Metropolitan Statistical Area. The city lies just south of the geographical midpoint of South Carolina's coastline and is located on Charleston Harbor, an inlet of the Atlantic Ocean formed by the confluence of the Ashley, Cooper, and Wando rivers. Charleston had an estimated population of 136,208 in 2018. The estimated population of the Charleston metropolitan area, comprising Berkeley, Charleston, and Dorchester counties, was 787,643 residents as of 2018, the third-largest in the state and the 78th-largest metropolitan statistical area in the United States.

Rice cereal grain and seed of Oryza sativa

Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa or Oryza glaberrima. As a cereal grain, it is the most widely consumed staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in Asia. It is the agricultural commodity with the third-highest worldwide production, after sugarcane and maize.

On February 22, 1784, the Empress of China sailed from the port to Guangzhou and returned to Philadelphia on May 15, 1785, [7] bringing along, in its cargo, green and black teas, porcelain, and other goods. [8] This operation marked the beginning of trade relations between the newly formed United States and the Qing Empire. [9]

Empress of China, also known as Chinese Queen, was a three-masted, square-rigged sailing ship of 360 tons, initially built in 1783 for service as a privateer. After the Treaty of Paris brought a formal end to the American Revolutionary War, the vessel was refitted for commercial purposes. She became the first American ship to sail from the newly independent United States to China, opening what is known today as the Old China Trade and transporting the first official representative of the American government to Canton.

Guangzhou Prefecture-level and Sub-provincial city in Guangdong, Peoples Republic of China

Guangzhou, also known as Canton and formerly romanized as Kwangchow or Kwong Chow, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong in southern China. On the Pearl River about 120 km (75 mi) north-northwest of Hong Kong and 145 km (90 mi) north of Macau, Guangzhou has a history of over 2,200 years and was a major terminus of the maritime Silk Road, and continues to serve as a major port and transportation hub, as well as one of China's three largest cities.

Philadelphia Largest city in Pennsylvania

Philadelphia, known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2018 census-estimated population of 1,584,138. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U.S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is also the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis. The Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States.

On January 5, 1818, the 424-ton transatlantic packet James Monroe sailed from Liverpool, opening the first regular trans-Atlantic voyage route, the Black Ball Line. [10] Shipping on this route continued until 1878. [11] Commercially successful transatlantic traffic has led to the creation of many competing companies, including the Red Star Line in 1822. [12] [13] Transportation significantly contributed to the establishment of the New York one of the centers of world trade. [2]

Black Ball Line (trans-Atlantic packet) US shipping company

The Black Ball Line was a passenger line founded by a group of New York Quaker merchants headed by Jeremiah Thompson, and included Isaac Wright & Son (William), Francis Thompson and Benjamin Marshall. All were Quakers except Marshall. The line initially consisted of four packet ships, the Amity, Courier, Pacific and the James Monroe. All of these were running between Liverpool, England and New York City. This first scheduled trans-Atlantic service was founded in 1817. In operation for some 60 years, it took its name from its flag, a black ball on a red background.

Liverpool City and metropolitan borough in England

Liverpool is a city and metropolitan borough in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500. Its metropolitan area is the fifth-largest in the UK, with a population of 2.24 million in 2011. The local authority is Liverpool City Council, the most populous local government district in the metropolitan county of Merseyside and the largest in the Liverpool City Region.

Red Star Line transport company

The Red Star Line was an ocean passenger line founded in 1871 as a joint venture between the International Navigation Company of Philadelphia, which also ran the American Line, and the Société Anonyme de Navigation Belgo-Américaine of Antwerp, Belgium. The company's main ports of call were Antwerp in Belgium, Liverpool and Southampton in the United Kingdom and New York City and Philadelphia in the United States.

