5 World Trade Center

Last updated
5 World Trade Center
130 Liberty Street
WTC 5.jpg
5 World Trade Center's original proposed design
General information
StatusOn hold
Type Office, Residential
Location130 Liberty Street
New York, NY 10007, United States
Coordinates 40°42′37″N74°0′46″W / 40.71028°N 74.01278°W / 40.71028; -74.01278 Coordinates: 40°42′37″N74°0′46″W / 40.71028°N 74.01278°W / 40.71028; -74.01278
Construction startedSeptember 9, 2011
Estimated completiontbd
Height
Roof743 feet (226 m) [1]
Technical details
Floor count42
Floor area1,300,000 square feet (120,000 m2)
Design and construction
Architect Kohn Pedersen Fox
Developer Port Authority of New York and New Jersey

5 World Trade Center (also referred to as 130 Liberty Street) [2] is a planned skyscraper at the World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan, New York City. The site is across Liberty Street, to the south of the main 16-acre (6.5 ha) World Trade Center site. As of June 2018, the project is on standby while the Port Authority explores a potential sale of the lot to a developer and looks for tenants to occupy the skyscraper. [3] The proposed building shares its name with the original 5 World Trade Center, which was heavily damaged as a result of the collapse of the North Tower during the September 11 attacks and was later demolished. The Port Authority has no plans to construct a building at 130 Liberty Street, although it is open to future development of the site as office, retail, hotel, residential or some mix of those uses. [4]

World Trade Center site Grounds of the World Trade Center in New York City

The World Trade Center site, formerly referred to as "Ground Zero" or "the Pile" immediately after the September 11 attacks, is a 14.6-acre (5.9 ha) area in Lower Manhattan in New York City. The site is bounded by Vesey Street to the north, the West Side Highway to the west, Liberty Street to the south, and Church Street to the east. The Port Authority owns the site's land. The previous World Trade Center complex stood on the site until it was destroyed in the September 11 attacks.

Lower Manhattan Central business district in New York, United States

Lower Manhattan, also known as Downtown Manhattan or Downtown New York, is the southernmost part of Manhattan, the central borough for business, culture, and government in the City of New York, which itself originated at the southern tip of Manhattan Island in 1624, at a point which now constitutes the present-day Financial District. The population of the Financial District alone has grown to an estimated 61,000 residents as of 2018, up from 43,000 as of 2014, which in turn was nearly double the 23,000 recorded at the 2000 Census.

New York City Largest city in the United States

The City of New York, usually called either New York City (NYC) or simply New York (NY), is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2018 population of 8,398,748 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles (784 km2), New York is also the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 19,979,477 people in its 2018 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 22,679,948 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural, financial, and media capital of the world, and exerts a significant impact upon commerce, entertainment, research, technology, education, politics, tourism, art, fashion, and sports. The city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.

Contents

In June 2007, JPMorgan Chase announced plans to develop the building as the headquarters of its J.P. Morgan Investment Bank. However, JPMorgan Chase's acquisition of Bear Stearns in March 2008 put those plans in doubt, given the company will relocate J.P. Morgan to 383 Madison Avenue.

JPMorgan Chase American multinational banking and financial services holding company

JPMorgan Chase & Co. is an American multinational investment bank and financial services holding company headquartered in New York City. JPMorgan Chase is the largest bank in the United States and the sixth largest bank in the world by total assets, with total assets of US$2.73 trillion. It is also the world's most valuable bank by market capitalization. JPMorgan Chase is incorporated in New York.

Bear Stearns American investment bank

The Bear Stearns Companies, Inc. was a New York-based global investment bank, securities trading and brokerage firm that failed in 2008 as part of the global financial crisis and recession, and was subsequently sold to JPMorgan Chase. The company's main business areas before its failure were capital markets, investment banking, wealth management, and global clearing services, and it was heavily involved in the subprime mortgage crisis.

383 Madison Avenue Office skyscraper in Manhattan, New York

383 Madison Avenue is an office building owned and occupied by JP Morgan Chase in New York City on a full block bound by Madison Avenue and Vanderbilt Avenue between East 46th and 47th Streets. Formerly known as the Bear Stearns Building, it housed the world headquarters of the now-defunct Bear Stearns from the building's completion until Bear's collapse and sale to JPMorgan Chase in 2008. The building now houses the New York offices for J.P. Morgan's investment banking division, which formerly occupied 277 Park Avenue. Both 383 Madison and 277 Park are adjacent to JPMorgan Chase's world headquarters address, 270 Park Avenue,and the 383 Madison building is serving as temporary headquarters while 270 Park is being redeveloped.

