Aftermath of the September 11 attacks

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The September 11 attacks transformed the first term of President George W. Bush and led to what he has called the Global War on Terrorism. The accuracy of describing it as a "war" and the political motivations and consequences are the topic of strenuous debate. The U.S. government increased military operations, economic measures and political pressure on groups it accused of being terrorists, as well as on governments and countries accused of sheltering them. October 2001 saw the first military action initiated by the US. Under this policy, the NATO invaded Afghanistan in order to remove the Taliban regime (which harbored al-Qaeda) and to capture al-Qaeda forces.

September 11 attacks Attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001

The September 11 attacks were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. The attacks killed 2,996 people, injured over 6,000 others, and caused at least $10 billion in infrastructure and property damage. Additional people died of 9/11-related cancer and respiratory diseases in the months and years following the attacks.

War on Terror International military campaign that started after 11 September 2001

The War on Terror, also known as the Global War on Terrorism, is an international military campaign that was launched by the United States government after the September 11 attacks against the United States. The naming of the campaign uses a metaphor of war to refer to a variety of actions that do not constitute a specific war as traditionally defined. U.S. president George W. Bush first used the term "war on terrorism" on 16 September 2001, and then "war on terror" a few days later in a formal speech to Congress. In the latter speech, George Bush stated, "Our enemy is a radical network of terrorists and every government that supports them." The term was originally used with a particular focus on countries associated with al-Qaeda. The term was immediately criticised by such people as Richard B. Myers, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and more nuanced terms subsequently came to be used by the Bush administration to publicly define the international campaign led by the U.S.; it was never used as a formal designation of U.S. operations in internal government documentation.

War in Afghanistan (2001–present) war in Afghanistan since 2001

The War in Afghanistan, code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (2001–14) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present), followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of 7 October 2001. The U.S. was initially supported by the United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia and later by a coalition of over 40 countries, including all NATO members. The war's public aims were to dismantle al-Qaeda and to deny it a safe base of operations in Afghanistan by removing the Taliban from power. Since the initial objectives were completed at the end of 2001, the war mostly involves U.S. and allied Afghan government troops battling Taliban insurgents. The War in Afghanistan is the longest war in U.S. history.

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The war, however, is ongoing and has not been won. Critics point out that the Afghan conflict has contributed to the destabilization of neighbouring Pakistan [1] and Afghanistan itself is far from at peace—Lord Ashdown, British diplomat and former international High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina, has gone as far as to describe the country as "a failed state". [2] The US government has also asserted that the US invasion of Iraq is connected to 9/11. [3]

Pakistan federal parliamentary constitutional republic in South Asia

Pakistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world’s sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212,742,631 people. In area, it is the 33rd-largest country, spanning 881,913 square kilometres. Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre (650-mile) coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, and China in the far northeast. It is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, and also shares a maritime border with Oman.

Paddy Ashdown British politician and diplomat

Jeremy John Durham Ashdown, Baron Ashdown of Norton-sub-Hamdon,, known as Paddy Ashdown, was a British politician and diplomat who served as Leader of the Liberal Democrats from 1988 to 1999. He gained international recognition for his role in Bosnia–Herzegovina as its High Representative from 2002 to 2006, following his vigorous lobbying for military action against Yugoslavia in the 1990s.

The High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina, together with the Office of the High Representative (OHR) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, were created in 1995 immediately after the signing of the Dayton Agreement which ended the 1992–95 Bosnian War. The purpose of the High Representative and the OHR is to oversee the civilian implementation of the Dayton agreement. They also serve to represent the countries involved in the implementation of the Dayton Agreement through the Peace Implementation Council (PIC). To the present, all of the High Representatives named have been from European Union countries, while their principal deputies have been from the United States. The Principal Deputy High Representative serves as International Supervisor for Brčko, representing the international community in the Brčko District.

