|Alternative names||American Telephone & Telegraph Company Building, Western Union Building|
|Status||Commercial Real Estate (Main Tenant: Thomson Reuters)|
|Town or city||Financial District, Manhattan, New York City, New York|
|Owner||L&L Holding Company|
|Tip||422 feet (129 m)|
|Roof||398 feet (121 m)|
|Design and construction|
|Architect||William Welles Bosworth|
|Designated||July 25, 2006|
195 Broadway is a 29-story building on Broadway in the Financial District of the New York City borough of Manhattan. It was the longtime headquarters of American Telephone and Telegraph, as well as Western Union for a time. It occupies almost an entire block on one side of Broadway, running from Dey Street to Fulton Street. It also has the address 15 Dey Street, and is well known as the site of one end of the first transcontinental telephone call. The same building, using the "195 Broadway" address, was the New York end of the first intercity Picturephone call in 1927and of the first transatlantic telephone call, made to London, England, also in 1927.
Broadway is a road in the U.S. state of New York. Broadway runs from State Street at Bowling Green for 13 mi (21 km) through the borough of Manhattan and 2 mi (3.2 km) through the Bronx, exiting north from the city to run an additional 18 mi (29 km) through the municipalities of Yonkers, Hastings-On-Hudson, Dobbs Ferry, Irvington, and Tarrytown, and terminating north of Sleepy Hollow in Westchester County.
The Financial District of Lower Manhattan, also known as FiDi, is a neighborhood located on the southern tip of Manhattan island in New York City. It is bounded by the West Side Highway on the west, Chambers Street and City Hall Park on the north, Brooklyn Bridge on the northeast, the East River to the southeast, and The Battery on the south.
The City of New York, usually called either New York City (NYC) or simply New York (NY), is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2018 population of 8,398,748 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles (784 km2), New York is also the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 19,979,477 people in its 2018 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 22,679,948 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural, financial, and media capital of the world, and exerts a significant impact upon commerce, entertainment, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, art, fashion, and sports. The city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
195 Broadway is also known as the Telephone Building,Telegraph Building, or Western Union Building, due to its history. The building is still in use. The building includes an entrance to the Fulton Street station on the New York City Subway's IRT Lexington Avenue Line ( 4 and 5 trains).
The New York City Subway is a rapid transit system owned by the City of New York and leased to the New York City Transit Authority, a subsidiary agency of the state-run Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA). Opened in 1904, the New York City Subway is one of the world's oldest public transit systems, one of the most-used, and the one with the most stations. The New York City Subway is the largest rapid transit system in the world by number of stations, with 472 stations in operation. Stations are located throughout the boroughs of Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, and the Bronx.
The IRT Lexington Avenue Line is one of the lines of the A Division of the New York City Subway, stretching from Lower Manhattan north to 125th Street in East Harlem. The line is served by the 4, 5, 6, and <6> trains.
The 4 Lexington Avenue Express is a rapid transit service in the A Division of the New York City Subway. Its route emblem, or "bullet", is colored forest green since it uses the IRT Lexington Avenue Line in Manhattan.
From 1885 to 1910, AT&T was headquartered at 125 Milk Street in Boston.
The building at 195 Broadway was constructed under the leadership of AT&T's president Theodore Newton Vail, who had taken the AT&T helm in 1907 and added the same title at Western Union in 1909 when that firm was purchased by AT&T. In 1912, Vail developed a two-phase plan for a 29-story headquarters building that would be constructed on Broadway on the block stretching from Dey Street to Fulton Street. The plan entailed constructing one wing on the Dey Street corner, followed by the second wing on the Fulton Street corner.
Theodore Newton Vail was president of American Telephone & Telegraph between 1885 and 1889, and again from 1907 to 1919. Vail saw telephone service as a public utility and moved to consolidate telephone networks under the Bell system. In 1913 he oversaw the Kingsbury Commitment that led to a more open system for connection.
The Western Union Company is an American worldwide financial services and communications company. Its headquarters is in Denver, Colorado. Up until it discontinued the service in 2006, Western Union was globally the best-known American company in the business of exchanging telegrams.
