3 World Trade Center

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3 World Trade Center
Three World Trade Center, New York, NY.jpg
The tower in August 2018.
Alternative names
  • 3 WTC
  • 175 Greenwich Street
General information
StatusComplete
TypeOffice, Retail
Architectural style Modern
Location175 Greenwich Street, Manhattan, New York 10007
More information
Coordinates 40°42′39″N74°00′42″W / 40.710923°N 74.011608°W / 40.710923; -74.011608 Coordinates: 40°42′39″N74°00′42″W / 40.710923°N 74.011608°W / 40.710923; -74.011608
Construction started2010
Completed2018
OpenedJune 11, 2018
CostUS$2.75 billion
Owner Port Authority of New York and New Jersey
Height1,079 ft (329 m)
Technical details
Floor count80
Floor area2,232,984 sq ft (207,451.0 m2)
Lifts/elevators53 [1]
Design and construction
Architect Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners
Developer Silverstein Properties
Structural engineer WSP Cantor Seinuk
Main contractor Tishman Construction
References
[2] [3] [4] [5]

3 World Trade Center (also known as 175 Greenwich Street) is a skyscraper constructed as part of the rebuilding of the World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan, New York City. The tower is located on the east side of Greenwich Street, on the eastern side of the World Trade Center site.

Skyscraper tall building

A skyscraper is a continuously habitable high-rise building that has over 40 floors and is taller than approximately 150 m (492 ft). Historically, the term first referred to buildings with 10 to 20 floors in the 1880s. The definition shifted with advancing construction technology during the 20th century. Skyscrapers may host offices, residential spaces, and retail spaces. For buildings above a height of 300 m (984 ft), the term supertall skyscrapers can be used, while skyscrapers reaching beyond 600 m (1,969 ft) are classified as megatall skyscrapers.

World Trade Center (2001–present) Skyscraper complex in Manhattan, New York

The World Trade Center is a mostly completed complex of buildings in Lower Manhattan, New York City, U.S., replacing the original seven buildings on the same site that were destroyed in the September 11 attacks. The site is being rebuilt with up to six new skyscrapers, four of which have been completed; a memorial and museum to those killed in the attacks; the elevated Liberty Park adjacent to the site, containing the St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church and Vehicular Security Center; and a transportation hub. The 104-story One World Trade Center, the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere, is the lead building for the new complex.

Lower Manhattan Central business district in New York, United States

Lower Manhattan, also known as Downtown Manhattan or Downtown New York, is the southernmost part of Manhattan, the central borough for business, culture, and government in the City of New York, which itself originated at the southern tip of Manhattan Island in 1624, at a point which now constitutes the present-day Financial District. The population of the Financial District alone has grown to an estimated 61,000 residents as of 2018, up from 43,000 as of 2014, which in turn was nearly double the 23,000 recorded at the 2000 Census.

Contents

The current 3 World Trade Center is the second building at the site to bear this name. The original building was the Marriott World Trade Center, a hotel located in the southwest corner of the World Trade Center complex. The hotel was a 22-story steel-framed structure with 825 rooms. It had a roof height of 242 feet (74 m). Construction began in 1979 and it opened in July 1981 as the Vista International Hotel. The entire World Trade Center complex was destroyed during the September 11 attacks in 2001.

Marriott World Trade Center architectural structure

The Marriott World Trade Center was a 22-story steel-framed hotel building with 825 rooms. It was also known as World Trade Center 3, the World Trade Center Hotel, the Vista Hotel and the Marriott Hotel. It opened in July 1981, as the Vista International Hotel and was located at 3 World Trade Center in Manhattan, New York City, with the World Trade Center complex having its own zip code of 10048. The hotel was destroyed beyond repair as a result of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, after the collapse of the Twin Towers. The hotel was not replaced as part of the new World Trade Center complex, but does share its name with the new office tower.