Immediate


Rescue and recovery

After all three attacks that took place on September 11, 2001, society as a whole suffered dramatically. New York known for it's attraction and the city that never sleeps experienced a horrendous tragedy that would never be forgotten. Recovery took years and the economy at that point of time declined drastically. Americans needed as much ministration and easement possible to cope with the brutal and fatal attacks that took place that day. Various first responders came together that day to unite and help as much as possible. Whether they were police officers, firefighters, doctors, nurses, or even random people the main objective was to cooperate and help the wounded. Due to all of the fatal deaths and personnel who suffered from PTSD or other health or related problems were funded through the September 11th Victim Compensation fund. This fund better known as VCF was purposely for those that experienced the disaster directly or those who lost family members from the attack. [4] Recently the fund has started to reimburse those first responders who've risked their lives trying to save the victims who were badly mutilated. In addition those who later encounter health problems from the toxic air distributed throughout the air. Most victims were exposed to smoke due to the burning towers and gas throughout the air.  

Fires burned amidst the rubble of the World Trade Center for weeks after the attack. US Navy 010914-N-1350W-002 fires burning amidst WTC rubble.jpg
Fires burned amidst the rubble of the World Trade Center for weeks after the attack.

By 2004, nearly half of more than 1,000 screened rescue-and-recovery workers and volunteers reported new and persistent respiratory problems, and more than half reported persistent psychological symptoms. [5] Because of the long latency period between exposure and development of asbestos-related diseases, exposed Manhattan residents, especially rescue-and-recovery workers, may suffer future adverse health effects. The January 6, 2006 death of NYPD James Zadroga was ruled by a New Jersey coroner as directly due to clean-up at the WTC site. [6] This ruling was unequivocally rejected in October 2007 by the New York City Chief Medical Examiner, Dr. Charles Hirsch, and Medical Examiner Michele Slone. [7]

Manhattan Borough in New York City and county in New York, United States

Manhattan, often referred to locally as the City, is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City and its economic and administrative center, cultural identifier, and historical birthplace. The borough is coextensive with New York County, one of the original counties of the U.S. state of New York. The borough consists mostly of Manhattan Island, bounded by the Hudson, East, and Harlem rivers; several small adjacent islands; and Marble Hill, a small neighborhood now on the U.S. mainland, physically connected to the Bronx and separated from the rest of Manhattan by the Harlem River. Manhattan Island is divided into three informally bounded components, each aligned with the borough's long axis: Lower, Midtown, and Upper Manhattan.

James Zadroga NYPD officer

James Zadroga was a New York City Police Department (NYPD) officer who died of a respiratory disease that has been attributed to his participation in rescue and recovery operations in the rubble of the World Trade Center following the September 11 attacks. Zadroga was the first NYPD officer whose death was attributed to exposure to his contact with toxic chemicals at the attack site.


Security

The evolution of security and protective services changed tremendously due to the outcome of the attacks. Starting with air travel, airport security and screening, and guidelines that must be obeyed before getting on board. Congress immediately responded after the terrorist attack by pushing out the Aviation and Transportation Security Act. As a result, with this act congress hoped to further avoid any other scenarios that pertained to the terrorist attack that happened on September 11th. [8] Not only was this act regarding just air travel, it referred to all types of transportation. Additional screening was another main focus that took place during this time of leisure. Many passengers were prescreened and advanced screened at different security checkpoints. A major issue that was reoccurring was racial profiling and individual's privacy. Due to the fact of the terrorist attack, anyone who looked similar to or of the Arabic race was immediately dealt with and taken into custody for further screening. Luggage screening was another main objective. New machinery was introduced to get more into depth to scan people's luggage thoroughly and as well search for weapons or bombs. Moreover, pilots were funded by the Department of Homeland Security to carry a firearm on board. Better known as a Federal flight deck officer these pilots undergo training to prevent terrorism attacks or anything that involves harming others on board.

United States Department of Homeland Security Cabinet department of the United States federal government

The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is a cabinet department of the U.S. federal government with responsibilities in public security, roughly comparable to the interior or home ministries of other countries. Its stated missions involve anti-terrorism, border security, immigration and customs, cyber security, and disaster prevention and management. It was created in response to the September 11 attacks and is the youngest U.S. cabinet department.

Federal Flight Deck Officer program run by the Federal Air Marshal Service of the United States of America

Federal Flight Deck Officers (FFDOs) are Federal law enforcement officers commissioned by the Department of Homeland Security. FFDOs act under the umbrella of Transportation Security Administration Office of Law Enforcement branch - the Federal Air Marshal Service.

