| Rebuilding of the|
World Trade Center
Construction of One World Trade Center was deferred until 2006 because of disputes between the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey and the developer. Tishman Realty & Constructionis the selected builder. The building reached ground level on May 17, 2008, and was topped out on May 10, 2013. One World Trade Center opened to tenants on November 3, 2014, and One World Observatory opened to the public on May 28, 2015.
One World Trade Center is the main building of the rebuilt World Trade Center complex in Lower Manhattan, New York City. One WTC is the tallest building in the United States, the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere, and the sixth-tallest in the world. The supertall structure has the same name as the North Tower of the original World Trade Center, which was destroyed in the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. The new skyscraper stands on the northwest corner of the 16-acre (6.5 ha) World Trade Center site, on the site of the original 6 World Trade Center. The building is bounded by West Street to the west, Vesey Street to the north, Fulton Street to the south, and Washington Street to the east.
The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ) is a joint venture between the U.S. states of New York and New Jersey, established in 1921 through an interstate compact authorized by the United States Congress. The Port Authority oversees much of the regional transportation infrastructure, including bridges, tunnels, airports, and seaports, within the geographical jurisdiction of the Port of New York and New Jersey. This 1,500-square-mile (3,900 km2) port district is generally encompassed within a 25-mile (40 km) radius of the Statue of Liberty National Monument. The Port Authority is headquartered at 4 World Trade Center and is a member of the Real Estate Board of New York.
Tishman Realty & Construction Co., Inc. is an American corporation founded in 1898 that owns and develops real estate. The company is known for being the contractor that built the original World Trade Center in New York City. Tishman Construction Corporation, the construction division of the company, was sold to AECOM in 2010.
One World Trade Center is considered the first major building whose construction is based upon a three-dimensional Building Information Model.The symbolic cornerstone of One World Trade Center was laid down in a ceremony on July 4, 2004, but further construction of the tower was stalled until 2006. The cornerstone was temporarily removed from the site on June 23, 2006. The project was delayed due to disputes over money, security and design but the last major issues were resolved on April 26, 2006 with a deal between developer Larry Silverstein and the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. During the summer of 2006, explosives were detonated at the World Trade Center construction site, testing the use of charges to clear bedrock for the building's foundation. Controlled explosions continued for approximately two months thereafter.
Building information modeling (BIM) is a process supported by various tools and technologies involving the generation and management of digital representations of physical and functional characteristics of places. Building information models (BIMs) are files which can be extracted, exchanged or networked to support decision-making regarding a built asset. Current BIM software is used by individuals, businesses and government agencies who plan, design, construct, operate and maintain diverse physical infrastructures, such as water, refuse, electricity, gas, communication utilities, roads, railways, bridges, ports and tunnels.
Larry A. Silverstein is an American businessman. Among his real estate projects, he is the developer of the rebuilt World Trade Center complex in lower Manhattan as well as one of New York's tallest residential towers at 30 Park Place, where he owns a home. His worth has been estimated at $3.5 billion as of 2016.
On November 18, 2006, 400 cubic yards (310 cubic meters) of concrete were poured onto the foundation of the One World Trade Center, carried by as many as 40 trucks. On December 17, 2006, a ceremony was held in Battery Park City, with the public invited to sign a 30-foot (9.1 m) steel beam. This beam, the first to be installed, was welded onto the building's base on December 19, 2006.
Battery Park City is a mainly residential 92-acre (37 ha) planned community on the west side of the southern tip of the island of Manhattan in New York City. It is bounded by the Hudson River on the west, the Hudson River shoreline on the north and south, and the West Side Highway on the east.
On January 9, 2007, a second set of beams was welded to the top of the first set. February 2007 estimates put the cost for construction of 1 WTC at $3 billion, or $1,150 per square foot ($12,380 per square meter). Approximately $1 billion of insurance money recouped by Silverstein in connection with the September 11 attacks is being used for construction of the new One World Trade Center. The State of New York is expected to provide $250 million toward construction costs, and the Port Authority agreed to finance another $1 billion through bonds. In 2007, Tishman Construction Corporation of New York completed a row of steel columns at the perimeter of the construction site. Two tower crane bases were erected, each base containing a functioning luffing-jib tower crane. By the end of 2007, the tower's footings and foundations were nearly complete.
In finance, a bond is an instrument of indebtedness of the bond issuer to the holders. The most common types of bonds include municipal bonds and corporate bonds.