Hotel Establishment that provides lodging paid on a short-term basis

A hotel is an establishment that provides paid lodging on a short-term basis. Facilities provided may range from a modest-quality mattress in a small room to large suites with bigger, higher-quality beds, a dresser, a refrigerator and other kitchen facilities, upholstered chairs, a flat screen television, and en-suite bathrooms. Small, lower-priced hotels may offer only the most basic guest services and facilities. Larger, higher-priced hotels may provide additional guest facilities such as a swimming pool, business centre, childcare, conference and event facilities, tennis or basketball courts, gymnasium, restaurants, day spa, and social function services. Hotel rooms are usually numbered to allow guests to identify their room. Some boutique, high-end hotels have custom decorated rooms. Some hotels offer meals as part of a room and board arrangement. In the United Kingdom, a hotel is required by law to serve food and drinks to all guests within certain stated hours. In Japan, capsule hotels provide a tiny room suitable only for sleeping and shared bathroom facilities.

World Trade Center (1973–2001) Former skyscraper complex in Manhattan, New York

The original World Trade Center was a large complex of seven buildings in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City, United States. It opened on April 4, 1973, and was destroyed in 2001 during the September 11 attacks. At the time of their completion, the Twin Towers — the original 1 World Trade Center, at 1,368 feet (417 m); and 2 World Trade Center, at 1,362 feet (415.1 m)—were the tallest buildings in the world. Other buildings in the complex included the Marriott World Trade Center, 4 WTC, 5 WTC, 6 WTC, and 7 WTC. The complex contained 13,400,000 square feet (1,240,000 m2) of office space.

Construction originally began in 2010, but was delayed until 2014 because of a lack of an anchor tenant. The building's concrete core was topped out to maximum height in August 2016, with the perimeter steel structure following on October 6, 2016. The building opened on June 11, 2018. The building was designed by Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners, and is managed by Silverstein Properties through a ground lease with the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, who owns the land. It is 1,079 ft (329 m) high, with 80 stories. As of 2018, it is the sixth-tallest building in the city. [6]

Anchor tenant

In retail, an "anchor tenant", sometimes called an "anchor store", "draw tenant", or "key tenant", is a considerably larger tenant in a shopping mall, often a department store or retail chain. With their broad appeal, they are intended to attract a significant cross-section of the shopping public to the center. They are often offered steep discounts on rent in exchange for signing long-term leases in order to provide steady cash flows for the mall owners.

Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners

Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners LLP (RSHP) is a British architectural firm, founded in 1977 and originally known as the Richard Rogers Partnership. Its main offices are located in the Leadenhall Building, London. Previously they were at the Thames Wharf Studios. In its various incarnations it is known for many important buildings including Lloyd's building and the Millennium Dome in London and the National Assembly for Wales building in Cardiff.

Silverstein Properties, Inc. (SPI) is a family held, full-service real estate development, investment and management firm based in New York City. Founded in 1957 by Chairman Larry Silverstein, the company specializes in developing, acquiring, and managing office, residential, hotel, retail, and mixed-use properties. The firm is New York City's fifth-largest commercial landlord.

Previous building (1979–2001)

The Marriott World Trade Center was a 22-story [7] steel-framed hotel building with 825 rooms. It had a roof height of 73.7 m (242 ft) and was designed by Skidmore, Owings & Merrill. Its structural engineer was Leslie E. Robertson Associates with Tishman Construction serving as the main contractor. Construction began in 1979. It opened on July 1, 1981 as the Vista International Hotel and was located at the southwest corner of the World Trade Center. [8] It was heavily damaged in the 1993 World Trade Center bombing and was subsequently closed until repairs were completed the following year. Forty people died when the hotel was destroyed during the September 11 attacks. The hotel's remains were later dismantled to make way for construction of the National September 11 Memorial & Museum. [9]

Skidmore, Owings & Merrill American architectural and engineering firm

Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP (SOM) is an American architectural, urban planning, and engineering firm. It was formed in Chicago in 1936 by Louis Skidmore and Nathaniel Owings; in 1939 they were joined by John O. Merrill. The firm opened their first branch in New York City in 1937, and has since expanded all over the world, with regional offices in San Francisco, Los Angeles, Washington, D.C., London, Hong Kong, Shanghai, Mumbai and Dubai. It is based in Chicago, Illinois.