Adding onto security, another act was passed known as the USA Patriot Act With this act law enforcement was enhanced significantly allowing certain laws to override one another. For example, law enforcement are able to break and enter one's premises without a search warrant and without their consent. Above all, roving wiretaps was a way of government to spy on surveillance. For instance they were allowed to search through one's record searches, and intelligence searches. Specifically meaning if one searched terrorism activities or unusual behavior then deleted their history, government is allowed to see that. The overall gesture of this act was to catch acts of terrorism before any attacks were planned and executed. A program called Total Information Awareness was developed to enhanced technology that would collect and analyze information about every individual in the United States, and trace unusual behaviors that could help prevent terrorist activities. Such things that were gathered thru the program were Internet activity, credit card purchase histories, airline ticket purchases, and medical records. [9]

In United States law, a roving wiretap is a wiretap that follows the surveillance target. For instance, if a target attempts to defeat a regular wiretap by throwing away a phone and acquiring a new one, another surveillance order would usually need to be applied for to tap the new one. A "roving wiretap", once authorised, follows the target rather than a specific phone device, and would give the surveilling body permission to tap second and subsequent phones without applying for new surveillance orders.

Total Information Awareness

Total Information Awareness (TIA) was a program of the United States Information Awareness Office that began during the 2003 fiscal year. It operated under this title from February until May 2003, before being renamed as the Terrorism Information Awareness.

US public reaction

September 13, 2001: A New York City firefighter looks up at what remains of the South Tower. WTC-remnant highres.jpg
September 13, 2001: A New York City firefighter looks up at what remains of the South Tower.

Following the September 11, 2001 attacks, George W. Bush's job approval rating soared to 86%. [10] On September 20, 2001, the president spoke before the nation and a joint-session of Congress, regarding the events of that day, the intervening nine days of rescue and recovery efforts, and his intent in response to those events in going after the terrorists who orchestrated the attacks. In the speech, he characterized the speech itself as being akin to the President's customary State of the Union address.

The attacks also had immediate and overwhelming effects upon the United States population. People began rallying around the popularized phrase, "United We Stand," in hopes of being resilient and keeping the American spirit alive in the face of a devastating attack. The majority of the US population rallied behind President Bush and the federal government in widespread support to the recovery and the expectant reaction to the attacks. Many people joined together to help the victims. Gratitude toward uniformed public-safety workers, and especially toward firefighters, was widely expressed in light of both the drama of the risks taken on the scene and the high death toll among the workers. Many people paid tribute to the police officers and fire fighters who died during the attacks by wearing NYPD and FDNY hats. The number of casualties among the emergency service personnel was unprecedented. The highly visible role played by Rudy Giuliani, the Mayor of New York City, won him high praise nationally and in New York City. [11] He was named Person of the Year by Time magazine for 2001, and at times had a higher profile in the US than President George W. Bush.

Blood donations saw a surge in the weeks after 9/11. According to a report by the Journal of the American Medical Association, "...the number of blood donations in the weeks after the September 11, 2001, attacks was markedly greater than in the corresponding weeks of 2000 (2.5 times greater in the first week after the attacks; 1.3–1.4 times greater in the second to fourth weeks after the attack)." [12]

Two major public reactions to the attacks were a surge of public expressions of patriotism not seen since World War II, marked most often by displays of the American flag; and an unprecedented level of respect, sympathy, and admiration for New York City and New Yorkers as a group by Americans in other parts of the United States. Some criticized this particular reaction, noting that not everyone who died was from New York City (for example, some of the passengers on the planes), and that the Arlington, Virginia community also suffered in the attacks. At the Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show that took place in New York in February 2002, a tribute was paid to the search and rescue dogs who not only assisted in locating survivors and bodies from the rubble, but were also inside the World Trade Center buildings before they collapsed.