In January 2008, two construction cranes were moved into the construction site. The tower's concrete core began rising in the first months of 2008. 50,000 short tons (45,000 t) of steel necessary had been ordered. By March 13, 2008, the steel for the tower had reached 70 feet (21 m) high, 10 feet (3 m) below street level. From late March through early April, a 40-foot (12 m) tall mockup of a section of the tower's wall with twenty-four windows was tested by Construction Consulting Laboratory West in Ontario, California. The purpose of the testing was to ensure that the all-glass exterior of the tower will be able to withstand earthquakes and extreme weather conditions. Testing also took place on another full-scale mockup south of Albuquerque, New Mexico. Both mockups passed the tests. In mid-April, a batch of concrete had to be replaced after it failed a stress test.By February 22, 2008, 9,400 of the nearly
Ontario is a city located in southwestern San Bernardino County, California, 35 miles (56 km) east of downtown Los Angeles and 23 miles (37 km) west of downtown San Bernardino, the county seat. Located in the western part of the Inland Empire metropolitan area, it lies just east of Los Angeles County and is part of the Greater Los Angeles Area. As of the 2010 Census, the city had a population of 163,924, up from 158,007 at the 2000 census, making it the county's fourth most populous city after San Bernardino, Fontana, and Rancho Cucamonga.
Albuquerque, also known locally as Duke City and abbreviated as ABQ, is the most populous city in the U.S. state of New Mexico and the 32nd-most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated population of 558,545 in 2017. It is the principal city of the Albuquerque metropolitan area, which has 915,927 residents as of July 2018. Albuquerque's Metropolitan statistical area is the 60th-largest in the United States. The Albuquerque MSA population includes the cities of Rio Rancho, Bernalillo, Placitas, Corrales, Los Lunas, Belen, and Bosque Farms, and forms part of the larger Albuquerque–Santa Fe–Las Vegas combined statistical area, with a total population of 1,171,991 in 2016.
On May 17, 2008, the tower's steel reached street level when new sections were bolted to two of the twenty-four jumbo steel columns marking the building's footprint. The new column sections brought the height of the structure up to 15 feet (4.6 m) above street level. In June, the chamfered steel skeleton of the tower's concrete base had begun to take shape. By the end of the month, the concrete had been poured for the floor of the tower's basement level B3. In his June 30, 2008 World Trade Center Rebuilding Assessment to New York Governor David Paterson, Port Authority executive director Chris Ward noted that roughly 90 percent of the construction contracts had been bid.
The Governor of New York is the head of government of the U.S. state of New York. The governor is the head of the executive branch of New York's state government and the commander-in-chief of the state's military and naval forces.
David Alexander Paterson is an American politician who served as the 55th Governor of New York, succeeding Eliot Spitzer and serving out nearly three years of Spitzer's term from March 2008 to the end of 2010. He is the first African American to serve as New York governor and the second legally blind governor of a U.S. state.
By August, 1 WTC had reached 25 feet (7.6 m) above street level. During its September 16 meeting, the Port Authority board approved contracts for security and building management systems, and 95% of the contracts needed to complete the tower had been signed. The $20 million security contract includes sophisticated video analysis in which computers would alert security personnel to abnormal situations automatically. On October 10, Collavino Construction poured an additional 520 cubic yards (400 m3) of concrete for the tower's concrete core, raising it to just above street level.
By February 11, 2009, the tower was 105 feet (32 m) above street level. On July 2, 2009, over 1,200 cubic yards (920 m3) of concrete were poured to form parts of the street-level plaza. On August 13, the builders of 1 WTC set a 70 short tons (64,000 kilograms) piece of steel into place—the largest column installed yet at the building. Each steel column, made at a factory in Luxembourg, was about 60 feet (18 m) long. The columns at the bottom of the tower's foundation were about 35 feet (11 m) long.
By November 1, 2009, the twenty-four perimeter columns of 1 WTC were all erected, and construction of the second floor (the first floor above ground level) was nearly complete. In addition, The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey reported in their 2009 Q3 Annual Report that steel erection should commence by January 2010, and that the typical floor construction could begin.
Steel and concrete installation continued in 2010, where two cranes were on site. The fifth floor was finished on January 16. In February, construction began on the sixth floor, the last floor of 1 WTC's base, and the Port Authority announced that the tower's steel superstructure had reached 200 feet (61 m) above street level. By the end of March 2010, steel beams began to be erected for the second office floor. In April, the 45-degree octagon was installed, the building's steel frame had reached 26 floors, and concrete was completed on the base structure in the latter part of the month.