1993 World Trade Center bombing truck bomb detonated below the North Tower of the World Trade Center in New York City

The 1993 World Trade Center bombing was a terrorist attack on the World Trade Center, carried out on February 26, 1993, when a truck bomb detonated below the North Tower of the World Trade Center in New York City. The 1,336 lb (606 kg) urea nitrate–hydrogen gas enhanced device was intended to send the North Tower crashing into the South Tower, bringing both towers down and killing thousands of people. It failed to do so but killed six people and injured over a thousand.

September 11 attacks Attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001

The September 11 attacks were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. The attacks killed 2,996 people, injured over 6,000 others, and caused at least $10 billion in infrastructure and property damage. Additional people died of 9/11-related cancer and respiratory diseases in the months and years following the attacks.

New building

Background

3 World Trade Center was originally planned for a podium of seven stories for trading floors, with a 73-floor office tower rising from it. The diamond braces initially planned for the front and rear faces of the building have been dropped from the design and the tower is to be built without them. However, the diagonal bracing on the sides would remain. The four spires in the original design gave the tower a pinnacle height of 1,240 feet (378 m), meaning it would have become the third-tallest building in New York City by pinnacle height, [10] but the spires were later removed from the design, thus reducing the height by about 88 feet (approximately 26.8 m). [11] The total floor space of the building is planned to include 2,000,000 sq ft (190,000 m2) of office and retail space. The building's groundbreaking took place in January 2008, and at that time it was scheduled to be completed by 2014. [12] [13] Unusual for a high-rise, the building's concrete core would be built before the rest of the structure was completed. [14] The structural engineer for the building was WSP. [15] Pritzker Prize-winning architect Richard Rogers, of Rogers Stirk Harbour + Partners, was awarded the contract to design the building. [16]

Concrete Composite construction material

Concrete, usually Portland cement concrete, is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement that hardens over time—most frequently in the past a lime-based cement binder, such as lime putty, but sometimes with other hydraulic cements, such as a calcium aluminate cement or Portland cement. It is distinguished from other, non-cementitious types of concrete all binding some form of aggregate together, including asphalt concrete with a bitumen binder, which is frequently used for road surfaces, and polymer concretes that use polymers as a binder.

Architect Person trained to plan and design buildings, and oversee their construction

An architect is a person who plans, designs and reviews the construction of buildings. To practice architecture means to provide services in connection with the design of buildings and the space within the site surrounding the buildings that have human occupancy or use as their principal purpose. Etymologically, architect derives from the Latin architectus, which derives from the Greek, i.e., chief builder.

Richard Rogers British architect

Richard George Rogers, Baron Rogers of Riverside is a British-Italian architect noted for his modernist and functionalist designs in high-tech architecture.

On May 11, 2009, it was announced that the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey was seeking to reduce 175 Greenwich Street to a "stump" building of approximately four stories. [17] The overall plan, which also called for a similar reduction in height for 2 World Trade Center and the indefinite postponement of 5 World Trade Center, would halve the amount of office space available in the fully reconstructed World Trade Center to 5,000,000 sq ft (460,000 m2). The agency cited the recession and disagreements with developer Larry Silverstein as reasons for the proposed reduction. Silverstein opposed the plan, filing a notice of dispute on July 7, 2009. By doing so, the development firm began a two-week period during which renegotiated settlements and a binding arbitration regarding the construction of the four World Trade Center towers could be made. Silverstein Properties, which has paid the Port Authority over US$2.75 billion in financing, noted the organization's inability to meet construction obligations in its official complaint.

The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) is a joint venture between the U.S. states of New York and New Jersey, established in 1921 through an interstate compact authorized by the United States Congress. The Port Authority oversees much of the regional transportation infrastructure, including bridges, tunnels, airports, and seaports, within the geographical jurisdiction of the Port of New York and New Jersey. This 1,500-square-mile (3,900 km2) port district is generally encompassed within a 25-mile (40 km) radius of the Statue of Liberty National Monument. The Port Authority is headquartered at 4 World Trade Center and is a member of the Real Estate Board of New York.