The Fish Market during the Great Depression Fish Market, South Street, Manhattan (NYPL b13668355-482702).jpg
The Fish Market during the Great Depression
The port in the late 1970s 207-209-211 WATER STREET IN CENTER FOREGROUND (Note identical height and architectural features) - South Street Seaport Museum, 207-211 Water Street, New York, New York County, HABS NY,31-NEYO,141-1.tif
The port in the late 1970s

One of the largest companies in the South Street Seaport area was the Fulton Fish Market, opened in 1822. In 2005, it was moved to the area of Hunts Point, Bronx. [14] [15]

In November 1825, the Erie Canal, located upstate, was opened. [16] The canal, connecting New York to the western United States, facilitated the economic development of the city. [17] [18] However, for this reason, along with the beginning of the shipping era, there was a need to lengthen the piers and deepen the port. [19]

On the night of December 17, 1835 a large fire in New York City destroyed 17 blocks, [20] and many buildings in the South Street Seaport burned to the ground. Nevertheless, by the 1840s, the port recovered, and by 1850, it reached its heyday: [2]

Looking east, was seen in the distance on the long river front from Coenties Slip to Catharine Street [ sic ], innumerable masts of the many Californian clippers and London and Liverpool packets, with their long bowsprits extending way over South Street, reaching nearly to the opposite side. [21]

At its peak, the port hosted many commercial enterprises, institutions, ship-chandlers, workshops, boarding houses, saloons, and brothels. However, by the 1880s, the port began to be depleted of resources, space for the development of these businesses was diminishing, and the port became too shallow for newer ships. By the 1930s, most of the piers no longer functioned, and cargo ships docked mainly on ports on the West Side and in Hoboken. [3] By the late 1950s, the old Ward Line docks, comprising Piers 15, 16, and part of 17, were mostly vacant.[ citation needed ]

As museum

Part of Schermerhorn Row, early 19th-century mercantile buildings Schermerhorne Row sunny morn north jeh.jpg
Part of Schermerhorn Row, early 19th-century mercantile buildings

The South Street Seaport Museum was founded in 1967 by Peter and Norma Stanford. When originally opened as a museum, the focus of the Seaport Museum conservation was to be an educational historic site, with shops mostly operating as reproductions of working environments found during the Seaport's heyday.

In 1982, redevelopment began to turn the museum into a greater tourist attraction via development of modern shopping areas. The project was undertaken by the prominent developer James Rouse and modeled on the concept of a "festival marketplace," a leading revitalization strategy throughout the 1970s. [22] On the other side of Fulton Street from Schermerhorn Row, the main Fulton Fish Market building, which had become a large plain garage-type structure, was rebuilt as an upscale shopping mall. Pier 17's old platforms were demolished and a new glass shopping pavilion raised in its place, which opened in August 1983.

The original intent of the Seaport development was the preservation of the block of buildings known as Schermerhorn Row on the southwest side of Fulton Street, which were threatened with neglect or future development, at a time when the history of New York City's sailing ship industry was not valued, except by some antiquarians. Early historic preservation efforts focused on these buildings and the acquisition of several sailing ships. Almost all buildings and the entire Seaport neighborhood are meant to transport the visitor back in time to New York's mid-19th century, to demonstrate what life in the commercial maritime trade was like. Docked at the Seaport are a few historical sailing vessels, including the Wavertree. A section of nearby Fulton Street is preserved as cobblestone and lined with shops, bars, and restaurants. The Bridge Cafe, which claims to be "The Oldest Drinking Establishment in New York" is in a building that formerly housed a brothel.