In May 2010, the Port Authority stated that they were building close to one floor per week, and was projected that One World Trade Center would reach 55 stories by the end of 2010.The cocoon system was also installed, marking the first time a cocoon safety system has been installed on a steel superstructure in the city.
On July 13, 2010, workers found remains of an 18th-century sailing ship at the World Trade Center site while excavating for the underground Vehicle Security Center for One World Trade Center. 32-foot (9.8 m) section of the ship's hull and a 100-pound (45 kg) anchor were found. The hull had been truncated and the beams sawed. The ship was likely used as landfill material during the early 19th century to help expand Manhattan. Timbers from the ship were removed and sent to a laboratory to try to date the vessel. An additional section of the ship was found on the site in August 2011, giving historians more information about the vessel, which was active around the 1770s.The remains of a
By October 2010, the tower's steel superstructure reached 44 stories.In November, stainless steel and glass facade panels were being prepared for later installation, with the panels scheduled to be assembled between the 20th and 24th floors. On November 13, the first glass facade panels were installed on the 20th floor. Steven Coleman, spokesman for the Port Authority, stated, "Once they get rolling, they'll be able to install glass panels at a rate of one floor per week." By November 17, the tower's steel had reached 48 stories.
The Port Authority announced on December 16, 2010 that 1 WTC had reached the 52nd floor, and had risen to over 600 feet (180 m), marking the halfway point for the construction of the building's steel frame.
By February 2011, the tower reached 56 floors, 667 feet (203 m) above grade, while the glass panels reached the 27th floor. On May 12, 2011, plans led to install prismatic glass on the building's base were cancelled due to technical problems.
By June 15, 2011, One World Trade Center had reached the 70th floor, the glass facade installation had reached the 45th floor, and concrete flooring had been installed up to the 63rd.On August 1, 2011, concrete workers and carpenters at the tower walked off the job one month after their labor contract had expired. The workers returned to work on August 3.
Construction slowed from January to February 2012 due to an unseasonably warm winter which caused high winds and icing conditions to form on top of the structure making it hazardous for the construction workers. Further delays were caused by financial problems with a steel supplier which slowed delivery of steel beams to One World Trade Center. It took over two months to complete the 92nd floor.With the weather improving in March and financial issues being resolved, the construction progressed above the 92nd floor. 1 WTC later surpassed the Bank of America Tower as the 3rd tallest in the city. In May 2012, it was announced that the 408-foot spire originally planned to adorn the top of One World Trade will have its radome stripped, revealing the mast of the same height. This announcement was withdrawn in September 2013. On November 12, 2013, One World Trade Center was given the official height by the CTBUH as the Tallest Building in the Northeastern United States. (surpassing the Willis Tower amongst much debate), eleventh tallest in the world, and was given the title of the World's Tallest Spire. (Burj Khalifa, the tallest building in the world, has a shorter spire, despite starting at a higher altitude.)
On June 21, 2012, One World Trade Center Topped out at roof level, leaving the building to rank around 30th place among all other skyscrapers. Construction slowed again from late June till mid July due to high temperatures which caused the building to remain at roof level, leading to a delay in the installation of the antenna spire. With temperatures easing by July 16, construction crews began installing parapet steel at the top of 1 WTC. On July 18, the first node steel was installed.On July 31, 2012, all corner parapet columns, also called "node steel", were installed around the perimeter of the tower. A special beam, signed by the U.S. President Barack Obama, local officials and the construction workers, was raised on August 2, 2012. A ceremony was held for the occasion, but officials denied that it was considered a topping-out ceremony. By August 10, 2012, concrete flooring had been completed to the 93rd story of the tower, One World Trade Center had risen to the 105th floor and glass installation was at the 82nd floor. The building was structurally topped out on August 30, 2012 when the last of the spandrel beams were installed between the parapet columns.
In late 2012 the workers were installing a temporary steel framework at the top of the tower to support the 408-foot (124 m) steel spire during assembly. The spire was fabricated as 16 separate sections at a factory near Montreal, Quebec, Canada and was transported by barge to New York City in mid-November. Just after Thanksgiving, crews began to transport the spire segments one by one to the WTC site. Upon reaching the WTC site, the spire sections were being assembled, piece by piece, at the top of 1 WTC.