Original building (1970–2001)

5 World Trade Center (5 WTC) was originally a steel-framed nine-story low-rise office building built in 1970–72 at New York City's World Trade Center. The building was designed by Minoru Yamasaki and Emery Roth & Sons. The structure was 118 ft (36 m) tall and had a black exterior. It suffered severe damage and partial collapse on its upper floors as a result of the September 11 attacks in 2001. The remaining structure was demolished by the Port Authority in December 2001, making way for reconstruction. The building was L-shaped and occupied the northeast corner of the World Trade Center site. Overall dimensions were 330 by 420 feet (100 by 130 m), with an average area of 120,000 square feet (11,000 m2) per floor.

World Trade Center (1973–2001) Former skyscraper complex in Manhattan, New York

The original World Trade Center was a large complex of seven buildings in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City, United States. It opened on April 4, 1973, and was destroyed in 2001 during the September 11 attacks. At the time of their completion, the Twin Towers — the original 1 World Trade Center, at 1,368 feet (417 m); and 2 World Trade Center, at 1,362 feet (415.1 m)—were the tallest buildings in the world. Other buildings in the complex included the Marriott World Trade Center, 4 WTC, 5 WTC, 6 WTC, and 7 WTC. The complex contained 13,400,000 square feet (1,240,000 m2) of office space.

Minoru Yamasaki American architect

Minoru Yamasaki was an American architect, best known for designing the original World Trade Center in New York City and several other large-scale projects. Yamasaki was one of the most prominent architects of the 20th century. He and fellow architect Edward Durell Stone are generally considered to be the two master practitioners of "New Formalism".

September 11 attacks Attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001

The September 11 attacks were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. The attacks killed 2,977 people, injured over 6,000 others, and caused at least $10 billion in infrastructure and property damage. Additional people have died of 9/11-related cancer and respiratory diseases in the months and years following the attacks.

The Chambers Street and World Trade Center ( A , C , and E trains) subway stations were located directly east of the building, and access to the station was available through the lobby. The building's remaining underground concourse space housed The Mall at the World Trade Center. The largest Borders bookstore in New York City spread across three floors of 5 World Trade Center, on the corner of the building adjacent to the intersection of Church and Vesey Street.

A (New York City Subway service) New York City Subway service

The A Eighth Avenue Express is a rapid transit service in the B Division of the New York City Subway. Its route emblem, or "bullet", is colored blue since it uses the IND Eighth Avenue Line in Manhattan.

C (New York City Subway service) New York City Subway service

The C Eighth Avenue Local is a 19-mile-long (31 km) rapid transit service in the B Division of the New York City Subway. Its route emblem, or "bullet", is blue since it uses the IND Eighth Avenue Line in Midtown Manhattan.

E (New York City Subway service) New York City Subway service

The E Eighth Avenue Local is a rapid transit service in the B Division of the New York City Subway. Its route emblem, or "bullet", is blue since it uses the IND Eighth Avenue Line in Manhattan.

In 1984, artist Joanna Gilman Hyde painted the 10,000-square-foot (930 m2) canvas titled "Self Organizing Galaxy" on the roof of 5 World Trade Center. [5]

September 11 attacks

WTC Building Arrangement and Site Plan.svg
Drawing of the original World Trade Center complex. The "¬"-shaped building on the northeast corner of the site is 5 WTC.
WTC Building Arrangement in preliminary site plan.svg
Preliminary site plans for the World Trade Center rebuild.
World Trade Center Site After 9-11 Attacks With Original Building Locations.jpg
A picture showing the remnants of the World Trade Center complex. The original outline of the entire site can be seen at left.
5-wtc-photo.jpg
5 World Trade Center in a NOAA aerial image following September 11, 2001.

Floors 4–9 suffered partial collapse and/or fire damage as a result of the September 11 attacks. Floors 1–3 were not damaged. The building's structural integrity on its upper floors were partially compromised due to the impact of steel and other debris from the North Tower. Other collapsed sections were due to fire damage. Portions of internal collapse and burnout were found on upper floors, mainly floors 6–8. The black exterior facade suffered severe fire damage. Floors 5–9 were on fire after the collapse of the South Tower. A section of the fuselage from United Airlines Flight 175 landed on the roof. 5 WTC was the least damaged building of the entire complex. The Borders bookstore was undamaged after both towers collapsed. The building was the location of the Survivors' Staircase, which was recovered from the building's underground after it was demolished.