Backlash and hate crimes

In the weeks following the attacks, there was a surge in incidents of harassment and hate crimes against South Asians, Middle Easterners, and anyone thought to be "Middle Eastern-looking" people—particularly Sikhs, because Sikh males usually wear turbans, which are stereotypically and erroneously associated with Muslims by many Americans. Balbir Singh Sodhi, a Sikh man, was one of the first victims of this backlash; he was shot dead on September 15 at the gas station he owned in Mesa, Arizona. Mark Anthony Stroman, a white supremacist, killed two men and injured a third in a shooting spree beginning September 15 in Dallas, Texas. His victims, including Bangladeshi American Rais Bhuiyan, were all targeted because they looked "of Muslim descent". His motive for the killings was revenge for the 9/11 attacks. On July 20, 2011 Stroman was executed for the crime. [13]

In many cities there were reports of vandalism against mosques and other Islamic institutions, including some cases of arson. [14] [15] [16] [17] In the year after the attack, anti-Muslim hate crimes jumped 1,600 percent and this is further aggravated by a climate of prejudice that manifests in different ways. [18]

The only death officially recorded as a homicide in New York City on September 11 was Henryk Siwiak, a Polish immigrant who was shot in Bedford-Stuyvesant, Brooklyn. While he had taken a wrong turn on his way to a new job onto a street known for high rates of robbery and drug dealing, his family has theorized he may have been the victim of a hate crime in the wake of the attacks, since he was wearing camouflage clothing, had dark hair and spoke imperfect, heavily accented English—all of which may have led someone to believe he had something to do with the attackers. [19] The case remains unsolved; police are open to the family's theory but have not classified the killing as a bias crime. [20]

In 2008, author Moustafa Bayoumi released the book How Does It Feel to Be a Problem?: Being Young and Arab in America. [21] The author says mass arrests and deportations of Arabs and Arab Americans were conducted by the various government organizations, including the FBI, often with insufficient evidence to connect them to terrorism; that some were incarcerated indefinitely without notifying the detainee's relatives, as if they had just disappeared. Bayoumi maintains deportation of Arabs and Arab-Americans significantly increased following 9/11, often at short notice, saying in one case a man was deported without his clothes.

Coffins of soldiers killed in the 2009 Fort Hood shooting being loaded aboard an aircraft for flight to Dover Air Force Base Flickr - The U.S. Army - Red, White, and Blue.jpg
Coffins of soldiers killed in the 2009 Fort Hood shooting being loaded aboard an aircraft for flight to Dover Air Force Base
Thwarted Attacks
Successful attacks

Bombings in Kabul, Afghanistan occurred after the attacks and were reposted live by CNN correspondent Nic Robertson less than 24 hours after the attacks in America. [24]

Effects on children

The attacks were regarded by some as particularly disturbing to children, in part because of the frequency with which the images were replayed on television. Many schools closed early, especially those with children whose parents worked in Washington, D.C. and NYC. In Sarasota, Florida, Emma E. Booker Elementary School became a part of history because President George W. Bush was reading to a classroom of children when the attacks happened. [25]

Mental disorders is referred as an behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning. [26] Many children who were directly exposed to the terrorist attack or suffered by losing a parent or family member tend to be dealing with specific disorders. Whether its from depression, anxiety, or even health conditions these are all effects from the attack. Ideally no kid can cope with the fact their parent or family member was killed in the horrific incident therefore many children are sent to psychologist for further diagnostics and treatments.

Long-term Effects on children

Psychological studies focused on children exposed to the attacks in Lower Manhattan and New York City found higher rates of clinically significant behavior problems among preschool children, as well as elevated rates of PTSD and depression in the years after the attacks. [27] For children who lost a parent in the attack, psychologists noticed that while some coped well initially they would at times succumb to bouts of depression and self harm later in life, or become reluctant to discuss their family history. [28]

Health effects

The thousands of tons of toxic debris resulting from the collapse of the Twin Towers contained more than 2,500 contaminants, including known carcinogens. [29] [30] Subsequent debilitating illnesses among rescue and recovery workers are said to be linked to exposure to these carcinogens. [31] [32] The Bush administration ordered the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to issue reassuring statements regarding air quality in the aftermath of the attacks, citing national security; however, the EPA did not determine that air quality had returned to pre-September 11 levels until June 2002. [33]