On December 12, 2012, the first of nine pieces of the spire were lifted to the 104th floor. Another nine smaller pieces were trucked in from Montreal.
On May 10, 2013, the last two sections of the building's spire were installed making it the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere, and the 3rd tallest building in the world.
The exterior elevator began removal in late January 2014 and concluded in early June 2014. Base cladding began in February 2013 and concluded in June 2014. Work began on the construction of the plaza surrounding the building in late 2013 and interior work was Finished in November 2014.[ citation needed ]
The building opened November 3, 2014, to 175 employees of publisher Condé Nast.
On May 29, 2015, the One World Observatory, at the tower's top, opened.
The Empire State Building is a 102-story Art Deco skyscraper in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. It was designed by Shreve, Lamb & Harmon and completed in 1931. The building has a roof height of 1,250 feet (380 m) and stands a total of 1,454 feet (443.2 m) tall, including its antenna. Its name is derived from "Empire State", the nickname of New York, which is of unknown origin. As of 2019, the building is the second-tallest building in New York City, the sixth-tallest completed skyscraper in the United States, and the 45th-tallest in the world. It is also the sixth-tallest freestanding structure in the Americas. The Empire State Building stood as the world's tallest building for nearly 40 years until the completion of the World Trade Center's North Tower in Lower Manhattan in late-1970. Following the September 11 attacks in 2001, it was again the tallest building in New York City until the new One World Trade Center was completed in April 2012.
A skyscraper is a continuously habitable high-rise building that has over 40 floors and is taller than approximately 150 m (492 ft). Historically, the term first referred to buildings with 10 to 20 floors in the 1880s. The definition shifted with advancing construction technology during the 20th century. Skyscrapers may host offices, residential spaces, and retail spaces. For buildings above a height of 300 m (984 ft), the term supertall skyscrapers can be used, while skyscrapers reaching beyond 600 m (1,969 ft) are classified as megatall skyscrapers.
The World Trade Center site, formerly referred to as "Ground Zero" or "the Pile" immediately after the September 11 attacks, is a 14.6-acre (5.9 ha) area in Lower Manhattan in New York City. The site is bounded by Vesey Street to the north, the West Side Highway to the west, Liberty Street to the south, and Church Street to the east. The Port Authority owns the site's land. The previous World Trade Center complex stood on the site until it was destroyed in the September 11 attacks.
The Petronas Towers, also known as the Petronas Twin Towers are twin skyscrapers. According to the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH)'s official definition and ranking, they were the tallest buildings in the world from 1998 to 2004 and remain the tallest twin towers in the world. The buildings are a landmark of Kuala Lumpur, along with nearby Kuala Lumpur Tower.
7 World Trade Center refers to two buildings that have existed at the same location within the World Trade Center site in Lower Manhattan, New York City. The original structure, part of the original World Trade Center, was completed in 1987 and was destroyed in the September 11 attacks in 2001. The current structure opened in May 2006. Both buildings were developed by Larry Silverstein, who holds a ground lease for the site from the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey.
The Bank of America Corporate Center is an 871 ft (265 m) skyscraper in Uptown Charlotte, North Carolina. When completed in 1992, it became and still is the tallest building in Charlotte and in North Carolina; the building is 60 stories high. It is the 174th-tallest building in the world. Designed by Argentine architect César Pelli and HKS Architects, it is the 31st-tallest building in the United States and is the most widely known building in the Charlotte skyline. It is best known as the world headquarters for Bank of America.
The Shard, also referred to as the Shard of Glass, Shard London Bridge and formerly London Bridge Tower, is a 95-storey supertall skyscraper, designed by the Italian architect Renzo Piano, in Southwark, London, that forms part of the Shard Quarter development. Standing 309.6 metres (1,016 ft) high, the Shard is the tallest building in the United Kingdom, the tallest building in the European Union, and the sixth-tallest building in Europe. It is also the second-tallest free-standing structure in the United Kingdom, after the concrete tower of the Emley Moor transmitting station. It replaced Southwark Towers, a 24-storey office block built on the site in 1975.
The Burj Khalifa, known as the Burj Dubai prior to its inauguration in 2010, is a skyscraper in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. With a total height of 829.8 m (2,722 ft) and a roof height of 828 m (2,717 ft), the Burj Khalifa has been the tallest structure and building in the world since its topping out in 2009.