2 World Trade Center Unfinished skyscraper in Manhattan, New York

2 World Trade Center is a skyscraper under construction as part of the World Trade Center complex in Manhattan, New York City. It will replace the original 2 World Trade Center, which was completed in 1972, and subsequently destroyed during the September 11 attacks in 2001, and it will occupy the position of the original 5 World Trade Center. The foundation work was completed in 2013.

5 World Trade Center Proposed skyscraper in Manhattan, New York

5 World Trade Center is a planned skyscraper at the World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan, New York City. The site is across Liberty Street, to the south of the main 16-acre (6.5 ha) World Trade Center site. As of June 2018, the project is on standby while the Port Authority explores a potential sale of the lot to a developer and looks for tenants to occupy the skyscraper. The proposed building shares its name with the original 5 World Trade Center, which was heavily damaged as a result of the collapse of the North Tower during the September 11 attacks and was later demolished. The Port Authority has no plans to construct a building at 130 Liberty Street, although it is open to future development of the site as office, retail, hotel, residential or some mix of those uses.

In November 2010, three PureCell fuel cells were delivered at the World Trade Center site which together will provide about 30% of the tower's power. [18]

Delays

Preliminary site plans for the World Trade Center rebuild. WTC Building Arrangement in preliminary site plan.svg
Preliminary site plans for the World Trade Center rebuild.

By the beginning of 2012, Silverstein Properties and the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey reached an agreement to only build 3 World Trade Center to seven stories, unless tenants can be found to fund the building. [19] According to a March 2010 agreement between Silverstein Properties and the Port Authority, Silverstein Properties must find tenants to lease 400,000 square feet of the building and it must raise US$300 million in private financing in order to receive additional funding. If Silverstein Properties meets those triggers, then the Port Authority, City of New York, and New York State will provide an additional US$390 million towards the tower's completion. Silverstein Properties also needs to provide financing for the remaining cost of the tower before it can be completed. The existing foundation of the tower was built entirely with insurance proceeds, and until Silverstein Properties meets the requirements. [20] The agreement also implemented a "cash trap" to make sure that public investments are paid off before Silverstein Properties makes any profits from the tower.

The tower portion of 3 World Trade Center was to be fully built after meeting the requirements. [21] A spokesperson speaking on the issue of rebuilding the site commented: "Three WTC should be up by 2015; although; we do have one milestone to hit: We need to get a 400,000-square-foot tenant in order to get a financing backstop that makes sure we will complete that building. So, that's a question mark, and it's a major priority of Silverstein Properties". [22] The Port Authority believes that the 2010 agreement will allow market demand to drive the construction of the towers and help to limit public investment since the Port Authority has other projects that need attention in the region.

By February 2012, the ground floor concrete was almost done and the lower podium had reached the 5th floor. On May 18, 2012 a construction update was released which stated that the superstructure work was continuing, and that forms, rebar, and concrete placement work was also continuing. Additionally, utilities for the site were being installed. The construction agency expected the lower podium to reach a capped height of 7 stories by September 2012. [23] In late June 2012, David Zalesne, president of Owen Steel, confirmed that construction of the tower would continue and that Owen Steel has been selected to provide the structural steel for the building. [24]

On October 2, 2012, the large advertising and media company GroupM was confirmed by several sources to be in the preliminary negotiations to anchor 3 World Trade Center in a deal that would allow construction to begin on the planned 80-story office tower. The lease would be about 550,000 square feet in size, a large enough commitment to qualify the project for up to $600 million in public benefits in the form of a mix of equity and loan guarantees from the city, the state, and the Port Authority. [25] In December 2013, GroupM was signed on as anchor tenant. [26] This allowed the tower to resume construction in late 2013. [27] In January 2014, Senator Chuck Schumer negotiated a $340 million round of financing through federal Recovery Zone bonds to finance the project's construction. [28] A subsidy, which would have doubled the loan given to the construction of 3 World Trade Center, was postponed by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey in April 2014 until June 2014. [29] [30]