Health effects also extended to residents, students, and office workers of Lower Manhattan and nearby Chinatown. [34] Several deaths have been linked to the toxic dust, and the victims' names will be included in the World Trade Center memorial. [35] Approximately 18,000 people have been estimated to have developed illnesses as a result of the toxic dust. [36] There is also scientific speculation that exposure to various toxic products in the air may have negative effects on fetal development. A notable children's environmental health center is currently analyzing the children whose mothers were pregnant during the WTC collapse, and were living or working nearby. [37] A study of rescue workers released in April 2010 found that all those studied had impaired lung functions, and that 30–40% were reporting little or no improvement in persistent symptoms that started within the first year of the attack. [38]

Years after the attacks, legal disputes over the costs of illnesses related to the attacks were still in the court system. On October 17, 2006, a federal judge rejected New York City's refusal to pay for health costs for rescue workers, allowing for the possibility of numerous suits against the city. [39] Government officials have been faulted for urging the public to return to lower Manhattan in the weeks shortly after the attacks. Christine Todd Whitman, administrator of the EPA in the aftermath of the attacks, was heavily criticized by a U.S. District Judge for incorrectly saying that the area was environmentally safe. [40] Mayor Giuliani was criticized for urging financial industry personnel to return quickly to the greater Wall Street area. [41]

Claims

During the somber time period for Americans, the patriotism stayed strong. Following the road to recovery the federal government and state begin issuing grants and various funds to compensate and help those who suffered traumatically. First the 9/11 Heroes Stamp Program was administered by the Department of Homeland Security which basically gave funds to those who became disabled from direct contact in the attack or suffered a loss from the attack. [42] In addition, the Post- 9/11 GI Bill became a result after 9/11, paying homage to the U.S military soldiers, which provided educational and financial assistance to those soldiers who were returning to civilian life. [42] Lastly, the main objective was to advanced security everywhere to prevent other attacks from flourishing again. This required strict rules and regulations, followed by abundant amounts of dollars. Therefore, the federal grant aid assisted states, communities, and local organizations in their efforts to stay safe and remain readily prepared. [42] In order for that to happen the program law enforcement training and technical assistance grant was created hoping to stop or better compose for a terrorist attack.

Economic

After the terrorist attack various repercussions took place that effected the U.S as a whole. Due to all the money and claims that were being put out to help aid the victims of the attack, as well as different security and laws to protect the U.S, caused several layoffs and unemployments. Specifically, It was said that 462 extended masses were layoffs because of the attacks that displaced approximately 130,000 employees. [43] The unemployment rate inclined to a total of 5.0% which is significantly too high. In addition 9/11 hinder our trade relations with foreign countries and made the supply of oil demands a hassle. In particularly, the U.S primarily wants oils because its a form a revenue due to its power of bringing money into the country. Also its a form of energy, and in other words a form of supply and demand. However, after the attack oil prices skyrocketed. Granted, the terrorist group associated with the attacks are from the area where the most important source of world's oil is produced. [43]

Park51

Park51 (originally named Cordoba House) is a planned 13-story Muslim community center to be located two blocks from the World Trade Center site [44] [45] in Lower Manhattan. The majority of the center will be open to the general public and its proponents have said the center will promote interfaith dialogue. It will contain a Muslim prayer space that has controversially [46] [47] been referred to as the "Ground Zero mosque", though numerous commentators noted that it was neither a mosque nor at Ground Zero.

It would replace an existing 1850s Italianate-style building that was being used as a Burlington Coat Factory before it was damaged in the September 11 attacks. The proposed multi-faith aspects of the design include a 500-seat auditorium, theater, a performing arts center, a fitness center, a swimming pool, a basketball court, a childcare area, a bookstore, a culinary school, an art studio, a food court, and a memorial to the victims of the September 11 attacks. The prayer space for the Muslim community will accommodate 1,000–2,000 people. [44] [48]

International

Part of the North Tower's antenna mast displayed at the Newseum in Washington, D.C., behind it a panel of September 12 front pages from around the world WTC-Antenna.JPG
Part of the North Tower's antenna mast displayed at the Newseum in Washington, D.C., behind it a panel of September 12 front pages from around the world

The attacks had major worldwide political effects. Many other countries introduced tough anti-terrorism legislation and took action to cut off terrorist finances, including the freezing of bank accounts suspected of being used to fund terrorism. Law enforcement and intelligence agencies stepped up cooperation to arrest terrorist suspects and break up suspected terrorist cells around the world.