The Bank of America Tower (BOAT) at One Bryant Park is a 1,200 ft (365.8 m) skyscraper in the Midtown area of Manhattan in New York City. It is located on Sixth Avenue between 42nd and 43rd Streets, opposite Bryant Park.
China World Trade Center Tower III is a supertall skyscraper with 81 floors, 4 underground floors, and 30 elevators in Beijing, China. It is the third phase of development of the China World Trade Center complex in Beijing's central business district of Chaoyang at the junction of the East Third Ring Road and Jianguomen Outer Street. The building topped out at 330 m (1,083 ft) on 29 October 2007 and completed in 2010. The building bears a resemblance to the original Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City, which were destroyed during the September 11th, 2001 attacks. It is the second tallest building in Beijing.
5 World Trade Center is a planned skyscraper at the World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan, New York City. The site is across Liberty Street, to the south of the main 16-acre (6.5 ha) World Trade Center site. As of June 2018, the project is on standby while the Port Authority explores a potential sale of the lot to a developer and looks for tenants to occupy the skyscraper. The proposed building shares its name with the original 5 World Trade Center, which was heavily damaged as a result of the collapse of the North Tower during the September 11 attacks and was later demolished. The Port Authority has no plans to construct a building at 130 Liberty Street, although it is open to future development of the site as office, retail, hotel, residential or some mix of those uses.
4 World Trade Center is a skyscraper that is part of the World Trade Center complex in New York City. It is located on the southeast corner of the 16-acre (6.5 ha) World Trade Center site, where the original nine-story 4 World Trade Center stood. Pritzker Prize-winning architect Fumihiko Maki was awarded the contract to design the 978-foot-tall (298 m) building. It houses the headquarters of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (PANYNJ).
3 World Trade Center is a skyscraper constructed as part of the rebuilding of the World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan, New York City. The tower is located on the east side of Greenwich Street, on the eastern side of the World Trade Center site.
2 World Trade Center is a skyscraper under construction as part of the World Trade Center complex in Manhattan, New York City. It will replace the original 2 World Trade Center, which was completed in 1972, and subsequently destroyed during the September 11 attacks in 2001, and it will occupy the position of the original 5 World Trade Center. The foundation work was completed in 2013.
The Twin Towers II was a proposed twin-towered skyscraper complex which would have been located at the World Trade Center site in Manhattan, New York City. The proposed complex would have replaced the former Twin Towers of the World Trade Center destroyed in the September 11 attacks, restoring the skyline of the city to its former state. The main design for the proposed complex would feature new landmark twin towers, nearly identical to the originals designed by Minoru Yamasaki, though it would feature 115 stories—5 floors taller than the originals, among other differences. Beside the towers, an above-ground memorial would have occupied the footprints of the original towers. The new site would also have featured three 12-story buildings, replacing the original 3, 4 and 5 World Trade Center. The complex was designed and developed by American architect Herbert Belton and American engineer Kenneth Gardner, and sponsored by Donald Trump.
The original World Trade Center was a large complex of seven buildings in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City, United States. It opened on April 4, 1973, and was destroyed in 2001 during the September 11 attacks. At the time of their completion, the Twin Towers — the original 1 World Trade Center, at 1,368 feet (417 m); and 2 World Trade Center, at 1,362 feet (415.1 m)—were the tallest buildings in the world. Other buildings in the complex included the Marriott World Trade Center, 4 WTC, 5 WTC, 6 WTC, and 7 WTC. The complex contained 13,400,000 square feet (1,240,000 m2) of office space.
The World Trade Center is a mostly completed complex of buildings in Lower Manhattan, New York City, U.S., replacing the original seven buildings on the same site that were destroyed in the September 11 attacks. The site is being rebuilt with up to six new skyscrapers, four of which have been completed; a memorial and museum to those killed in the attacks; the elevated Liberty Park adjacent to the site, containing the St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church and Vehicular Security Center; and a transportation hub. The 104-story One World Trade Center, the tallest building in the Western Hemisphere, is the lead building for the new complex.
The National Construction Safety Team Act, signed into law on October 1, 2002 by President George W. Bush, mandated the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to establish the likely technical cause or causes of the three building failures that occurred on September 11, 2001 at the World Trade Center as a result of a terrorist attack. NIST issued its final report on the collapse of the World Trade Center Twin Towers in September 2005. It issued its final report on 7 World Trade Center in November 2008.
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