Fulton Street is a busy street located in Lower Manhattan in New York City. Located in the Financial District, a few blocks north of Wall Street, it runs from Church Street at the site of the World Trade Center to South Street, terminating in front of the South Street Seaport. The easternmost block is a pedestrian street. After the World Trade Center construction is completed, it will extend to West Street.
The first portion of the building, the Dey Street wing completed in 1916, was an L-shaped structure at the corner of Dey Street and Broadway with an extension reaching Fulton Street.
William W. Bosworth, the architect who designed the John D. Rockefeller estate at Kykuit, was commissioned to create the Fulton Street wing of the building. Bosworth's designed featured layers of gray granite columns in Doric and Ionic styles, and a lobby that included 43 oversized Doric columns made of marble.
William Welles Bosworth was an American architect whose most famous designs include MIT's Cambridge campus, the AT&T Building in New York City, and the Theodore N. Vail mansion in Morristown, New Jersey (1916), now the Morristown Town Hall. Bosworth was also responsible to a large degree for the architectural expression of Kykuit, the famous Rockefeller family estate in Pocantico Hills, New York, working closely with the architects William Adams Delano and Chester H. Aldrich and the interior designer, Ogden Codman.
John Davison Rockefeller Sr. was an American business magnate and philanthropist. He is widely considered the wealthiest American of all time, and the richest person in modern history.
Kykuit, known also as the John D. Rockefeller Estate, is a 40-room historic house museum in Pocantico Hills, a hamlet in the town of Mount Pleasant, New York. The house was built for oil tycoon, capitalist, and Rockefeller family patriarch John D. Rockefeller. Conceived largely by his son, John D. Rockefeller, Jr., and enriched by the art collection of the third-generation scion, Governor of New York, and Vice President of the United States, Nelson Rockefeller, it was home to four generations of the family. The house is a National Historic Landmark owned by the National Trust for Historic Preservation, and tours are given by Historic Hudson Valley.
The most famous artwork commissioned for the building was a gilded bronze sculpture originally called Genius of Telegraphy , placed atop the pyramidal roof of the tower-like west end of the Fulton Street wing of the building in 1916. The artist Evelyn Beatrice Longman created a statue depicting a 24-foot-tall (7.3 m) winged male figure on top of a globe, wrapped by cables, clutching bolts of electricity in his left hand. After a court-ordered divestiture of Western Union, the statue's official title was changed to Genius of Electricity by the time it was installed. The statue was renamed again to Spirit of Communication in the 1930s, but has been better known by its nickname, Golden Boy. In 1984 when AT&T moved to 550 Madison Avenue, the statue was relocated to the foyer. In 1992 AT&T moved again, and the statue went to Basking Ridge, New Jersey, and in 2005 to Dallas, Texas.
One of sculptor Paul Manship's earliest public works was "The Four Elements," a set of four bronze reliefs that is on the lower facade of the building.
In 1978, AT&T commissioned a new building at 550 Madison Avenue and moved. This new AT&T Building was designed by Philip Johnson and quickly became an icon of the new Postmodern architectural style. The building was completed in 1984, the very year of the Bell System divestiture. It proved to be too large for the post-divestiture corporation and in 1993, AT&T leased the building to Sony, who owned it until 2013.
The 1987 film Wall Street used the building's ground floor lobby as Charlie Sheen's character's office.
Fifth Avenue is a major thoroughfare in the borough of Manhattan in New York City. It stretches north from Washington Square Park in Greenwich Village to West 143rd Street in Harlem. It is considered one of the most expensive and elegant streets in the world.
The collection of outdoor sculpture in New York City is said to be the "greatest outdoor public art museum" in the United States of America. With works from such great sculptors as Augustus Saint-Gaudens, Daniel Chester French, and John Quincy Adams Ward, over 300 sculptures are found on the streets and in parks across the New York metropolitan area. Some of the best known outdoor sculptures in New York City are presented below.
Fulton Street, named after Robert Fulton, is a long east–west street in northern Brooklyn, New York City. A street of the same name in Manhattan was linked to this street by Fulton with his steam ferries.