The attack prompted numerous memorials and services all over the world with many countries, along with the United States, declaring a national day of mourning. In Berlin, 200,000 Germans marched to show their solidarity with America. The French newspaper of record, Le Monde , ran a front-page headline reading "Nous sommes tous Américains", or "We are all Americans". In London, the US national anthem was played at the Changing of the Guard at Buckingham Palace. (To mark the Queen's Golden Jubilee, New York City lit the Empire State Building in purple and gold, to say "thank you" for this action.) In the immediate aftermath, support for the United States' right to defend itself was expressed across the world, and by United Nations Security Council Resolution 1368. [49] The Australian Prime Minister, John Howard, was in Washington D.C. at the time of the attacks and invoked the ANZUS military alliance as a pledge of Australian assistance to the U.S.

Reaction to the attacks in the Muslim world was mixed. Also, shortly after the attack, the media picked up on a number of celebrations of the attacks in the Middle East with images of these celebrations being broadcast on television and published in print. Less publicized were public displays of sympathy, including candlelight vigils in countries like Iran. [50]

Hate crimes

An increase in racial tensions was seen in countries such as England, with a number of violent crimes linked to the September 11th attacks. [51] The most severe example was seen in Peterborough, where teenager Ross Parker was murdered by a gang of up to ten Muslims of Pakistani background who had sought a white male to attack. [52] [53] [54] [55]

On the other hand, hate crimes against Muslims also increased around the world. For example, Canada experienced a 16-fold increase in anti-Muslim attacks immediately a year after 9/11. [56] In the year leading to the attack, there were only 11 reported crimes but a year following 9/11, there were 173 hate crime cases reported. [56] The same also happened in the United Kingdom and Australia. In the latter's case, a study conducted in Sydney and Melbourne revealed an overwhelming majority of Muslim residents who experienced racism or racist violence since the attack. [56] Another study claimed that hate crimes "increased for all Muslims after 9/11, although the relative risk was much higher for those individuals living in countries with smaller Muslim populations." [57]

See also

Related Research Articles

The response of the U.S. government to the September 11 attacks sparked investigations into the motivations and execution of the attacks, as well as the ongoing War on Terrorism in Afghanistan The response included funds for affected families, plans for the War on Terrorism, rebuilding of Lower-East Manhattan, and the invasion and investigation of Iraq and Afghanistan.

Terrorism use of violence and intimidation against civilians in order to further a political goal

Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a religious or political aim. It is used in this regard primarily to refer to violence during peacetime or in war against non-combatants. The terms "terrorist" and "terrorism" originated during the French Revolution of the late 18th century but gained mainstream popularity in the 1970s in news reports and books covering the conflicts in Northern Ireland, the Basque Country and Palestine. The increased use of suicide attacks from the 1980s onwards was typified by the September 11 attacks in New York City and Washington, D.C. in 2001.

Council on American–Islamic Relations American Muslim advocacy group

The Council on American–Islamic Relations (CAIR) is a Muslim civil rights and advocacy group. It is headquartered on Capitol Hill in Washington, D.C., with regional offices nationwide. Through civil rights actions, media relations, civic engagement, and education, CAIR promotes social, legal and political activism among Muslims in America.

Islamic terrorism set of terrorist acts or campaign committed by individuals or groups who allegedly profess Islamic or Islamist motivations or goals

Islamic terrorism, Islamist terrorism or radical Islamic terrorism is defined as any terrorist act, set of acts or campaign committed by groups or individuals who profess Islamic or Islamist motivations or goals. Islamic terrorists justify their violent tactics through their own interpretation of the Quran and Hadith. The motivation for Islamic terrorism in part comes from the idea of Islamic supremacy which is encapsulated in the formula, "Islam is exalted and nothing is exalted above it."

Lashkar-e-Taiba Pakistani militant group

Lashkar-e-Taiba is one of the largest and most active Islamist militant organisations in South Asia, operating mainly from Pakistan. It was founded in 1987 by Hafiz Saeed, Abdullah Azzam and Zafar Iqbal in Afghanistan, with funding from Osama bin Laden. Its headquarters are in Muridke, near Lahore in Punjab province of Pakistan, and the group operates several training camps in Pakistan-administered Kashmir.