Resumption of construction

On June 25, 2014, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey reached an agreement with Larry Silverstein to finance the completion of 3 World Trade Center, and construction of the tower resumed. The financing included the sale of $1.6 billion of tax-exempt bonds, the largest-ever unrated bond deal in the municipal bond market. Other sources of funding included $600 million in insurance proceeds, $210 million in cash contributions from the New York City and State governments, and $55 million in cash from Silverstein Properties itself. [28] Following the financing, the tower crane returned and a new anticipated completion of late 2017 was announced. [31]

In 2015, the design was modified and the height reduced by 89 feet (27 m), from 1,168 feet (356 m) to its current height of 1,079 feet (329 m). [32] As of June 2015, 3 World Trade Center's core had risen to the 19th floor and steel to the 14th floor. On June 28, 2015, one more tower crane was built on the site. Another crane arrived in July, bringing the total to four cranes. On May 20, 2016, the tower's concrete core reached the symbolic height of 1,000 feet (300 m), thus officially reaching supertall status and exceeding the roof height of neighboring 4 World Trade Center. [33]

On June 23, 2016, 3 World Trade Center's core was topped out. In a ceremony held at the base of the building, a 2-ton bucket of concrete was signed by workers, and executives, including developer Larry Silverstein, and was hoisted up with an American flag, which was also used with the topping out of 7 and 4 World Trade Center, to the top of the tower. [34] On the evening of August 11, 2016, a construction crane struck one of 3 World Trade Center's windows. There was a heavy wind gust at the time, [35] and construction workers were securing the crane when it veered into a 12th-story glass panel, cracking it. No one was injured. [36]

On October 6, 2016, the last steel beam was lifted and installed on top. [37] The glass facade was completed in August 2017, at which point several retailers had signed leases for the atrium retail space. GroupM, an advertising company, had also signed a lease for some 700,000 square feet (65,000 m2) of office space in the tower. [38] The building officially opened on June 11, 2018, with the buildings tenants so far being GroupM, McKinsey, Tradenda Capital, and IEX. [39] [40] [41]

See also

Related Research Articles

World Trade Center site Grounds of the World Trade Center in New York City

The World Trade Center site, formerly referred to as "Ground Zero" or "the Pile" immediately after the September 11 attacks, is a 14.6-acre (5.9 ha) area in Lower Manhattan in New York City. The site is bounded by Vesey Street to the north, the West Side Highway to the west, Liberty Street to the south, and Church Street to the east. The Port Authority owns the site's land. The previous World Trade Center complex stood on the site until it was destroyed in the September 11 attacks.

7 World Trade Center Either of two office buildings that have existed at the same location in Manhattan, New York

7 World Trade Center refers to two buildings that have existed at the same location within the World Trade Center site in Lower Manhattan, New York City. The original structure, part of the original World Trade Center, was completed in 1987 and was destroyed in the September 11 attacks in 2001. The current structure opened in May 2006. Both buildings were developed by Larry Silverstein, who holds a ground lease for the site from the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey.

Larry Silverstein American businessman

Larry A. Silverstein is an American businessman. Among his real estate projects, he is the developer of the rebuilt World Trade Center complex in lower Manhattan as well as one of New York's tallest residential towers at 30 Park Place, where he owns a home. His worth has been estimated at $3.5 billion as of 2016.

Six World Trade Center former building in New York City

Six World Trade Center was an eight-story building in Lower Manhattan in New York City. It opened in 1973 and was the building in the World Trade Center complex that had the fewest stories. The building served as the U.S. Customs House for New York. It was destroyed in 2001 due to the collapse of the North Tower during the September 11 attacks; it is not set to be replaced as part of the new World Trade Center.

Deutsche Bank Building Former skyscraper in Manhattan, New York

The Deutsche Bank Building was a 39-story office skyscraper located at 130 Liberty Street in New York City, adjacent to the World Trade Center site. The building opened in 1974 and closed following the September 11 attacks, due to contamination that spread from the collapse of the South Tower. The structure existed from 1974 to 2007, and was designed by Shreve, Lamb & Harmon, which also designed the famous Empire State Building.