Fuselage aircraft main body which is the primary carrier of crew, passengers, and payload

The fuselage is an aircraft's main body section. It holds crew, passengers, and cargo. In single-engine aircraft it will usually contain an engine, as well, although in some amphibious aircraft the single engine is mounted on a pylon attached to the fuselage, which in turn is used as a floating hull. The fuselage also serves to position control and stabilization surfaces in specific relationships to lifting surfaces, which is required for aircraft stability and maneuverability.

United Airlines Flight 175 9/11 hijacked passenger flight, hit the South Tower of the World Trade Center

United Airlines Flight 175 was a scheduled domestic passenger flight from Logan International Airport, in Boston, Massachusetts, to Los Angeles International Airport, in Los Angeles, California. On September 11, 2001, the Boeing 767-200 operating the route was hijacked by five al-Qaeda terrorists and was deliberately crashed into the South Tower of the World Trade Center in New York City, killing all 65 people aboard and an unconfirmed number in the building's impact zone.

Borders Group former international book and music retailer

Borders Group, Inc. was an international book and music retailer based in Ann Arbor, Michigan. In its final year, the company employed about 19,500 people throughout the U.S., primarily in its Borders and Waldenbooks stores.

The building was demolished by weakening its internal structure and using cables to pull down the rest of the structure, the same way 4 World Trade Center and 6 World Trade Center were demolished.[ citation needed ] The last standing section of 5 WTC was removed by December 2001.

The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)/ASCE Building Performance Study Team found that some connections between the structural steel beams failed in the fire. This was most apparent in the collapse of 5 World Trade Center, where the fireproofing did not protect the connections, causing the structure to fail. The structural failure didn't cause the entire building to collapse, as seen after the attacks that the structural skeleton remained intact. [6]

2 World Trade Center will stand at the exact location where the original 5 World Trade Center once stood.

Tenants

FL#Companies
9 Credit Suisse First Boston, Howard Publications, Council of State Governments, American Shipper, Our Planet Mgmt. Institute, Ltd., Hunan Resources & Tech. Institute
8 Credit Suisse First Boston, NYS Court of Claims, Continental Forwarding
7 Credit Suisse First Boston, U.S. Airways
6 Morgan Stanley
5 Morgan Stanley
4 Morgan Stanley
3World Trade Center Dental, Affiliated Physicians of St. Vincent, Children's Discovery Center
2 JPMorgan Chase, FedEx, DHL
L Borders Books & Music, Daniel Pehr, Inc., Krispy Kreme
C Borders Books & Music, Charles Schwab, Sam Goody, Perfumeria Milano, American Airlines

New building

5 World Trade Center (5 WTC) was expected to be designed for residential or mixed use in the original master plan for the complex by Daniel Libeskind. The building was to have a height limit of no more than 900 feet (270 m) and up to 1,500,000 square feet (140,000 m2) of floor space. Negotiations over the World Trade Center site concluded in April 2006, with private developer Larry Silverstein yielding his right to develop on the site designated for One World Trade Center along with 5 World Trade Center to the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey in exchange for assistance in financing Towers 2, 3, and 4.

The Deutsche Bank Building began undergoing deconstruction in March 2007, which was finally completed by 2011. During this time, work along Liberty Street involved preparing the northern quadrant of the site for development. After site preparation work was done, construction began on the Vehicular Security Center and Liberty Park, which are both complete as of 2016.

On June 22, 2007, the Port Authority announced that JPMorgan Chase will spend $290 million to lease the site until 2011 for construction of a 42-story building. [7] JPMorgan Chase would eventually back out of the deal, leaving the Port Authority with no plans to build the skyscraper.

Construction history

Following JPMorgan Chase's acquisition of Bear Stearns in March 2008, the company announced plans to use Bear Stearns' existing headquarters at 383 Madison Avenue as its new headquarters for J.P. Morgan Investment Bank. [8] The company abandoned plans to occupy a skyscraper at 130 Liberty Street. [9] A proposal to convert the planned office tower into a residential or mixed-use tower was explored instead. [9]

On May 1, 2008, deconstruction of the former Deutsche Bank building resumed. [10]