US Navy 050529-N-7676W-006 ONR Afloat Lab YP-679 Starfish at South Street Seaport Pier 17 during 18th annual Fleet Week New York.jpg
Pier 17 before demolition
Pier 17 2018-03 jeh.jpg
Newly renovated Pier 17 in 2018

In 2012, Hurricane Sandy heavily damaged the Seaport. Tidal floods of up to 7 feet (2.1 m) deep inundated much of the Seaport, causing extensive damage that forced an end to plans to merge the Seaport Museum with the Museum of the City of New York. [23] Many of the businesses closed, and the remaining businesses suffered from a severe drop in business after the storm. [24] The South Street Seaport Museum re-opened in December 2012. The Howard Hughes Corporation, announced that it would tear down the Seaport's most prominent shopping area, Pier 17, as part of a broader redevelopment of the neighborhood. The new pier contains retail, restaurants, and a rooftop performance venue. [25] It reopened in July 2018. [26] [27]

Constituent parts

Ownership and management of Pier 17

Pier 17 is currently owned and managed by Howard Hughes Corporation. [28] Formerly, it was run by General Growth Properties, which acquired Pier 17's longtime owner, The Rouse Company, in 2004. [29] As part of its restructuring, General Growth spun off the Howard Hughes Corporation. [30]

Historic South Street Seaport neighborhood

Peck Slip, which occupies the area between present-day Water and South streets, served as an active docking place for boats until 1810, and even served as a temporary hideout for George Washington and his troops in April 1776 when they fled from the Battle of Long Island. Then, in 1838, the first steam-powered vessel to make a transatlantic voyage, the S.S.  Great Western , docked in Peck’s Slip to the cheers of a quickly growing crowd of onlookers. [31] Today, the center "island" of the street serves as an open space for the community with Brooklyn Bridge views. Often displaying public art installations and gatherings, such as fairs and concerts. [32] Peck Slip is also home to the neighborhood's K-5 elementary school The Peck Slip School, P.S. 343. [33] In 2018, plans were revealed for the redevelopment of the parking lot at 250 Water Street, across from the school. [34] [35]

Museum

Designated by Congress in 1998 as one of several museums which together make up "America's National Maritime Museum", South Street Seaport Museum sits in a 12 square-block historic district that is the site of the original port of New York City. [36] The Museum has over 30,000 square feet (2,800 m2) of exhibition space and educational facilities. It houses exhibition galleries, a working 19th-century print shop, an archeology museum, a maritime library, a craft center, a marine life conservation lab, and the largest privately owned fleet of historic ships in the country.

Shopping mall and tourist attraction

Pier 17 shopping mall, September 2018 Ground floor escalators 2018 Sept Pier 17 jeh.jpg
Pier 17 shopping mall, September 2018

At the Seaport, a mall and tourism center is built on Pier 17 on the East River. It was reconstructed in the 2010s and reopened in June 2018. [37] Decks outside on pier 15 [38] allow views of the East River, Brooklyn Bridge, and Brooklyn Heights. The Paris Cafe, within the South Street Seaport historic area, is claimed to be one of the oldest bars in New York City. [39]

At the entrance to the Seaport is the Titanic Memorial lighthouse.

ESPN studios

Sports broadcaster ESPN opened a radio and television studio at Pier 17 in April 2018, covering 17,000 square feet (1,600 m2). [40]

Ships in the port

The museum has five vessels docked permanently or semi-permanently, four of which have formal historical status.