Joint Terrorism Task Force

A Joint Terrorism Task Force (JTTF) is a partnership between various federal, state, and local law enforcement agencies, as well as the D.E.A Joint Task Force Enforcement and private organizations, that are charged with taking action against terrorism which includes the investigation of crimes such as wire fraud and identity theft.

Criticism of the War on Terror addresses the morals, ethics, efficiency, economics, as well as other issues surrounding the War on Terror. It also touches upon criticism against the phrase itself, which was branded as a misnomer. The notion of a "war" against "terrorism" has proven highly contentious, with critics charging that participating governments exploited it to pursue long-standing policy/military objectives, reduce civil liberties, and infringe upon human rights. It is argued that the term war is not appropriate in this context, since there is no identifiable enemy and that it is unlikely international terrorism can be brought to an end by military means.

<i>9/11 Commission Report</i> U.S. government report on the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks

The 9/11 Commission Report, formally named Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, is the official report of the events leading up to the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. It was prepared by the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States at the request of United States president George W. Bush and Congress, and is available to the public for sale or free download.

The 7 July 2005 London bombings were a series of suicide attacks carried out by homegrown terrorists on London's public transport network during the morning rush hour.

The post-9/11 period is the time after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, characterized by heightened suspicion of non-Americans in the United States, increased government efforts to address terrorism, and a more aggressive American foreign policy.

Terrorism in China refers to the use or threatened use of violence to affect political or ideological change in the People's Republic of China. The definition of terrorism differs among scholars, between international and national bodies, and across time, and there is no legally binding definition internationally. In the cultural setting of China, the term is relatively new and ambiguous.

Reactions to the September 11 attacks

Reactions to the September 11 attacks included condemnation from world leaders, other political and religious representatives and the international media, as well as numerous memorials and services all over the world. The attacks were widely condemned by the governments of the world, including those traditionally considered hostile to the United States, such as Cuba, Iran, Libya, and North Korea. However, in a few cases celebrations of the attacks were also reported, and some groups and individuals accused the United States in effect of bringing the attacks on itself.

2009 Bronx terrorism plot

On May 20, 2009, US law enforcement arrested four men in connection with a fake plot concocted by an FBI informant to purportedly shoot down military airplanes flying out of an Air National Guard base in Newburgh, New York, and blow up two synagogues in the Riverdale community of the Bronx using weapons supplied by the FBI. The group was led by the Pakistani Shahed Hussain, a criminal who was working for the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) to avoid deportation for DMV fraud. Shahed Hussain has never been charged in the USA with any terrorism related offenses and was paid nearly $100,000 US Dollars by the FBI for his work on this plot.

Talat Hamdani is a Pakistan-born American who became a commentator after her son was killed during Al Qaeda's attacks on September 11, 2001. Her eldest son, Mohammad Salman Hamdani, was a New York Police Department cadet, who had trained as a first responder.

Motives for the September 11 attacks

The September 11, 2001, attacks in the northeast United States were an organized terrorist act carried out by 19 hijackers, and organized by numerous members of al-Qaeda. Motives for the attacks were stated before and after the attacks in several sources, Osama bin Laden's declaration of a holy war against the United States, and a fatwā signed by bin Laden and others for the killing of Americans in 1998, are seen by investigators as evidence of his motivation. However, in an interview with Daily Ummat, Osama bin Laden rejected Al-Qaeda's involvement in the September 11 attacks.

Islamophobia in the United States

Islamophobia in the United States can be described as the affective distrust and hostility towards Muslims, Islam, and those perceived as following the religion and or appear as members of the religion and its associative groups. This social aversion and bias is facilitated and perpetuated by violent and uncivilized stereotypes portrayed in various forms of American media networks and political platforms that result in the marginalization, discrimination, and exclusion of the Muslims and Muslim perceived individuals. Media and politicians capitalize on public fear and distrust of Muslims through laws that specifically target Muslims, while the media emphasizes Muslim religious extremism in association with violent activity.

Islamic terrorism in Europe Islamic terrorist attacks and arrests in Europe (2014-present)

Islamic terrorism in Europe has been carried out by the Islamic State (ISIS) or Al-Qaeda as well as Islamist lone wolves since the late 20th century.

References

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