World Trade Center station (PATH) Port Authority Trans-Hudson rail station

World Trade Center is a terminal station on the PATH system. It is located in the World Trade Center complex, within the Financial District neighborhood of Manhattan in New York City. It is served by the Newark–World Trade Center line on weekdays and holiday weekends, as well as by the Hoboken–World Trade Center line on weekdays, and is the eastern terminus of both.

One World Trade Center Main building of the rebuilt World Trade Center complex in Lower Manhattan, New York City

One World Trade Center is the main building of the rebuilt World Trade Center complex in Lower Manhattan, New York City. One WTC is the tallest building in the United States, the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere, and the sixth-tallest in the world. The supertall structure has the same name as the North Tower of the original World Trade Center, which was destroyed in the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. The new skyscraper stands on the northwest corner of the 16-acre (6.5 ha) World Trade Center site, on the site of the original 6 World Trade Center. The building is bounded by West Street to the west, Vesey Street to the north, Fulton Street to the south, and Washington Street to the east.

Westfield World Trade Center Largest shopping mall in Manhattan

Westfield World Trade Center is a shopping center at the World Trade Center complex in Manhattan, New York, that is operated and managed by Unibail-Rodamco-Westfield. The mall opened on August 16, 2016 as the largest shopping complex in Manhattan, with 125 retail spaces. It replaces the Mall at the World Trade Center, the underground shopping mall under the original World Trade Center, which was destroyed on September 11, 2001.

Construction of the World Trade Center

The construction of the first World Trade Center complex in New York City was conceived as an urban renewal project to help revitalize Lower Manhattan spearheaded by David Rockefeller. The project was developed by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. The idea for the World Trade Center arose after World War II as a way to supplement existing avenues of international commerce in the United States.

4 World Trade Center Office skyscraper in Manhattan, New York

4 World Trade Center is a skyscraper that is part of the World Trade Center complex in New York City. It is located on the southeast corner of the 16-acre (6.5 ha) World Trade Center site, where the original nine-story 4 World Trade Center stood. Pritzker Prize-winning architect Fumihiko Maki was awarded the contract to design the 978-foot-tall (298 m) building. It houses the headquarters of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ).

Construction of One World Trade Center was deferred until 2006 because of disputes between the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey and the developer. Tishman Realty & Construction is the selected builder. The building reached ground level on May 17, 2008, and was topped out on May 10, 2013. One World Trade Center opened to tenants on November 3, 2014, and One World Observatory opened to the public on May 28, 2015.

Twin Towers 2 Proposed complex of buildings

The Twin Towers II was a proposed twin-towered skyscraper complex which would have been located at the World Trade Center site in Manhattan, New York City. The proposed complex would have replaced the former Twin Towers of the World Trade Center destroyed in the September 11 attacks, restoring the skyline of the city to its former state. The main design for the proposed complex would feature new landmark twin towers, nearly identical to the originals designed by Minoru Yamasaki, though it would feature 115 stories—5 floors taller than the originals, among other differences. Beside the towers, an above-ground memorial would have occupied the footprints of the original towers. The new site would also have featured three 12-story buildings, replacing the original 3, 4 and 5 World Trade Center. The complex was designed and developed by American architect Herbert Belton and American engineer Kenneth Gardner, and sponsored by Donald Trump.

Vehicular Security Center

The World Trade Center Vehicle Security Center and Tour Bus Parking Facility, or simply the Vehicular Security Center (VSC), is a secure complex for truck delivery and underground parking at the World Trade Center. The entrance to the VSC is located at street-level along the southern edge of the National September 11 Memorial & Museum on Liberty Street. The VSC is connected via underground tunnels that feed the entire 16-acre (65,000 m2) WTC complex, linking the security checkpoint at its entrance with the buildings and services at the complex requiring vehicular services. Underground garages provide parking for tenants, visitors, and tour buses.

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