On May 11, 2009, it was announced that the Port Authority was proposing to cancel the construction of 5 World Trade Center altogether as part of an overall plan to halve the amount of office space available in the fully reconstructed World Trade Center to 465,000 square metres (5,010,000 sq ft). [11] The agency, citing the recession and disagreements with developer Larry Silverstein, also proposed the reduction of 200 Greenwich Street and 175 Greenwich Street to "stump" buildings of approximately four-stories. [11] It was proposed in July 2009 to move the planned construction site for the Performing Arts Center to the 130 Liberty Street location, but these plans were later rejected. [9] The Performing Arts Center was planned to be constructed near the center of the World Trade Center site as part of the National September 11 Memorial & Museum. At that location, construction would not begin until 2015. [9] The proposal did not specify whether the Performing Arts Center would occupy the entire site, thereby ending plans for 5 World Trade Center, or if the center would become integrated into a new mixed-use skyscraper on the site. [9]

On March 25, 2010, the Port Authority announced that it had assumed responsibility for the development of 5 World Trade Center, in addition to One World Trade Center, the National September 11 Memorial & Museum, the transportation hub, and other site infrastructure. Towers 2, 3, and 4 would continue to be developed by Silverstein Properties. [12] On June 15, 2010, New York University had expressed interest in expanding to 5 World Trade Center as part of its NYU 2031 program. [13] These plans were also eventually rejected.

On February 28, 2011, the deconstruction of the Deutsche Bank Building was completed, and construction of another World Trade Center project, the Vehicular Security Center and Tour Bus Parking Facilities began. [14] Development of the site was officially given to the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. [15] On September 1, 2011, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey began construction to incorporate the site into the new WTC development, acting as its developer. [16] [17]

On October 14, 2011, Governor Andrew Cuomo announced an agreement to rebuild the St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church in Liberty Park. [18] The church would be located adjacent to the future Liberty Park, which would be built on top of the Vehicular Security Center. [19]

On December 9, 2011, Phase 2 construction of the South bathtub, located on the site of 130 Liberty Street, continued with the excavation and concrete placement. [20] By 2012, concrete placement and steel erection of the South Bathtub continued.

By May 10, 2013, the ground was prepared for construction. A walkway that is next to the site of 5 WTC, will be constructed into a supermarket. By 2014, the ground had been transformed into parking spaces for vehicles belonging to the Port Authority Police Department (PAPD). According to the agency, this usage of the site is only temporary.

Design

The original design for the tower was by Kohn Pedersen Fox, [21] and called for a 42-story building with a seven-floor cantilevered section starting at the 12th floor. This section of the building would have housed JPMorgan Chase's large trading floors, rising above the St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church, and would be taller than 7 World Trade Center. [22] As of September 2013, the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation and Port Authority were actively marketing the site, but had not released any information about the building. [23]

In June 2018, YIMBY reported on a new design for the tower, after rendering was spotted on a fence surrounding the construction site, hinting an announcement from the Port Authority may be coming soon. According to the article, it is "a glassy building with a triangular motif reminiscent of the David Childs-designed 1 WTC. The depiction is roughly 70 stories in height, which could indicate yet another supertall is planned for the area." [3]

See also

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Liberty Park

Liberty Park is a one-acre (4,000 m2) elevated public park at the World Trade Center in New York City, overlooking the National September 11 Memorial & Museum. It is located above the Vehicular Security Center and opened on June 29, 2016. The St. Nicholas National Shrine is located within the park, as well as The Sphere, the iconic sculpture salvaged from the World Trade Center site. Another statue, America's Response Monument, is also located in the park.

Vehicular Security Center

The World Trade Center Vehicle Security Center and Tour Bus Parking Facility, or simply the Vehicular Security Center (VSC), is a secure complex for truck delivery and underground parking at the World Trade Center. The entrance to the VSC is located at street-level along the southern edge of the National September 11 Memorial & Museum on Liberty Street. The VSC is connected via underground tunnels that feed the entire 16-acre (65,000 m2) WTC complex, linking the security checkpoint at its entrance with the buildings and services at the complex requiring vehicular services. Underground garages provide parking for tenants, visitors, and tour buses.

World Trade Center (2001–present) Skyscraper complex in Manhattan, New York

The World Trade Center is a mostly completed complex of buildings in Lower Manhattan, New York City, U.S., replacing the original seven buildings on the same site that were destroyed in the September 11 attacks. The site is being rebuilt with up to six new skyscrapers, four of which have been completed; a memorial and museum to those killed in the attacks; the elevated Liberty Park adjacent to the site, containing the St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church and Vehicular Security Center; and a transportation hub. The 104-story One World Trade Center, the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere, is the lead building for the new complex.

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