NameYear of launchTypeDescriptionPictureNotes
United States Lightship LV-87 1908 Lightship LV-87 is a lightship 135 feet (41 m) long and 29 feet (8.8 m) wide, built in Camden, New Jersey in 1907. It was stationed at the entrance to Ambrose Channel and became the third lightship there since 1854. In 1932 the ship was replaced by the new LV-111 ship and moved to the Scotland Station. LV-87 was retired in 1966 and sent to the South Street Seaport in 1968. In 1989 it gained National Historic Landmark status. Ambrose Lightship.jpg [41] [42] [43] [44] [45] [46] [47]
Lettie G. Howard 1893 Schooner The fishing schooner was launched in Essex, Massachusetts. The vessel is 125 feet (38 m) long overall and 21 feet (6.4 m) wide. The schooner was used for fishing mostly off the coast of Yucatan. In 1989 it was given National Historic Landmark status. Lettie G. Howard ship.jpg [48] [49] [50] [51]
Pioneer 1885 Schooner The schooner was launched in Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania in Pennsylvania. Initially, it was rigged as a sloop, but in 1895 it was rerigged as a schooner. The vessel is 102 feet (31 m) long. Its hull was originally wrought iron but was rebuilt in steel in the 1960s. It was used for transportation of various goods: sand, wood, stone, bricks and oyster shells. Now it is used for educational tours of New York Harbor. Schooner Pioneer.jpg [52] [53]
W. O. Decker 1930 Tugboat The 52 foot (16 m) steam tug was built in Long Island City, Queens and first named Russell I. Subsequently, the engine was replaced by a 175 horsepower (130 kW) diesel engine. In 1986 the boat was transferred to the South Street Seaport museum. In 1996 it was entered in the National Register of Historic Places. WO Decker aft jeh.JPG [54] [55] [56]
Wavertree 1885 Freighter The ship was launched in Southampton. It is 325 feet (99 m) long including spars and 263 feet (80 m) on deck. The ship is the largest remaining wrought iron vessel. Initially it was used for transporting jute from east India to Scotland, and then was involved in the tramp trade. In 1947 it was converted into a sand barge, and in 1968 it was acquired by the South Street Seaport Museum. In 1978 the ship was entered in the National Register of Historic Places. South Street Seaport Boat.JPG [57] [58] [59]
The Titanic memorial South Street Lighthouse.JPG
The Titanic memorial

Legend:

The Pioneer and W. O. Decker operate during favorable weather.

Transportation

South Street Seaport is served by the M15 and M15 SBS New York City Bus routes. [60]

New York Water Taxi directly serves South Street Seaport on Fridays, weekends, and holidays during the summer, while other New York Water Taxi, NYC Ferry, and SeaStreak ferries serve the nearby ferry slip at Pier 11/Wall Street daily. [61]

The Fulton Street/Fulton Center station complex ( 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , A , C , E , J , N , R , W , and Z trains) is the closest New York City Subway station. [62] A new subway station, provisionally called Seaport, has been proposed as part of the unfunded Phase 4 of the Second Avenue Subway. Although this station will be located only 3 blocks from the Fulton Street station, there are no plans for a free transfer between them. [63]

Film & Television:

Games:

Music:

See also

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The West Midtown Ferry Terminal is a passenger bus and ferry terminal serving ferries along the Hudson River in New York City and northeastern New Jersey. It is located at Piers 78 and 79 in Hudson River Park adjacent to the West Side Highway at West 39th Street in Midtown Manhattan. The municipally-owned facility opened in 2005 as multi-user terminal to accommodate an increasing demand for ferry service in the Port of New York and New Jersey and to provide ferry slips for short haul crossings, water taxis, and high-speed long distance service. Built largely with public funds the West Midtown became upon its opening one of the principal terminals used by the private NY Waterway-operated routes to Jersey City, Hoboken, Weehawken, and Edgewater.

United States lightship <i>Ambrose</i> (LV-87) United States national historic site

The United States Lightship LV-87/WAL-512 (Ambrose) is a riveted steel lightship built in 1907 and served at the Ambrose Channel lightship station from December 1, 1908, until 1932, and in other posts until her decommissioning in 1966. It is one of a small number of preserved American lightships, and now serves as a museum ship at the South Street Seaport Museum in southern Manhattan, New York City.

East River Greenway

The East River Greenway is an approximately 9.44-mile-long (15.19 km) foreshoreway for walking or cycling on the east side of the island of Manhattan on the East River. It is part of the Manhattan Waterfront Greenway. The largest portions are operated by the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. It is separated from motor traffic, and many sections also separate pedestrians from cyclists. The greenway is parallel to the Franklin D. Roosevelt East River Drive for a majority of its length.

References

Notes

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Sources

Further reading