Madison Square is a public square formed by the intersection of Fifth Avenue and Broadway at 23rd Street in the New York City borough of Manhattan. The square was named for James Madison, fourth President of the United States. The focus of the square is Madison Square Park, a 6.2-acre (2.5-hectare) public park, which is bounded on the east by Madison Avenue ; on the south by 23rd Street; on the north by 26th Street; and on the west by Fifth Avenue and Broadway as they cross.
The New York Telephone Company (NYTel) was organized in 1896, taking over the New York City operations of the American Bell Telephone Company.
Fulton Center is a transit center and retail complex centered at the intersection of Fulton Street and Broadway in Lower Manhattan, New York City. The name also refers to the $1.4 billion project by the Metropolitan Transportation Authority (MTA), a public agency of the state of New York, to rehabilitate the New York City Subway's Fulton Street station. The work involved constructing new underground passageways and access points into the complex, renovating the constituent stations, and erecting a large station building that doubles as a part of the Westfield World Trade Center mall.
550 Madison Avenue, is an iconic postmodern 647-foot-tall (197-meter), 37-story highrise skyscraper located at 550 Madison Avenue in Manhattan. Designed by Philip Johnson, it was formerly the headquarters of Sony Corporation of America, and is the 95th tallest building in New York City. The tower was purchased by the Olayan Group and Chelsfield for $1.4 billion in 2016.
Verdi Square is a small triangle of land enclosed by a railing, located on Manhattan's Upper West Side, between 72nd Street and 73rd Street on the south and north, and Broadway and Amsterdam Avenue on the west and east. On the south the square fronts West 72nd Street; across the street to the south lies Sherman Square. On the north side, the park is enclosed by the Florentine Renaissance palazzo of the Central Savings Bank, now Apple Bank for Savings; that trapezoidal structure, with a vast vaulted Roman banking hall 65 feet high, was designed by York and Sawyer and built in 1926–28.
The Dey Street Passageway or Dey Street Concourse is a 350-foot-long (110 m) underground passageway in Manhattan, New York City, as part of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority's Capital Construction Program and as part of the Fulton Center project to rehabilitate the Fulton Street complex and improve connectivity in Lower Manhattan. The Dey Street Passageway lies under Dey Street in Lower Manhattan, between Broadway in the eastern end, and Church Street in its western end.
Spirit of Communication is the formal name for a statue originally called Genius of Telegraphy. The statue has been the symbol of AT&T since their commission was completed in 1916. It is also known informally as the Golden Boy statue.
Fulton Street is a New York City Subway station complex in Lower Manhattan. It consists of four linked stations on the IND Eighth Avenue Line, the IRT Lexington Avenue Line, the BMT Nassau Street Line and the IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line. The last three cross Fulton Street at Broadway, Nassau Street, and William Street respectively; the Eighth Avenue Line station is underneath Fulton Street, between Broadway and Nassau Streets. The station is the seventh busiest in the system, as of 2017, with 26,838,473 passengers.
John Kellum (1809–1871) was an American architect in practice in New York City.
Maiden Lane is an east-west street in the Financial District of the New York City borough of Manhattan. Its eastern end is at South Street, near the South Street Seaport, and its western end is at Broadway near the World Trade Center site, where it becomes Cortlandt Street.
Church Street is a short, but heavily travelled, north-south street in Lower Manhattan in New York City. Its southern end is at Trinity Place, of which it is a continuation, and its northern end is at Canal Street.
AT&T Corporation, originally the American Telephone and Telegraph Company, is the subsidiary of AT&T Inc. that provides voice, video, data, and Internet telecommunications and professional services to businesses, consumers, and government agencies.
The Madison Square North Historic District is in Manhattan, New York City, and was created on June 26, 2001 by the city's Landmarks Preservation Commission.
NoMad, also known as Madison Square North, is a neighborhood centered on the Madison Square North Historic District in the borough of Manhattan in New York City.
Chambers Street–World Trade Center/Park Place/Cortlandt Street is a New York City Subway station complex on the IND Eighth Avenue Line, IRT Broadway–Seventh Avenue Line, and BMT Broadway Line. Located on Church Street between Chambers and Cortlandt Streets in Lower Manhattan, it is served by the:
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